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Shuhua Lai, Gangwei Wu, Zhixian Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mohammad Reza Miri, Mitra Moodi, Gholam-Reza Sharif-Zadeh, Hakimeh Malaki Moghadam, Maryam Miri, Ensiyeh Norozi
INTRODUCTION: The uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women is low, resulting in a high rate of casualties from cervical cancer in Iran. The present study used the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Stages of Change theory as theoretical frameworks for understanding the predictors of the behaviour of Iranian Women Health Volunteers (WHVs) with respect to cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the 1,253 WHVs were analyzed using path analysis to assess the effects of cognitive factors (including knowledge, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, perceived severity of cervical cancer, Pap smear benefits, Pap smear barriers, and Pap smear self-efficacy) on the stages of change for Pap-smear behaviour...
2018: PloS One
André Bonadias Gadelha, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Martim Bottaro, Ana Cristina de David, Baruch Vainshelboim, Ricardo M Lima
Background/Study context: Falls represent the leading cause of accidental deaths in the elderly. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength. However, the association between falls and sarcopenia is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different stages of sarcopenia and postural balance, risk of falls, and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: A total of 196 women (68.6 ± 6...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Robert A C Ruiter, Gill A Ten Hoor, Loes T E Kessels, Gerjo Kok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Sean P Riley, Vincent Tafuto, Mark Cote, Jean-Michel Brismée, Alexis Wright, Chad Cook
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the test-retest reliability of Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) Work (FABQW) subscale, FABQ Physical Activity (FABQPA) subscale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) Pain subscale, SPADI Disability subscale, and Numeric Pain Rating scale (NPRS); and 2) the relationship between the FABQPA, FABQW, SPADI pain, SPADI disability, and NPRS after 4 weeks of pragmatically applied physical therapy (PT) in patients with shoulder pain...
March 20, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro, Joanne Leck, Winny Shen, Jennifer Stinson
PURPOSE: Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. METHODS: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Neha Dewan, Joy C MacDermid, Ruby Grewal, Karen Beattie
In a prospective cohort of 113 patients followed 4 years after distal radius fracture (DRF), 24% of patients experienced a subsequent fall and 19% experienced a subsequent fracture. People with poor balance, greater fracture-specific pain/disability, low bone density, and prior falls had nearly a three times higher risk of subsequent falls. PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which modifiable risk factors alone or in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) and non-modifiable risk factors predict subsequent falls and osteoporotic (OP) fractures after distal radius fracture (DRF)...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Floriana Caccamo, Simone Saltini, Enrico Carella, Roberto Carlon, Cristina Marogna, Vito Sava
Research on heart disease have found a strong and consistent evidence of association between some psychosocial risk factors, including depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, lack of social support and outcome of disease. Depression increases the risk of cardiac death and is highly predictive of reduced adherence to recommended treatments; anxiety appears to be linked to adverse cardiac outcomes. It was demonstrated that Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) leads to substantial improvements and positive outcomes because combines the prescription of physical activity with the modification of risk factors and aims to reduce symptoms related to the disease and the risk of new cardiovascular events...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Ran Liu, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
Many, but not all, young children with high levels of fearful inhibition will develop internalizing problems. Individual studies have examined either child regulatory or environmental factors that might influence the level of risk. We focused on the interaction of regulation and environment by assessing how early fearful inhibition at age 2, along with inhibitory control and maternal negative behaviors at age 3, interactively predicted internalizing problems at age 6. A total of 218 children (105 boys, 113 girls) and their mothers participated in the study...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Matti Aapro
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most feared side effects experienced by patients with cancer. The precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for acute and delayed CINV continue to be elucidated and have provided an opportunity to develop antiemetic therapies targeting these pathways. The emergence of receptor antagonists targeting serotonin and neurokinin-1 have revolutionized the prevention of CINV, significantly reducing the impact of this side effect and improving patient quality of life...
March 19, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Keumah Han, Jongbin Kim
Local anesthesia is administered to control pain, but it may induce fear and anxiety. Root planing is a non-surgical periodontal therapy; however, when it is performed in an extensive manner, some tissue removal is inevitable. Notably, this removal may be so painful that local anesthesia is required to be administered to the area scheduled for the treatment. Although patients tend to accept root planing easily, they frequently express a fear of local anesthesia. Intraosseous anesthesia (IA) is an intraosseous injection technique, whereby local anesthetic is injected into the cancellous bone supporting the teeth...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Mohammad Shehata, Kareem Abdou, Kiriko Choko, Mina Matsuo, Hirofumi Nishizono, Kaoru Inokuchi
There is substantial interest in memory reconsolidation as a target for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its applicability is restricted by reconsolidation-resistant boundary conditions that constrain the initial memory destabilization. In this study, we investigated whether the induction of synaptic protein degradation through autophagy modulation, a major protein degradation pathway, can enhance memory destabilization upon retrieval and whether it can be utilized to overcome these conditions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Russell A Wagner, Sean P Hogan, John Ross Burge, Christopher M Bates, Hugo B Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with complications after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Surgical site infection (SSI) after TKA is one of the feared complications as it increases revision rates, costs, and stress to the patient. There is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding body mass index (BMI) and risk of infection after TKA, and some studies have suggested that site-specific fat distribution may be a better metric for determining risk of postoperative infections...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, Muriah D Wheelock, Danielle R Hurst, Tyler R Orem, Ethan W Gossett, Chelsea A Dunaway, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Excessive stress exposure often leads to emotional dysfunction, characterized by disruptions in healthy emotional learning, expression, and regulation processes. A prefrontal cortex (PFC)-amygdala circuit appears to underlie these important emotional processes. However, limited human neuroimaging research has investigated whether these brain regions underlie the altered emotional function that develops with stress. Therefore, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate stress-induced changes in PFC-amygdala function during Pavlovian fear conditioning...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Yituo Wang, Yuyang Zhu, Pinhong Chen, Feng Yan, Shanshan Chen, Gongjie Li, Xiangjun Hu, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang
The amygdala, a subcortical structure responsible for fear and vigilance, is central to the stress circuitry. Aberrant amygdala connectivity with the cortical and subcortical regions is found in patients with stress-related disorders, and in healthy subjects following acute stress exposure. However, the extent to which the stress-induced alteration of amygdala functional connectivity correlates with risk-related personality measures remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the effect of acute stress, induced by aversive movies accompanied by a mild electric shock, on the functional connectivity of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in 35 healthy men, and assessed the association between changes in amygdala functional connectivity and individual differences in neuroticism...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Brittany A Baker, Debra L Hickman
Selection of an appropriate method of euthanasia involves balancing the wellbeing of the animal during the procedure with the intended use of the animal after death and the physical and psychologic safety of the observer or operator. The recommended practices for anesthesia as compared with euthanasia are very disparate, despite the fact that all chemical methods of euthanasia are anesthetic overdoses. To explain this disparity, this study sought to determine whether perception bias is inherent in the discussion of euthanasia compared with anesthesia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Freya Crosby, Frouke Hermens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Martina Kaufmann, Nicola Baumann
In this research, we investigated whether appraisals of faces follow distinct rules of information integration under arousing versus non-arousing conditions. Support for this prediction was found in four experiments in which participants observed angry (and fearful) faces that were presented with a direct versus an averted gaze (Experiments 1a, b), on a red versus a grey background (Experiment 2), and after performing a motor exercise versus no exercise (Experiment 3). Under arousing conditions, participants' appraisals of faces reflected summation (i...
March 19, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Rheall F Roquet, Dong-Oh Seo, Carolyn E Jones, Marie-H Monfils
We examined the enduring effects of predictable versus unpredictable fear conditioning early in life on memory and relearning in adulthood. At postnatal Day 17 or 25 (P17 or P25), rats either remained naïve, or were fear conditioned using paired (predictable) or unpaired (unpredictable) presentations of white noise and foot shocks. At 2 months of age (adulthood), each group was fear conditioned (or reconditioned) with either paired or unpaired training, and then was tested for fear extinction the next day...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
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