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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092789/facial-emotion-recognition-among-typically-developing-young-children-a-psychometric-validation-of-a-subset-of-nimstim-stimuli
#1
Lucy Barnard-Brak, Layla Abby, David M Richman, Steven Chesnut
We evaluated the psychometric properties of NimStim taking into account the effects of chronological age on the ability of typically developing young children (aged 2-6 years old) to recognize basic facial expressions (i.e., happy, sad, angry, and fearful). We also examined the psychometric sufficiency of NimStim under race-matched and -mismatched facial emotion stimuli. In the current study, race-matched stimuli referred to when children with African American backgrounds received African American faces to rate their emotions and vice versa for race-mismatched stimuli...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091726/predation-cues-rather-than-resource-availability-promote-cryptic-behaviour-in-a-habitat-forming-sea-urchin
#2
Arie J P Spyksma, Richard B Taylor, Nick T Shears
It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances...
January 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090698/presentation-and-validation-of-the-duckees-child-and-adolescent-dynamic-facial-expressions-stimulus-set
#3
Nicole R Giuliani, John C Flournoy, Elizabeth J Ivie, Arielle Von Hippel, Jennifer H Pfeifer
The stimulus sets presently used to study emotion processing are primarily static pictures of individuals (primarily adults) making emotional facial expressions. However, the dynamic, stereotyped movements associated with emotional expressions contain rich information missing from static pictures, such as the difference between happiness and pride. We created a set of 1.1 s dynamic emotional facial stimuli representing boys and girls aged 8-18. A separate group of 36 individuals (mean [M] age = 19.5 years, standard deviation [SD] = 1...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090660/intermittent-catheterization-acceptance-test-i-cat-a-tool-to-evaluate-the-global-acceptance-to-practice-clean-intermittent-self-catheterization
#4
Amandine Guinet-Lacoste, Jacques Kerdraon, Alexandra Rousseau, Philippe Gallien, Jean-Gabriel Previnaire, Brigitte Perrouin-Verbe, Gérard Amarenco
AIM: In certain cases, a patient's anxiety, fear, or misconceptions can represent significant obstacles to the learning of Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization (CISC), and little is known about these psychological barriers. The aim of the present study is thus to construct and validate an "Intermittent Catheterization Acceptance Test (I-CAT)" to evaluate the psychological acceptance of CISC. METHODS: A study was carried out in nine neuro-rehabilitation and urology departments in French university hospitals...
January 16, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089714/effects-of-touch-on-emotional-face-processing-a-study-of-event-related-potentials-facial-emg-and-cardiac-activity
#5
M M Spapé, Harjunen, N Ravaja
Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion...
January 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#6
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089560/critical-role-of-p2x7-receptors-in-the-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-dysfunction-after-surgery
#7
Bin Zheng, Renchun Lai, Jun Li, Zhiyi Zuo
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction worsens patient outcome after surgery. Neuroinflammation is a critical neuropathological process for it. We determined the role of P2X7 receptors, proteins that participate in inflammatory response, in the neuroinflammation induction after surgery, and whether the choice of volatile anesthetics affects its occurrence. Eight-week old C57BL/6J or P2X7 receptor knockout male mice were subjected to right carotid arterial exposure under anesthesia with 1.8% isoflurane, 2.5% sevoflurane or 10% desflurane...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089535/farmer-attitudes-and-perceptions-to-the-re-use-of-fertiliser-products-from-resource-oriented-sanitation-systems-the-case-of-vellore-south-india
#8
Prithvi Simha, Cecilia Lalander, Björn Vinnerås, M Ganesapillai
Relatively little research has been conducted to date on farmer attitudes towards the use of fertilisers from resource-oriented sanitation systems. This study employed a psycho-sociological approach to identify factors that encourage, or discourage, negative and positive attitudes to human waste recycling among farmers in southern India. A survey involving face-to-face interviews was performed with 120 randomly sampled farmers, taking into account the following factors: gender, age, religion, caste, type of farming, farm size, annual income and farming history...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#9
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088551/individual-and-sex-differences-in-high-and-low-responder-phenotypes
#10
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088306/ventricular-fibrillation-occurring-after-atrioventricular-node-ablation-despite-minimal-difference-between-pre-and-post-ablation-heart-rates
#11
F Squara, G Theodore, D Scarlatti, E Ferrari
We report the case of an 82-year-old man presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurring acutely after atrioventricular node (AVN) ablation. This patient had severe valvular cardiomyopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), and underwent prior to the AVN ablation a biventricular implantable cardiac defibrillator positioning. The VF was successfully cardioverted with one external electrical shock. What makes this presentation original is that the pre-ablation spontaneous heart rate in AF was slow (84 bpm), and that VF occurred after ablation despite a minimal heart rate drop of only 14 bpm...
January 11, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088266/previous-bad-experience-propensity-to-anxiety-and-pain-expectations-may-be-associated-with-fear-and-anxiety-when-undergoing-tooth-extractions
#12
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#13
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#14
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087231/psychosocial-outcome-in-adult-men-born-with-hypospadias
#15
L Örtqvist, M Andersson, A Strandqvist, A Nordenström, L Frisén, G Holmdahl, A Nordenskjöld
INTRODUCTION: Hypospadias, which is a surgically treated congenital malformation of the male urethra, may have a negative impact on quality of life. This aspect has previously been subject to limited research. This study examined the long-term psychosocial outcome of a large cohort of adult males born with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case-control study was to assess a possible negative influence on the psychosocial outcome in adult males with hypospadias...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087128/intranasal-oxytocin-to-prevent-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-emergency-department-patients
#16
Mirjam van Zuiden, Jessie L Frijling, Laura Nawijn, Saskia B J Koch, J Carel Goslings, Jan S Luitse, Tessa H Biesheuvel, Adriaan Honig, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: There are currently few preventive interventions available for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intranasal oxytocin administration early after trauma may prevent PTSD, because oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially impact PTSD vulnerability factors, including neural fear responsiveness, peripheral stress reactivity, and socioemotional functioning. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration early after trauma on subsequent clinician-rated PTSD symptoms...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086911/enhanced-neuroinflammation-mediated-by-dna-methylation-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-triggers-cognitive-dysfunction-after-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-adult-rats-subjected-to-maternal-separation-during-the-neonatal-period
#17
Yangzi Zhu, Yu Wang, Rui Yao, Ting Hao, Junli Cao, He Huang, Liwei Wang, Yuqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that children who experience abuse and neglect are prone to chronic diseases and premature mortality later in life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon is that early life adversity alters the expression or functioning of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) throughout the course of life and thereby increases sensitivity to inflammatory stimulation. An exaggerated pro-inflammatory response is generally considered to be a key cause of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081448/the-relationships-among-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-diabetes-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-well-being-in-norwegian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Ragnhild B Strandberg, Marit Graue, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Mark Peyrot, Astrid K Wahl, Berit Rokne
AIMS: To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#19
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081031/intracranial-hemorrhage-recurrence-on-vitamin-k-antagonist-severity-of-the-first-episode-and-hasbled-score-fail-to-identify-high-risk-patients-from-the-chirone-study
#20
Daniela Poli, Emilia Antonucci, Francesco Dentali, Sophie Testa, Gualtiero Palareti
The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk...
January 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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