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Neutral zone

Jun Dong, Yang Dong, Chunyu Wen, Song Gao, Liming Ren, Qiburi Bao
Nitrobenzene (NB) is one of the most challenging pollutants for groundwater remediation due to its great harm and recalcitrance. Emulsified nanoscale zero-valent iron (EZVI) is considered as a promising agent for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater for its high reactivity, good durability and low cost. In this paper, 2D tank experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of enhanced remediation of NB-contaminated groundwater with EZVI. 9 L of EZVI solution was injected into aquifer to establish in-situ reactive zone (IRZ) before 40 d of NB contamination...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Dig Vijay Singh, Javeed Iqbal Ahmad Bhat, Rouf Ahmad Bhat, Moonisa Aslam Dervash, Sartaj Ahmad Ganei
In an effort to determine vehicular impact on soil quality, soil samples were collected from three different zones (Pahalgam, Batakote, and Chandanwari) in Pahalgam forest ecosystem. Results showed that a significant decrease in moisture content, organic carbon, available nitrogen, and potassium was observed in nearby road side soils. However, pH was observed to be on neutral side and available phosphorus recorded high concentration. The concentration of heavy metals Pb2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ , Ni2+ , and Cd2+ estimated was also significantly high...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Michelle M Valkanas, Nancy J Trun
A passive remediation system that treats coalmine drainage was sampled to determine the impact seasonal changes had on water quality and microbial diversity. Every quarter for 1 year, water-soil slurries were collected at the influent of the 5 settling ponds and the wetlands, and the effluent of the system. The concentration of 12 metals and sulfate, as well as sequences from the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rrn genes were determined. The water quality analysis revealed high levels of iron and sulfate, and measurable levels of Al, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Sr, and Zn...
April 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jeremy Alsup, Timothy Bishop, Dennis Eggett, Anton E Bowden
Objective: To investigate the biomechanical effects of injections of a protease on the characteristics of bovine coccygeal and human lumbar disc motion segments. Methods: Mechanics of treated tissues were measured immediately after injection and 3 h after injection. Motion segments underwent axial rotation and flexion-extension loading. Results: Stiffness and neutral zone parameters experienced significant changes over time, with bovine tissues more strongly affected than human cadaver tissues...
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Waldemar Seel, Alexander Flegler, Marija Zunabovic-Pichler, André Lipski
Listeria monocytogenes is a food pathogen capable of growing at a broad temperature range from 50°C to refrigerator temperatures. A key requirement for bacterial activity and growth at low temperatures is the ability to adjust membrane lipid composition to maintain cytoplasma membrane fluidity. In this study we confirmed earlier findings that the extent of fatty acid profile adaptation differed between L. monocytogenes strains. We could demonstrate for isolates from food that growth rates at low temperatures and resistance against freeze-thaw stress was not impaired by a lower adaptive response of fatty acid composition...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Ryan P Walter, Melissa M Mark, Daniel J Mennill
Given the important role that animal vocalizations play in mate attraction and resource defence, acoustic signals are expected to play a significant role in speciation. Most studies, however, have focused on the acoustic traits of male animals living in the temperate zone. In contrast to temperate environments, in the tropics it is commonplace for both sexes to produce complex acoustic signals. Therefore tropical birds offer the opportunity to compare the sexes and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of animal signals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
H Lievens, R H Reichle, Q Liu, G J M De Lannoy, R S Dunbar, S B Kim, N N Das, M Cosh, J P Walker, W Wagner
SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) radiometer observations at ~40 km resolution are routinely assimilated into the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model to generate the 9-km SMAP Level-4 Soil Moisture product. This study demonstrates that adding high-resolution radar observations from Sentinel-1 to the SMAP assimilation can increase the spatio-temporal accuracy of soil moisture estimates. Radar observations were assimilated either separately from or simultaneously with radiometer observations. Assimilation impact was assessed by comparing 3-hourly, 9-km surface and root-zone soil moisture simulations with in situ measurements from 9-km SMAP core validation sites and sparse networks, from May 2015 to December 2016...
June 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
Cho Kwong Charlie Lam, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau
The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
P Kékicheff, J Iss, P Fontaine, A Johner
Lateral correlations along hydrophobic surfaces whose separation can be varied continuously are measured by x-ray scattering using a modified surface force apparatus coupled with synchrotron radiation, named SFAX. A weak isotropic diffuse scattering along the equatorial plane is revealed for mica surfaces rendered hydrophobic and charge neutral by immersion in cationic surfactant solutions at low concentrations. The peak corresponds to a lateral surface correlation length ξ≈12  nm, without long-range order...
March 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jesse D Blanton, Michael Niezgoda, Cathleen A Hanlon, Craig B Swope, Jason Suckow, Brandi Saidy, Kathleen Nelson, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate
Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) is an effective tactic for wildlife rabies control, particularly for containment of disease spread along epizootic fronts. As part of the continuing evaluation of the ORV program in free-ranging raccoons in the US, 37 raccoons from ORV-baited areas in Pennsylvania were live-trapped and transferred to captivity to evaluate protection against rabies in animals with varying levels of existing neutralizing antibodies, expressed in international units per milliliter (IU/mL). Among the 37 raccoons at the date of capture, 24% (9/37) of raccoons were seronegative (<0...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Eleonora Vagnoni, Jessica Lewis, Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Flavia Cardini
The distance individuals maintain between themselves and others can be defined as 'interpersonal space'. This distance can be modulated both by situational factors and individual characteristics. Here we investigated the influence that the interpretation of other people interaction, in which one is not directly involved, may have on a person's interpersonal space. In the current study we measured, for the first time, whether the size of interpersonal space changes after listening to other people conversations with neutral or aggressive content...
2018: PloS One
Parneet Jaggi, Rhonda Tomlinson, Kirstie McLelland, Warren Ma, Carol Manson-McLeod, Michael J Bullard
BACKGROUND: Medical advances and increasingly complex patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) make nursing challenging. Gaining new knowledge and skills is a perpetual requirement. New quality initiatives to improve patient safety and care are being constantly introduced and create significant work and time pressures for healthcare providers involved. STUDY QUESTION: Do ED nurses support the introduction of new quality standards, in addition to their current heavy workload? STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Carmen Jarne, María Savirón, María Pilar Lapieza, Luis Membrado, Jesús Orduna, Javier Galbán, Rosa Garriga, Gertrud Elisabeth Morlock, Vicente Luis Cebolla
High-performance thin-layer chromatography was directly combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)for structural identification issues below the level of lipid classes in complex samples through a portable, automated, elution-based interface. For samples as diverse as biodiesel and human plasma, separation conditions using Automated Multiple Development were selected in each case to provide lipid classes as zones narrow enough to ensure a direct transfer of them to ESI-MS. The respective zone of interest can be selected at will...
March 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Matthew Morin, Joshua Klatt, Peter M Stevens
Proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures in children can lead to progressive and symptomatic tibial valgus. Corrective osteotomy has been abandoned, due to frequent complications, including recurrent valgus deformity. While spontaneous remodelling has been reported, this is not predictable. For children with persistent deformities, we have resorted to guided growth of the tibia. We present 19 patients who were successfully treated with guided growth, tethering the proximal medial physis. There were ten boys and nine girls, ranging in age from two to 13...
March 16, 2018: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Yang Zhang, Laura Tech, Laura A George, Andreas Acs, Russell E Durrett, Henry Hess, Lucy S K Walker, David M Tarlinton, Anne L Fletcher, Anja Erika Hauser, Kai-Michael Toellner
Germinal centers (GCs) are the sites where B cells undergo affinity maturation. The regulation of cellular output from the GC is not well understood. Here, we show that from the earliest stages of the GC response, plasmablasts emerge at the GC-T zone interface (GTI). We define two main factors that regulate this process: Tfh-derived IL-21, which supports production of plasmablasts from the GC, and TNFSF13 (APRIL), which is produced by a population of podoplanin+ CD157high fibroblastic reticular cells located in the GTI that are also rich in message for IL-6 and chemokines CXCL12, CCL19, and CCL21...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Oded Potchter, Pninit Cohen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Andreas Matzarakis
Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Patience Sanderson, Morgan Stickney, Franklin E Leach, Qiangwei Xia, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, I Jonathan Amster
Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to negative ion mode mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) is shown to be an effective and sensitive tool for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan mixtures. Covalent modification of the inner wall of the separation capillary with neutral or cationic reagents produces a stable and durable surface that provides reproducible separations. By combining CZE-MS with a cation-coated capillary and a sheath flow interface, a rapid and reliable method has been developed for the analysis of sulfated oligosaccharides from dp4 to dp12...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Thomas Gerhard Wolf, Gerhard Konrad Seeberger, Angelika Callaway, Benjamín Briseño-Marroquín, Philippe Rusca, Michael Frank, Ernst-Jürgen Otterbach
OBJECTIVE: A trend towards increasingly new forms of dental practice has been observed in the FDI World Dental Federation. Elementary foundations such as the free dentist and therapy choice, and independent, free, self-responsible professional practice may be undermined. The current study is aimed at analyzing the general training framework, organization, and professional types of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone and at critically discussing selected aspects of changes in the dental profession...
February 26, 2018: Quintessence International
Yujing Zhang, Dan Xu, Hong Qi, Yin Yuan, Hong Liu, Shanglong Yao, Shiying Yuan, Jiancheng Zhang
Enriched environment (EE) has been shown to promote post-stroke neurogenesis and functional recovery. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remains poorly understood. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, after which mice were housed in either standard environment (SE) or EE. We found that post-ischemic EE exhibited reduced protein level of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p65 in cytoplasm and increased its expression correspondingly in nucleus at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
Eric Quan Pang, Nathan Douglass, Anthony Behn, Matthew Winterton, Michael J Rainbow, Robin N Kamal
PURPOSE: The ideal material for reconstruction of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) should replicate the mechanical properties of the native SLIL to recreate normal kinematics and prevent posttraumatic arthritis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the cyclic torsional and tensile properties of the native SLIL and load to failure tensile properties of the dorsal SLIL. METHODS: The SLIL bone complex was resected from 10 fresh-frozen cadavers. The scaphoid and lunate were secured in polymethylmethacrylate and mounted on a test machine that incorporated an x-y stage and universal joint, which permitted translations perpendicular to the rotation/pull axis as well as nonaxial angulations...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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