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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#1
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403166/functional-decay-in-tree-community-within-tropical-fragmented-landscapes-effects-of-landscape-scale-forest-cover
#2
Larissa Rocha-Santos, Maíra Benchimol, Margaret M Mayfield, Deborah Faria, Michaele S Pessoa, Daniela C Talora, Eduardo Mariano-Neto, Eliana Cazetta
As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397361/using-traits-to-uncover-tropical-forest-function
#3
Nate G McDowell, Chonggang Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382230/mountain-colonisation-miniaturisation-and-ecological-evolution-in-a-radiation-of-direct-developing-new-guinea-frogs-choerophryne-microhylidae
#4
Paul M Oliver, Amy Iannella, Stephen J Richards, Michael S Y Lee
AIMS: Mountain ranges in the tropics are characterised by high levels of localised endemism, often-aberrant evolutionary trajectories, and some of the world's most diverse regional biotas. Here we investigate the evolution of montane endemism, ecology and body size in a clade of direct-developing frogs (Choerophryne, Microhylidae) from New Guinea. METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from a mitochondrial molecular dataset using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#5
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273929/environmental-filtering-structures-tree-functional-traits-combination-and-lineages-across-space-in-tropical-tree-assemblages
#6
Mengesha Asefa, Min Cao, Guocheng Zhang, Xiuqin Ci, Jie Li, Jie Yang
Environmental filtering consistently shapes the functional and phylogenetic structure of species across space within diverse forests. However, poor descriptions of community functional and lineage distributions across space hamper the accurate understanding of coexistence mechanisms. We combined environmental variables and geographic space to explore how traits and lineages are filtered by environmental factors using extended RLQ and fourth-corner analyses across different spatial scales. The dispersion patterns of traits and lineages were also examined in a 20-ha tropical rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263365/plasticity-in-nitrogen-uptake-among-plant-species-with-contrasting-nutrient-acquisition-strategies-in-a-tropical-forest
#7
Kelly M Andersen, Jordan R Mayor, Benjamin L Turner
Nitrogen (N) availability influences the productivity and distribution of plants in tropical montane forests. Strategies to acquire soil N, such as direct uptake of organic compounds or associations with root symbionts to enhance N acquisition in exchange for carbon (C), may facilitate plant species coexistence and ecosystem N retention. Alternatively, rapid microbial turnover of soil N forms in tropical soils might promote flexible plant N-uptake strategies and mediate species coexistence. We tested whether sympatric plant species with different root symbiont associations, and therefore potentially different nutrient acquisition strategies, partition chemical forms of N or show plasticity in N uptake in a tropical pre-montane forest in Panama...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241375/specific-gravity-of-woody-tissue-from-lowland-neotropical-plants-differences-among-forest-types
#8
Luisa Fernanda Casas, Ana María Aldana, Francisco Henao-Diaz, Boris Villanueva, Pablo R Stevenson
Wood density, or more precisely, wood specific gravity, is an important parameter when estimating aboveground biomass, which has become a central tool for the management and conservation of forests around the world. When using biomass allometric equations for tropical forests, researchers are often required to assume phylogenetic trait conservatism, which allows us to assign genus- and family-level wood specific gravity mean values, to many woody species. The lack of information on this trait for many Neotropical plant species has led to an imprecise estimation of the biomass stored in Neotropical forests...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241033/intraspecific-leaf-trait-variability-along-a-boreal-to-tropical-community-diversity-gradient
#9
Cristina C Bastias, Claire Fortunel, Fernando Valladares, Christopher Baraloto, Raquel Benavides, William Cornwell, Lars Markesteijn, Alexandre A de Oliveira, Jeronimo B B Sansevero, Marcel C Vaz, Nathan J B Kraft
Disentangling the mechanisms that shape community assembly across diversity gradients is a central matter in ecology. While many studies have explored community assembly through species average trait values, there is a growing understanding that intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can also play a critical role in species coexistence. Classic biodiversity theory hypothesizes that higher diversity at species-rich sites can arise from narrower niches relative to species-poor sites, which would be reflected in reduced ITV as species richness increases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#10
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181524/lack-of-phylogenetic-signals-within-environmental-niches-of-tropical-tree-species-across-life-stages
#11
Caicai Zhang, Jie Yang, Liqing Sha, Xiuqin Ci, Jie Li, Min Cao, Calum Brown, Nathan G Swenson, Luxiang Lin
The lasting imprint of phylogenetic history on current day ecological patterns has long intrigued biologists. Over the past decade ecologists have increasingly sought to quantify phylogenetic signals in environmental niche preferences and, especially, traits to help uncover the mechanisms driving plant community assembly. However, relatively little is known about how phylogenetic patterns in environmental niches and traits compare, leaving significant uncertainty about the ecological implications of trait-based analyses...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146325/organismal-responses-to-habitat-change-herbivore-performance-climate-and-leaf-traits-in-regenerating-tropical-dry-forests
#12
Salvatore J Agosta, Catherine M Hulshof, Ethan G Staats
The ecological effects of large-scale climate change have received much attention, but the effects of the more acute form of climate change that results from local habitat alteration have been less explored. When forest is fragmented, cut, thinned, cleared or otherwise altered in structure, local climates and microclimates change. Such changes can affect herbivores both directly (e.g. through changes in body temperature) and indirectly (e.g. through changes in host plant traits). We advance an eco-physiological framework to understand the effects of changing forests on herbivorous insects...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100018/conversion-of-amazon-rainforest-to-agriculture-alters-community-traits-of-methane-cycling-organisms
#13
Kyle M Meyer, Ann M Klein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Klaus Nüsslein, Susannah G Tringe, Babur S Mirza, James M Tiedje, Brendan J M Bohannan
Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here, we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077687/stronger-seasonal-adjustment-in-leaf-turgor-loss-point-in-lianas-than-trees-in-an-amazonian-forest
#14
Isabelle Maréchaux, Megan K Bartlett, Amaia Iribar, Lawren Sack, Jérôme Chave
Pan-tropically, liana density increases with decreasing rainfall and increasing seasonality. This pattern has led to the hypothesis that lianas display a growth advantage over trees under dry conditions. However, the physiological mechanisms underpinning this hypothesis remain elusive. A key trait influencing leaf and plant drought tolerance is the leaf water potential at turgor loss point (πtlp). πtlp adjusts under drier conditions and this contributes to improved leaf drought tolerance. For co-occurring Amazonian tree (n = 247) and liana (n = 57) individuals measured during the dry and the wet seasons, lianas showed a stronger osmotic adjustment than trees...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070293/functional-community-structure-of-african-monodominant-gilbertiodendron-dewevrei-forest-influenced-by-local-environmental-filtering
#15
Elizabeth Kearsley, Hans Verbeeck, Koen Hufkens, Frederik Van de Perre, Sebastian Doetterl, Geert Baert, Hans Beeckman, Pascal Boeckx, Dries Huygens
Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062726/seasonal-variability-in-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-contributes-to-invasion-success-of-prosopis-juliflora-in-tropical-dry-forest
#16
Marciel T Oliveira, Gustavo M Souza, Silvia Pereira, Deborah A S Oliveira, Karla V Figueiredo-Lima, Emília Arruda, Mauro G Santos
We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031800/functional-traits-determine-heterospecific-use-of-risk-related-social-information-in-forest-birds-of-tropical-south-east-asia
#17
Fangyuan Hua, Ding Li Yong, Muhammad Nazri Janra, Liza M Fitri, Dewi Prawiradilaga, Kathryn E Sieving
In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974517/evolutionary-heritage-influences-amazon-tree-ecology
#18
Fernanda Coelho de Souza, Kyle G Dexter, Oliver L Phillips, Roel J W Brienen, Jerome Chave, David R Galbraith, Gabriela Lopez Gonzalez, Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, R Toby Pennington, Lourens Poorter, Miguel Alexiades, Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Ana Andrade, Luis E O C Aragão, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Eric J M M Arets, Gerardo A Aymard C, Christopher Baraloto, Jorcely G Barroso, Damien Bonal, Rene G A Boot, José L C Camargo, James A Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, Plínio B de Camargo, Anthony Di Fiore, Fernando Elias, Terry L Erwin, Ted R Feldpausch, Leandro Ferreira, Nikolaos M Fyllas, Emanuel Gloor, Bruno Herault, Rafael Herrera, Niro Higuchi, Eurídice N Honorio Coronado, Timothy J Killeen, William F Laurance, Susan Laurance, Jon Lloyd, Thomas E Lovejoy, Yadvinder Malhi, Leandro Maracahipes, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben H Marimon-Junior, Casimiro Mendoza, Paulo Morandi, David A Neill, Percy Núñez Vargas, Edmar A Oliveira, Eddie Lenza, Walter A Palacios, Maria C Peñuela-Mora, John J Pipoly, Nigel C A Pitman, Adriana Prieto, Carlos A Quesada, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Agustin Rudas, Kalle Ruokolainen, Rafael P Salomão, Marcos Silveira, Juliana Stropp, Hans Ter Steege, Raquel Thomas-Caesar, Peter van der Hout, Geertje M F van der Heijden, Peter J van der Meer, Rodolfo V Vasquez, Simone A Vieira, Emilio Vilanova, Vincent A Vos, Ophelia Wang, Kenneth R Young, Roderick J Zagt, Timothy R Baker
Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957534/deforestation-driven-food-web-collapse-linked-to-emerging-tropical-infectious-disease-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#19
Aaron L Morris, Jean-François Guégan, Demetra Andreou, Laurent Marsollier, Kevin Carolan, Marie Le Croller, Daniel Sanhueza, Rodolphe E Gozlan
Generalist microorganisms are the agents of many emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but their natural life cycles are difficult to predict due to the multiplicity of potential hosts and environmental reservoirs. Among 250 known human EIDs, many have been traced to tropical rain forests and specifically freshwater aquatic systems, which act as an interface between microbe-rich sediments or substrates and terrestrial habitats. Along with the rapid urbanization of developing countries, population encroachment, deforestation, and land-use modifications are expected to increase the risk of EID outbreaks...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928046/the-value-of-biodiversity-for-the-functioning-of-tropical-forests-insurance-effects-during-the-first-decade-of-the-sabah-biodiversity-experiment
#20
Sean L Tuck, Michael J O'Brien, Christopher D Philipson, Philippe Saner, Matteo Tanadini, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, H Charles J Godfray, Elia Godoong, Reuben Nilus, Robert C Ong, Bernhard Schmid, Waidi Sinun, Jake L Snaddon, Martijn Snoep, Hamzah Tangki, John Tay, Philip Ulok, Yap Sau Wai, Maja Weilenmann, Glen Reynolds, Andy Hector
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the 'insurance hypothesis' predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in species traits and ecologies...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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