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Yue Hao, Yuejin Feng, Peige Yang, Yanjun Cui, Jiru Liu, Chunhe Yang, Xianhong Gu
Exposure to high ambient temperatures is detrimental to pig rearing and porcine meat quality. Deep molecular sequencing allows for genomic characterization of porcine skeletal muscles and helps understand how the genomic landscape may impact meat quality. To this end, we performed mRNA-seq to molecularly dissect the impact of heat stress on porcine skeletal muscles, longissimus dorsi. Sixteen castrated, male DLY pigs [which are crossbreeds between Duroc (D) boars and Landrace (L) × Yorkshire (Y) sows, 79...
August 25, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Miklos Fuzi
Fitness cost associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones was recently shown to vary across clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The resulting dissimilar fitness should have influenced the clonal dynamics and thereby the rates of resistance for these pathogens. Moreover, a similar mechanism was recently proposed for the emergence of the H30 and H30R lineages of ESBL-producing E. coli and the major international clone (ribotype 027) of Clostridium difficile...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fusun Can, Özlem Kurt-Azap, Pelin İspir, Elif Nurtop, Ceren Seref, İlayda Loçlar, Ozge Nur Aktaş, Yelda Ceren Orhan, Onder Ergonul
In this study, risk factors for ST131 H30 and H30-Rx subclones among urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli were described. Urine samples were collected from consecutive outpatients registered to the outpatient clinics of Başkent University Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) with complaints of acute cystitis in 2011. A total of 107 MDR E. coli isolates were included in the study. Of the 107 isolates studied, 26 (24.3%) were typed as ST131 clone. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers accounted for 59 (55...
March 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B Price, James R Johnson
The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades...
July 2016: MSphere
Violeta Corina Cristea, Mihaela Oprea, Gabriela Neacşu, Ramona Gîlcă, Mircea Ioan Popa, Codruţa-Romaniţa Usein
Urinary tract infections (UTI) with Escherichia coli are among the most common infections presenting in general practice. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are relied on for their empirical therapy but recent reports indicate a concerning increase in the percentage of FQ-resistant E. coli isolates in many countries, including Romania. Sixty E. coli strains with ciprofloxacin resistance and cephalosporin susceptibility isolated from urine specimens of non-hospitalized patients during a five-month period (October 2014 - February 2015) were further analyzed to determine the molecular basis of FQ resistance (i...
July 2015: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology
Sohinee Sarkar, Leah W Roberts, Minh-Duy Phan, Lendl Tan, Alvin W Lo, Kate M Peters, David L Paterson, Mathew Upton, Glen C Ulett, Scott A Beatson, Makrina Totsika, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) of sequence type 131 (ST131) are a pandemic multidrug resistant clone associated with urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Type 1 fimbriae, a major UPEC virulence factor, are essential for ST131 bladder colonization. The globally dominant sub-lineage of ST131 strains, clade C/H30-R, possess an ISEc55 insertion in the fimB gene that controls phase-variable type 1 fimbriae expression via the invertible fimS promoter. We report that inactivation of fimB in these strains causes altered regulation of type 1 fimbriae expression...
September 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Muhanad Mohamed, Connie Clabots, Stephen B Porter, Paul Thuras, James R Johnson
Emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and its resistance-associated H30 subclone, constitute an ever-growing public health threat. Their reservoirs and transmission pathways are incompletely defined. To assess diarrheal stools as a potential reservoir for ST131-H30 and other MDR GNB, we cultured 100 clinical stool samples from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical laboratory (October to December 2011) for fluoroquinolone- and extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant E...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Arash Ghodousi, Celestino Bonura, Paola Di Carlo, Willem B van Leeuwen, Caterina Mammina
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), typically fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) and/or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, has emerged globally. Among clinical isolates, ST131, primarily its H30-R and H30-Rx subclones, accounts for most antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and is the dominant E. coli strain worldwide. We assessed its prevalence and characteristics among raw chicken meat samples on sale in Palermo, Italy. A collection of 237 fluoroquinolone resistant and ESBL/AmpC producing E...
July 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
James R Johnson, Paul Thuras, Brian D Johnston, Scott J Weissman, Ajit P Limaye, Kim Riddell, Delia Scholes, Veronika Tchesnokova, Evgeni Sokurenko
BACKGROUND: The H30 subclone within Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged rapidly to become the leading antibiotic-resistant E. coli strain. Hypervirulence, multidrug resistance, and opportunism have been proposed as explanations for its epidemic success. METHODS: We assessed 1133 consecutive unique E. coli clinical isolates from 5 medical centers (2010-2011) for H30 genotype, which we compared with epidemiological and clinical data extracted from medical records by blinded reviewers...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sohinee Sarkar, Dimitrios Vagenas, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged as a pandemic lineage of important multidrug resistant pathogens worldwide. Despite many studies examining the epidemiology of ST131, only a few studies to date have investigated the capacity of ST131 strains to form biofilms. Some of these studies have reported contrasting findings, with no specific ST131 biofilm-promoting factors identified. Here, we examined a diverse collection of ST131 isolates for in vitro biofilm formation in different media and assay conditions, including urine from healthy adult women...
April 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Alix Pantel, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christelle Ngba Essebe, Jennifer Mesureur, Albert Sotto, Jean-Marie Pagès, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
Energy-dependent efflux overexpression and altered outer membrane permeability (influx) can promote multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study clarifies the regulatory pathways that control membrane permeability in the pandemic clone Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and evaluates the impact of efflux and influx modulations on biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Mutants of two uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, MECB5 (ST131; H30-Rx) and CFT073 (ST73), as well as a fecal strain, S250 (ST131; H22), were in vitro selected using continuous subculture in subinhibitory concentrations of ertapenem (ETP), chloramphenicol (CMP), and cefoxitin (FOX)...
May 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rocío Colello, María E Cáceres, María J Ruiz, Marcelo Sanz, Analía I Etcheverría, Nora L Padola
Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harshita Chadda, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, Saktiswaren Mohan, Bhabani K Satapathy, Alok R Ray, Tunku Kamarul
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins...
July 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Fusun Can, Ozlem Kurt-Azap, Elif Nurtop, Pelin Ispir, Ceren Seref, Onder Ergonul
Bloodstream infections caused by E. coli ST131 and ST131 H30-Rx subclones have emerged worldwide. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of ST131-Rx subclone and characterize the virulence properties of the Rx among the bloodstream E. coli isolates. A total of 297 non-duplicated E.coli bloodstream isolates were studied. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion method. PCR amplification and sequencing was used to identify ST131 and H30-Rx, the virulence gene, the betalactamase, and virotype...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Carla Rodrigues, Elisabete Machado, Sofia Fernandes, Luísa Peixe, Ângela Novais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
J Lee, K Himori, D Tatebayashi, M Abe, T Yamada
We investigated the effects of repeated hyperthermic bouts on the heat shock response of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 in skeletal muscle. Rats were assigned to control and hyperthermia groups which were exposed to heated water at 42 °C. The hyperthermia group was further divided into sub-groups: a single bout (H30) or four bouts of hyperthermia for 30 min (H30x4). There was an increase in HSP72 protein content of the H30 groups in both extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Moreover, HSP72 protein expression in H30x4 group was significantly higher than in H30 group in both EDL and soleus muscles...
2015: Physiological Research
Alessandro Bartoloni, Samanta Sennati, Tiziana Di Maggio, Antonia Mantella, Eleonora Riccobono, Marianne Strohmeyer, Carmen Revollo, Ana Liz Villagran, Lucia Pallecchi, Gian Maria Rossolini
BACKGROUND: Bolivia is among the lowest-resourced South American countries, with very few data available on antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial isolates responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Bolivian Chaco are reported here. METHODS: All clinical isolates from UTIs collected in the Hospital Basico Villa Montes between June 2010 and January 2014 were analyzed (N=213). Characterization included susceptibility testing, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) detection, identification of relevant resistance determinants (e...
February 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Soo-Young Kim, Yeon-Joon Park, James R Johnson, Jin Kyung Yu, Yong-Kyun Kim, Yeong Sic Kim
We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and its subclones among 268 E. coli isolates. The isolates were collected from 21 Korean hospitals without use of selection criteria and were screened for ST131 status by PCR. ST131 isolates were characterized for extended-spectrum β-lactamase variants, fluoroquinolone resistance genes, plasmid addiction systems, and replicon types. The collection's 57 identified ST131 isolates (21% of 268) were distributed disproportionately by clonal subset, as follows: 21 (37%) H30Rx, 27 (47%) H30 non-Rx, and 8 (14%) non-H30...
February 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Codruţa-Romaniţa Usein, Raluca Papagheorghe, Mihaela Oprea, Maria Condei, Monica Strãuţ
The increasing prevalence of invasive infections caused by antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strains in Romanian patients, already mentioned in the European reports, requires better knowledge of their specific traits. Thus, a set of 38 E. coli blood isolates, collected between 2010 and 2012 at one of the local hospitals participating into the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, was investigated retrospectively with respect to the phylogenetic origin, extraintestinal virulence-associated markers (i...
May 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Varuna Hassan-Puttaswamy, David J Adams, R Manjunatha Kini
Snake venom α-neurotoxins from the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family are competitive antagonists with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Here, we report the characterization of a new group of competitive nAChR antagonists: Ω-neurotoxins. Although they belong to the 3FTx family, the characteristic functional residues of α-neurotoxins are not conserved. We evaluated the subtype specificity and structure-function relationships of Oh9-1, an Ω-neurotoxin from Ophiophagus hannah venom...
December 18, 2015: ACS Chemical Biology
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