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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#1
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295755/regional-morphology-and-mucus-composition-in-the-urogenital-papilla-skin-of-the-blackbelly-rosefish-helicolenus-dactylopterus-delaroche-1809
#2
Gianluca Accogli, Letizia Sion, Porzia Maiorano, Francesca Capezzuto, Gianfranco D'Onghia, Salvatore Desantis
Blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus is a zygoparous fish whose males are equipped with the copulating organ named urogenital papilla (UP). This study deals with the morphology and the glycoconjugate pattern of the UP epidermis, which is the male tissue interacting with the female internal body during copulation. The carbohydrate content was studied by means of conventional and lectin histochemistry. The epidermis was shown to be a stratified cuboidal epithelium and to exhibit characteristic intraepithelial pits in the apical zone...
December 26, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277033/fate-of-nanoparticles-during-alum-and-ferric-coagulation-monitored-using-single-particle-icp-ms
#3
Ariel R Donovan, Craig D Adams, Yinfa Ma, Chady Stephan, Todd Eichholz, Honglan Shi
In this study, aluminum sulfate, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) coagulation removal of citrate-stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) and uncoated titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide, and zinc oxide NPs was investigated using a single particle (SP) ICP-MS direct monitoring technique. Zone 2 (charge neutralization) coagulation was performed in river water and more commonly used Zone 4 (sweep floc) coagulation was performed in both river and lake water with environmentally relevant concentrations of selected NPs added...
December 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260633/two-stage-classifiers-that-minimize-pca3-and-the-psa-proteolytic-activity-testing-in-the-prediction-of-prostate-cancer-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy
#4
Daniel R Jeske, Jenifer A Linehan, Timothy G Wilson, Mark H Kawachi, Kristina Wittig, Katarzya Lamparska, Camille Amparo, Rosa Mejia, Fang Lai, Dimitra Georganopoulou, Steven S Smith
INTRODUCTION: Early biochemical recurrence after prostate cancer surgery is associated with higher risk of aggressive disease and cancer specific death. Many new tests are being developed that will predict the presence of indicators of aggressive disease like early biochemical recurrence. Since recurrence occurs in less than 10% of patients treated for prostate cancer, validation of such tests will require expensive testing on large patient groups. Moreover, clinical application of the validated test requires that each new patient be tested...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247955/plant-extract-mediated-green-silver-nanoparticles-efficacy-as-soil-conditioner-and-plant-growth-promoter
#5
Pallabi Das, Shaswat Barua, Shuvasree Sarkar, Niranjan Karak, Pradip Bhattacharyya, Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the ultimate fate of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) after their release into the environment. In this study, the environmental feasibility of plant leaf (Thuja occidentalis) extract-mediated green SNPs (GSNPs) was assessed in terms of their effects on soil physicochemical properties and crop growth in comparison to conventionally synthesized silver nanoparticles (CSNPs). Upon application of GSNPs, soil pH shifted toward neutrality, and substantial increments were observed in water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and N/P availability...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228958/sero-prevalence-risk-factors-and-distribution-of-sheep-and-goat-pox-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#6
Tsegaw Fentie, Nigusie Fenta, Samson Leta, Wassie Molla, Birhanu Ayele, Yechale Teshome, Seleshe Nigatu, Ashenafi Assefa
BACKGROUND: Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease...
December 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180156/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-inclusion-survey-of-campus-climate-in-colleges-and-schools-of-pharmacy
#7
Anita N Jacobson, Kelly L Matson, Jennifer L Mathews, Amy L Parkhill, Thomas A Scartabello
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To quantify the implementation of inclusive policies and benefits as well as institutional commitment to support LGBT faculty, staff, and students in pharmacy schools nationwide. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: An anonymous, electronic survey was sent to administrators at 130 pharmacy schools. Forty-four survey responses were received, indicating a 34% response rate. The survey included questions relating to campus climate, inclusive policies and benefits, and institutional commitments to the LGBT community...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172453/sample-concentration-of-charged-small-molecules-and-peptides-in-capillary-electrophoresis-by-micelle-to-cyclodextrin-stacking
#8
Joselito P Quirino, Wojciech Grochocki, Michal J Markuszewski
A stacking approach in capillary electrophoresis based on the reversal of the analytes' effective electrophoretic velocities at a dynamic stacking boundary formed between charged micelles (i.e., from long chain ionic surfactants) and neutral cyclodextrins (i.e., native λ-, β-or γ-cyclodextrin) is presented. The approach was demonstrated by the long injection of samples in a micellar solution followed by injection of a cyclodextrin solution zone, and then separation by co-electroosmotic flow capillary zone electrophoresis...
November 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171982/morphofunctional-muscle-changes-influence-on-foot-stability-in-multiple-sclerosis-during-gait-prediction-the-rehabilitation-potential1
#9
Marius Cristian Neamtu, Oana Maria Neamtu, Mihnea Ion Marin, Ligia Rusu
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis patients may suffer muscle changes that involve gait disorders of the kinetic and kinematic parameters also their gait may be clinically symmetrical or asymmetrical. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze how the muscle change, could affect the biomechanical parameters of foot stability during the gait, by disturb the motor control. METHODS: The study group consisted of 13 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, presenting clinically detectable abnormal gait...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152314/seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-horses-in-different-moroccan-regions
#10
Abdennasser Benjelloun, Mehdi El Harrak, Paolo Calistri, Chafiqa Loutfi, Hafsa Kabbaj, Annamaria Conte, Carla Ippoliti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Bouchra Belkadi
West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological situation of WNV-associated infection in Morocco, by quantifying the seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in horses in different bioclimatic regions-zones of Morocco in 2011. During the months of May, June and July 2011, 840 serum samples were collected from horses in four regions characterized by different environmental and climatic features such as altitude, temperature and precipitation...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078185/development-and-optimization-of-gas-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-method-for-the-sensitive-determination-of-dechlorane-plus-and-related-norbornene-based-flame-retardants-in-food-of-animal-origin
#11
Jekaterina Rjabova, Arturs Viksna, Dzintars Zacs
An analytical method has been developed for the trace determination of 10 dechlorane-related compounds (DRCs) in food products by gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The highest sensitivity of this instrumental analysis method was achieved by selection of the GC column type, optimization of the heated zones within the instrument, and adjusting the electron impact energy. The efficiency of solid phase extraction as clean-up procedure was also optimized. Two different types of cartridges - neutral silica gel and Florisil(®), as well as seven organic solvents or their mixtures - n-hexane, cyclohexane, acetone, toluene, n-hexane/ethyl acetate, n-hexane/acetone, and n-hexane/dichloromethane - were evaluated...
October 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054117/assessing-global-range-expansion-in-a-cryptic-species-complex-insights-from-the-red-seaweed-genus-asparagopsis-florideophyceae
#12
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037407/serum-concentrations-of-free-amino-acids-in-growing-pigs-exposed-to-diurnal-heat-stress-fluctuations
#13
Miguel Cervantes, Nely Ibarra, Nydia Vásquez, Francisco Reyes, Ernesto Avelar, Salvador Espinoza, Adriana Morales
In areas where the ambient temperature (AT) is above the thermo neutral (TN) zone of pigs, significant changes within a 24-h period occur, differently affecting the availability of amino acids (AA) within the same day. An experiment was conducted to analyze the serum concentrations (SC) of free AA in pigs exposed to diurnal variations in AT. Six pigs (27.1 ±1.3kg body weight) implanted with a thermometer to register the body temperature (BT) at 15-min intervals were used. Blood samples were collected on the last 3 d of the 14-d study, at 0700h (lowest AT), 1200h (mild HS), and 1600h (severe HS)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019693/dynamic-structuration-of-physical-chitosan-hydrogels
#14
Nicolas Sereni, Alin Enache, Guillaume Sudre, Alexandra Montembault, Cyrille Rochas, Philippe Durand, Marie-Hélène Perrard, Grigore Bozga, Jean-Pierre Puaux, Thierry Delair, Laurent David
We studied the microstructure of physical chitosan hydrogels formed by the neutralization of chitosan aqueous solutions highlighting the structural gradients within thick gels (up to a thickness of 16 mm). We explored a high polymer concentrations range (Cp ≥ 1.0% w/w) with different molar masses of chitosan and different concentrations of the coagulation agent. The effect of these processing parameters on the morphology was evaluated mainly through small-angle light scattering (SALS) measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observations...
October 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988711/in%C3%A2-vivo-selection-of-a-computationally-designed-schema-aav-library-yields-a-novel-variant-for-infection-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-in-the-svz
#15
David S Ojala, Sabrina Sun, Jorge L Santiago-Ortiz, Mikhail G Shapiro, Philip A Romero, David V Schaffer
Directed evolution continues to expand the capabilities of complex biomolecules for a range of applications, such as adeno-associated virus vectors for gene therapy; however, advances in library design and selection strategies are key to develop variants that overcome barriers to clinical translation. To address this need, we applied structure-guided SCHEMA recombination of the multimeric adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid to generate a highly diversified chimeric library with minimal structural disruption...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987006/effects-of-assortative-mate-choice-on-the-genomic-and-morphological-structure-of-a-hybrid-zone-between-two-bird-subspecies
#16
Georgy A Semenov, Elizabeth S C Scordato, David R Khaydarov, Chris C R Smith, Nolan C Kane, Rebecca J Safran
Phenotypic differentiation plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of reproductive barriers. In some cases, variation in a few key aspects of phenotype can promote and maintain divergence; hence, the identification of these traits and their associations with patterns of genomic divergence is crucial for understanding the patterns and processes of population differentiation. We studied hybridization between the alba and personata subspecies of the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), and quantified divergence and introgression of multiple morphological traits and 19,437 SNP loci on a 3,000 km transect...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982176/affective-vocalizations-influence-body-ownership-as-measured-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#17
Tahnée Engelen, Rebecca Watson, Francesco Pavani, Beatrice de Gelder
Emotional signals, like threatening sounds, automatically ready the perceiver to prepare an appropriate defense behavior. Conjecturing that this would manifest itself in extending the safety zone around the body we used the rubber hand illusion (RHI) to test this prediction. The RHI is a perceptual illusion in which body ownership is manipulated by synchronously stroking a rubber hand and real hand occluded from view. Many factors, both internal and external, have been shown to influence the strength of the illusion, yet the effect of emotion perception on body ownership remains unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978569/marginal-zone-b-cells-are-critical-to-factor-viii-inhibitor-formation-in-mice-with-hemophilia-a
#18
Patricia E Zerra, Courtney Cox, W Hunter Baldwin, Seema R Patel, Connie M Arthur, Pete Lollar, Shannon L Meeks, Sean R Stowell
While factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy can be life saving for patients with hemophilia A, neutralizing alloantibodies to FVIII, known as inhibitors, develop in a significant number of patients and actively block FVIII activity, making bleeding difficult to control and prevent. Although a variety of downstream immune factors likely regulate inhibitor formation, the identification and subsequent targeting of key initiators in inhibitor development may provide an attractive approach to prevent inhibitor formation before amplification of the FVIII immune response occurs...
October 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948549/delayed-effects-of-neonatal-administration-of-non-opioid-analog-of-leu-enkephalin-on-cerebral-consequences-of-antenal-hypoxia
#19
A A Simankova, E N Sazonova, O A Lebed'ko
In 60-day-old male rats after antenatal hypoxia, the body weight and the absolute weight of the cerebral hemispheres were significantly lower than in the progeny of intact animals. Analysis of brain sections stained with silver nitrate revealed reduced number of nucleoli in neocortical layer II and hippocampal CA1 neurons and smaller area of neuronal nuclei in neocortical layer V and total area of nucleoli in neurons of all studied zones. The animals demonstrated increased locomotor activity in the elevated plus-maze test...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945799/the-riddle-of-mitochondrial-alkaline-neutral-invertases-a-novel-arabidopsis-isoform-mainly-present-in-reproductive-tissues-and-involved-in-root-ros-production
#20
Marina E Battaglia, María Victoria Martin, Leandra Lechner, Giselle M A Martínez-Noël, Graciela L Salerno
Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Inv), glucosidases that irreversibly hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, play significant roles in plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. They occur as multiple isoforms located in the cytosol or organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two mitochondrial A/N-Inv genes (A/N-InvA and A/N-InvC) have already been investigated. In this study, we functionally characterized A/N-InvH, a third Arabidopsis gene coding for a mitochondrial-targeted protein. The phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invh) showed a severely reduced shoot growth, while root development was not affected...
2017: PloS One
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