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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786891/supporting-asylum-seekers-clinician-experiences-of-documenting-human-rights-violations-through-forensic-psychological-evaluation
#1
Kim A Baranowski, Melissa H Moses, Jasmine Sundri
The United States permits foreign nationals to apply for asylum if they have experienced persecution or have a fear of future persecution. In order to meet the criteria for persecution, the harm inflicted upon the asylum seeker does not need to be or have been physical and can include psychological sequelae. In an effort to document persecution, lawyers seek the assistance of health professionals when preparing their clients' asylum applications. Mental health professionals work to corroborate psychological evidence of the asylum seeker's report of ill treatment through evaluation and presentation of their findings in the form of legal affidavits...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786066/repeated-social-defeat-induced-neuroinflammation-anxiety-like-behavior-and-resistance-to-fear-extinction-were-attenuated-by-the-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-win55-212-2
#2
Sabrina Francesca Lisboa, Anzela Niraula, Leonardo Barbosa Resstel, Francisco Silveira Guimaraes, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Psychosocial stress contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that causes a release of inflammatory monocytes into circulation. Moreover, RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior is dependent on the recruitment of these monocytes to the brain. Activation of the endocannabinoid (ECB) system may modulate both neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses mediated by stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that a cannabinoid receptor agonist would attenuate RSD-induced inflammation, anxiety, and stress sensitization...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785941/life-style-and-risk-of-atypical-eating-disorders-in-university-students-reality-versus-perception
#3
Olga Castelao-Naval, Ascensión Blanco-Fernández, Carmen Marina Meseguer-Barros, Israel J Thuissard-Vasallo, Begoña Cerdá, Mar Larrosa
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this paper were to determine weight status, eating, and alcohol drinking and smoking habits of university students, to determine the association between these variables with negative self-perception of their eating habits and to assess the risk of developing eating disorders. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 422 university students. The parameters analyzed were: nutritional status, eating habits, alcohol/ tobacco consumption, and risk of eating disorder...
May 18, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785719/children-s-experiences-and-expectations-of-kidney-transplantation-a-qualitative-interview-study
#4
Rachael C Walker, Derisha Naicker, Tonya Kara, Suetonia C Palmer
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Kidney transplantation offers improved quality of life and life expectancy compared with dialysis for children. This study aims to understand the experiences and expectations of children during the kidney transplantation process to inform clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 13 children and adolescents aged between 7 and 17 years old in New Zealand who had received a kidney transplantation...
May 21, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785188/electroacupuncture-ameliorates-cognitive-deficit-and-improves-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-adult-rat-with-neonatal-maternal-separation
#5
Lili Guo, Ximin Liang, Zhanmou Liang, Xilin Liu, Jiang He, Yuanjia Zheng, Lin Yao, Yongjun Chen
Exposure to adverse early-life events is thought to be the risk factors for the development of psychiatric and altered cognitive function in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) treatment in young adult rat would improve impaired cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in adult rat with neonatal maternal separation (MS). Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, MS group, MS with EA treatment (MS + EA) group, and MS with Sham-EA treatment (MS + Sham-EA) group...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784867/patient-beliefs-and-attitudes-to-taking-statins-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#6
Angela Ju, Camilla S Hanson, Emily Banks, Rosemary Korda, Jonathan C Craig, Tim Usherwood, Peter MacDonald, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Statins are effective in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and are recommended for at-risk individuals but estimated adherence rates are low. AIM: To describe patients' perspectives, experiences, and attitudes towards taking statins. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of qualitative studies reporting perspectives of patients on statins. METHOD: PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and PhD dissertations from inception to 6 October 2016 were searched for qualitative studies on adult patients' perspectives on statins...
May 21, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784538/pediatric-apheresis-emergencies-and-urgencies-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Cesare Perotti, Jerard Seghatchian, Claudia Del Fante
Urgency and emergency in general, and even more in the pediatric setting, remain a thematic debate not yet fully resolved. The decision to undergo a pediatric patient to an invasive treatment not free from potentially serious side effects like an apheresis procedure should be weighted with great attention. At the moment there is no unanimous consensus about the clinical pictures in which an urgency procedure in pediatrics is indicated. Each center acts according to its own experience and not infrequently to its own fears...
May 18, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784444/enacting-high-reliability-principles-while-caring-for-people-with-ebola-virus-disease
#8
Bonnie Mowinski Jennings, Katherine A Yeager, Nancye R Feistritzer, Mary M Gullatte, Kristy K Martyn
BACKGROUND: Fear surrounds Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) because it is highly infectious. Yet members of the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital (EUH) had to overcome that fear when caring for patients with EVD. PURPOSE: The analysis reported here illustrates how the members of EUH's SCDU tacitly enacted high reliability (HR) principles while caring for patients with EVD. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted to describe the experience of members of the EUH SCDU who worked with EVD patients in 2014...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784068/play-behaviour-fear-responses-and-activity-levels-in-commercial-broiler-chickens-provided-with-preferred-environmental-enrichments
#9
M Baxter, C L Bailie, N E O'Connell
There is currently a lack of research investigating the effectiveness of commercial broiler enrichments, and in particular the ability of these additions to create opportunities for positive welfare. One aim of this study was to investigate whether offering broiler chickens enrichments that have recently been found to be preferred leads to increased levels of activity. A second aim was to investigate the emotional effects of provision of these enrichments by assessing levels of fearfulness and play-like activity...
May 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783162/a-peripheral-immune-response-to-remembering-trauma-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-fear-memory-in-mice
#10
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783138/is-death-anxiety-more-closely-linked-with-optimism-or-pessimism-among-older-adults
#11
Michael D Barnett, Ellen A Anderson, Arthur D Marsden
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether death anxiety is more closely linked with optimism or pessimism among older adults. Participants consisted of community-dwelling older adults (N = 253; 73.1% female) in the southern U.S. Both optimism and pessimism demonstrated a bivariate association with death anxiety; however, when considering optimism and pessimism together-and after controlling for age, gender, physical health, and mental health-optimism was not associated with death anxiety, while pessimism was associated with higher death anxiety...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783059/disruption-of-medial-septum-and-diagonal-bands-of-broca-cholinergic-projections-to-the-ventral-hippocampus-disrupt-auditory-fear-memory
#13
Jennifer M Staib, Rebecca Della Valle, Dayan K Knox
In classical fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), which leads to a fear memory. If the CS is repeatedly presented without the US after fear conditioning, the formation of an extinction memory occurs, which inhibits fear memory expression. A previous study has demonstrated that selective cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) prior to fear and extinction learning disrupt contextual fear memory discrimination and acquisition of extinction memory...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783023/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-infections-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization
#14
Molka Kharrat, Yosra Chebbi, Farah Ben Tanfous, Amel Lakhal, Saloua Ladeb, Tarek Ben Othmen, Wafa Achour
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are feared because they generate therapeutic difficulties and have high potential for dissemination. The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiology of these infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and to determine the genes encoding ESBL. MATERIAL/METHODS: Our retrospective study concerned adult patients hospitalized at the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center and infected with ESBL-E post HSCT between january 2006 and december 2016...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782660/the-feared-five-fungal-infections-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-single-center20-year-experience
#15
Sandesh Parajuli, Alexandra Wick, Sameer Pandeya, Brad C Astor, Jeannina Smith, Arjang Djamali, Didier A Mandelbrot
Invasive fungal infections are a feared complication in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Here we present the University of Wisconsin experience with five invasive fungal infections - aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis - in KTRs transplanted between 01/01/1994 and 06/30/2014. During this period there were 128 cases of fungal infections; aspergillosis was the most common (72), followed by cryptococcosis (29), histoplasmosis (14), blastomycosis (10) and coccidioidomycosis (3)...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781656/veterans-experiences-initiating-va-based-mental-health-care
#16
Michelle J Bovin, Christopher J Miller, Christopher J Koenig, Jessica M Lipschitz, Kara A Zamora, Patricia B Wright, Jeffrey M Pyne, James F Burgess
Military veterans who could benefit from mental health services often do not access them. Research has revealed a range of barriers associated with initiating United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) care, including those specific to accessing mental health care (e.g., fear of stigmatization). More work is needed to streamline access to VA mental health-care services for veterans. In the current study, we interviewed 80 veterans from 9 clinics across the United States about initiation of VA mental health care to identify barriers to access...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781651/exposure-and-cbt-for-chronic-back-pain-an-rct-on-differential-efficacy-and-optimal-length-of-treatment
#17
Julia Anna Glombiewski, Sebastian Holzapfel, Jenny Riecke, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Jeroen de Jong, Gunnar Lemmer, Winfried Rief
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to establish whether Exposure, a specialized tailored treatment for chronic low back pain, has any advantages over cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among individuals with high fear-avoidance levels. Second, we planned to compare short and long versions of Exposure. Third, we aimed to investigate whether Exposure can be delivered in an outpatient psychological setting. METHOD: A total of 88 Caucasian participants (55% women) were randomized to three different psychological treatment conditions, Exposure-long, Exposure-short, and CBT...
June 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781382/the-effects-of-social-anxiety-on-emotional-face-discrimination-and-its-modulation-by-mouth-salience
#18
Andrew R du Rocher, Alan D Pickering
People high in social anxiety experience fear of social situations due to the likelihood of social evaluation. Whereas happy faces are generally processed very quickly, this effect is impaired by high social anxiety. Mouth regions are implicated during emotional face processing, therefore differences in mouth salience might affect how social anxiety relates to emotional face discrimination. We designed an emotional facial expression recognition task to reveal how varying levels of sub-clinical social anxiety (measured by questionnaire) related to the discrimination of happy and fearful faces, and of happy and angry faces...
May 21, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780605/an-evaluation-of-osteopathic-treatment-on-psychological-outcomes-with-patients-suffering-from-chronic-pain-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-collected-through-a-health-and-well-being-academy
#19
Darren J Edwards, Craig Toutt
Co-morbid mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression and fear avoidance are often associated with chronic pain. This novel study aimed to explore the impact of osteopathic treatment on several psychological outcome measures relating to anxiety, depression, mental health and fear avoidance for a chronic pain population receiving osteopathic treatment over a 2-week period. The findings show that there were significant reductions in anxiety, pain, mental health dysfunction and improvements in self-care...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#20
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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