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Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Alessandra Gasior, Giulia Brisighelli, Karen Diefenbach, Victoria Alison Lane, Carlos Reck, Richard J Wood, Marc Levitt
Introduction Functional constipation is a common problem in children. It usually can be managed with laxatives but a small subset of patients develop intolerable cramps and need to be temporarily treated with enemas. The senior author has previously reported: 1) open sigmoid resection as a surgical option, but this did not sufficiently reduce the laxative need, then 2) a transanal approach (with resection of rectosigmoid), but this led to a high rate of soiling due to extensive stretching of the anal canal and loss of the rectal reservoir...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mindi Zhao, Jianqiang Wu, Youhe Gao
Urine, reflecting many changes in the body, is a better source than blood for biomarker discovery. However, even under physiological conditions, the urine proteome often varies. Understanding how various regulating factors affect urine proteome helps link changes to urine proteome with urinary biomarkers of physiological conditions as well as corresponding diseases. To evaluate the possible impact of α1-adrenergic receptor on urine proteome, this study investigated effects of the specific inhibitor prazosin on the urine proteome in a rat model by using tandem mass tagging and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2016: PloS One
José R Valverde, Sonia Gullón, Rafael Pérez Mellado
INTRODUCTION: Biological communities present in soil are essential to sustainable and productive agricultural practices; however, an accurate determination of the ecological status of agricultural soils remains to date an elusive task. An ideal indicator should be pervasive, play a relevant role in the ecosystem, show a rapid and proportional answer to external perturbations and be easily and economically measurable. Rhizobacteria play a major role in determining soil properties, becoming an attractive candidate for the detection of ecological indicators...
2016: PloS One
Anna M Dahlin, Carl Wibom, Soma Ghasimi, Thomas Brännström, Ulrika Andersson, Beatrice Melin
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified several genetic variants that increase glioma risk. The majority of these variants are non-coding and the mechanisms behind the increased risk in carriers are not known. In this study, we hypothesize that some of the established glioma risk variants induce aberrant DNA methylation in the developing tumor, either locally (gene-specific) or globally (genome-wide). In a pilot data set including 77 glioma patients, we used Illumina beadchip technology to analyze genetic variants in blood and DNA methylation in matched tumor samples...
2016: PloS One
Ying Chen, Shuyan Cao, Pingping Xu, Wei Han, Tiankai Shan, Jingying Pan, Weiwei Lin, Xue Chen, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND Results from DNA microarray experiments have shown that the expression of miR-34s undergoes significant changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to detect changes in the expression of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining for myelin was used to observe the differences in the general morphology of the spinal cord after SCI in a contusion model in rats. qPCR was carried out to determine the expression variation of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Arvind R Murali, Carlos Romero-Marrero, Charles Miller, Federico Aucejo, Abraham Levitin, Amanjit Gill, Gordon McLennan, Karunakaravel Karuppasamy, Nizar N Zein, Rocio Lopez, K V Narayanan Menon
BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outside Milan criteria (MC) may be candidates for liver transplantation (LT) after successful downstaging. Factors that predict successful downstaging are unclear. We aimed to identify the predictors of successful downstaging of HCC in patients outside MC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on consecutive patients with HCC outside MC who received downstaging with locoregional therapy. Clinical and laboratory variables, tumor characteristics including total tumor volume (TTV) and up-to-7 criteria were recorded...
November 2016: Transplantation
Saranya Satitmanwiwat, Chinarat Changsangfa, Anuson Khanuengthong, Kornkanok Promthep, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Teerakul Arpornsuwan, Kulnasan Saikhun, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. METHODS: Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
David Santos, Yi-Ju Chiang, Brian Badgwell
Appendectomy is standard of care for uncomplicated appendicitis, but cancer patients may not be optimal surgical candidates. Interval appendectomy is controversial, and appendiceal malignancy is rare. Study objectives were to review the role of surgery, observation, and interventional radiology (IR)-guided drainage in patients with appendicitis and advanced malignancy. Retrospective review was performed on cancer patients presenting to a tertiary academic cancer center from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Justin M Mittelstädt, Yvonne Pecena, Viktor Oubaid, Peter Maschke
INTRODUCTION: This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. METHODS: In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146)...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
James A Turner, Colin N E Ruscoe, Trevor R Perrior
This report provides an outline of a program for the discovery of new public health insecticides for malaria vector control. The status of malaria vector control is first reviewed in terms of the chemical, physical chemical, and biochemical properties of the current WHOPES-recommended and approved vector control agents. This review provides a basis for a discussion on the critical need for discovery and development of multiple new chemical malaria vector control agents with novel and diverse modes of action...
October 2016: Chimia
Hem Desai, Bhupinder Natt, Samuel Kim, Christian Bime
RATIONALE: There is a paucity of data regarding the optimal surgical approach for lung lobectomy. Lobectomy performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been associated with lower morbidity as compared to thoracotomy. However, no multicenter studies have shown improved mortality with VATS lobectomy compared to open surgical lobectomy. OBJECTIVES: We used the United States Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from 2009 to 2012 to compare VATS versus open lobectomy for in-hospital mortality and other short-term outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ana Martínez
In this investigation, the feasibility of functionalizing fullerene and bismullene with Bi and C as intruders is theoretically explored. The systems analyzed are C60-xBix (with x = 0-10, fullerene-like) and Bi60-yCy (with y = 0-10, bismullene-like). Optimized geometries, reactivity indexes, and highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gaps (for analyzing the potential application of these molecules as materials for solar cells) are reported. The most stable structures of bismullene-like systems have cage geometries...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Johan De Meester
From late nineteen nineties, the higher number of suitable renal transplant candidates has forced the transplant community to re-explore the whole spectrum of deceased donors after brain death (DBD) as well as after cardiac death (DCD); in practice, donors of older age and donors with more chronic diseases or "medical complexities". This new kidney donor population - finally defined as extended criteria donors (ECD) - currently comprises on average 20 to 25%. In his seminal paper in 2003 on the introduction of ECD in the US, Metzger et al...
October 25, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Liyan Wen, Sha Yang, Ping Zhu, Yingxin Yu, Xiaoyan Qiu, Ning Fu, Yanjun Liu
Cancer-associated antigen 215 (CA215) is an immunoglobulin molecule expressed by numerous tumor types. Membrane‑bound and soluble CA215 have been detected in the majority of cancer cells and rarely identified in normal tissues. In addition, CA215C is a carbohydrate‑associated epitope in the variable region of CA215, which is specifically recognized by the monoclonal antibody, RP215. However, CA215C is not a suitable vaccine candidate as it is a thymus‑independent antigen. In the present study, RP215 was used as a target to screen short peptide mimics of CA215C from a phage display peptide library...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Liam F Fitzgerald, Anita D Christie, Jane A Kent
Despite intensive efforts to understand the extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity changes in older humans, the answer to this important question remains unclear. To determine what the preponderance of evidence from in vivo studies suggests, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of age on muscle oxidative capacity as measured noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary aim was to examine potential moderators contributing to differences in results across studies, including muscle group, physical activity status, and sex...
July 18, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu
Conjugated polymers have attracted the world's attentions since their discovery due to their great promise for optoelectronic devices. However, the fundamental understanding of charge transport in conjugated polymers remains far from clear. The origin of this challenge is the natural disorder of polymers with complex molecular structures in the solid state. Moreover, an effective way to examine the intrinsic properties of conjugated polymers is absent. Optoelectronic devices are always based on spin-coated films...
October 25, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Giancarlo D'Agostino, Marco Di Luzio, Giovanni Mana, Luca Martino, Massimo Oddone, Carlo Paolo Sasso
This paper investigates the use of a method based on Cu decoration and neutron activation to determine the total volume of voids in a silicon single crystal. A measurement protocol was developed and tested in an experiment carried out with a 5 cm(3) volume and 10 g mass high-purity natural silicon sample. The few percent uncertainty reached in the determination of the Cu concentration, at a 10(14) cm(-3) level, makes this method a candidate to set an upper limit to the concentration of the vacancies contributing to the void volume in the enriched silicon material used to determine the Avogadro constant...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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