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Trait tropical forest

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#1
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863778/gene-flow-during-glacial-habitat-shifts-facilitates-character-displacement-in-a-neotropical-flycatcher-radiation
#2
Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M Garg, Chyi Yin Gwee, Scott V Edwards, Frank E Rheindt
BACKGROUND: Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are known to be an engine of biotic diversification at higher latitudes, but their impact on highly diverse tropical areas such as the Andes remains less well-documented. Specifically, while periods of global cooling may have led to fragmentation and differentiation at colder latitudes, they may - at the same time - have led to connectivity among insular patches of montane tropical habitat with unknown consequences on diversification. In the present study we utilized ~5...
September 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833132/foraging-traits-modulate-stingless-bee-community-disassembly-under-forest-loss
#3
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Chase D Mendenhall, Berry Brosi
1. Anthropogenic land use change is an important driver of impacts to biological communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Pollination is one ecosystem service that may be threatened by community disassembly. Relatively little is known about changes in bee community composition in the tropics, where pollination limitation is most severe and land use change is rapid. Understanding how anthropogenic changes alter community composition and functioning has been hampered by high variability in responses of individual species...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833040/demographic-drivers-of-functional-composition-dynamics
#4
Robert Muscarella, Madelon Lohbeck, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Lourens Poorter, Jorge Enrique Rodríguez-Velázquez, Michiel van Breugel, Frans Bongers
Mechanisms of community assembly and ecosystem function are often analyzed using community-weighted mean trait values (CWMs). We present a novel conceptual framework to quantify the contribution of demographic processes (i.e., growth, recruitment, and mortality) to temporal changes in CWMs. We used this framework to analyze mechanisms of secondary succession in wet tropical forests in Mexico. Seed size increased over time, reflecting a trade-off between colonization by small seeds early in succession, to establishment by large seeds later in succession...
August 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#5
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748565/evaluating-mechanisms-of-diversification-in-a-guineo-congolian-tropical-forest-frog-using-demographic-model-selection
#6
Daniel M Portik, Adam D Leaché, Danielle Rivera, Michael F Barej, Marius Burger, Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C Blackburn, Matthew K Fujita
The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers, and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744869/a-meta-analysis-on-growth-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-woody-species-to-ground-level-ozone-highlights-the-role-of-plant-functional-types
#7
Pin Li, Zhaozhong Feng, Vicent Catalayud, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Elena Paoletti
The carbon-sink strength of temperate and boreal forests at midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere is decreased by ozone pollution, but knowledge on subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests is missing. Taking the dataset from Chinese studies covering temperate and subtropical regions, effects of elevated ozone concentration ([O3 ]) on growth, biomass, and functional leaf traits of different types of woody plants were quantitatively evaluated by meta-analysis. Elevated mean [O3 ] of 116 ppb reduced total biomass of woody plants by 14% compared with control (mean [O3 ] of 21 ppb)...
October 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731828/geographical-variation-in-community-divergence-insights-from-tropical-forest-monodominance-by-ectomycorrhizal-trees
#8
Tadashi Fukami, Mifuyu Nakajima, Claire Fortunel, Paul V A Fine, Christopher Baraloto, Sabrina E Russo, Kabir G Peay
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731793/phylogeny-traits-and-biodiversity-of-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage-close-relatives-show-similar-responses-to-local-deforestation
#9
Hannah K Frank, Luke O Frishkoff, Chase D Mendenhall, Gretchen C Daily, Elizabeth A Hadly
If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674671/long-term-monitoring-reveals-an-avian-species-credit-in-secondary-forest-patches-of-costa-rica
#10
Steven C Latta, Nathan L Brouwer, Alison Olivieri, Julie Girard-Woolley, Judy F Richardson
Degraded and secondary forests comprise approximately 50% of remaining tropical forest. Bird community characteristics and population trends in secondary forests are infrequently studied, but secondary forest may serve as a "safety net" for tropical biodiversity. Less understood is the occurrence of time-delayed, community-level dynamics such as an extinction debt of specialist species or a species credit resulting from the recolonization of forest patches by extirpated species. We sought to elucidate patterns and magnitudes of temporal change in avian communities in secondary forest patches in Southern Costa Rica biannually over a 10 year period during the late breeding season and mid-winter...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660670/defaunation-and-habitat-disturbance-interact-synergistically-to-alter-seedling-recruitment
#11
Alys Granados, Jedediah F Brodie, Henry Bernard, Michael J O'Brien
Vertebrate granivores destroy plant seeds, but whether animal-induced seed mortality alters plant recruitment varies with habitat context, seed traits, and among granivore species. An incomplete understanding of seed predation makes it difficult to predict how widespread extirpations of vertebrate granivores in tropical forests might affect tree communities, especially in the face of habitat disturbance. Many tropical forests are simultaneously affected by animal loss as well as habitat disturbance, but the consequences of each for forest regeneration are often studied separately or additively, and usually on a single plant demographic stage...
June 29, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659130/what-makes-a-successful-species-traits-facilitating-survival-in-altered-tropical-forests
#12
Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel
BACKGROUND: Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes...
June 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543995/the-effects-of-restoring-logged-tropical-forests-on-avian-phylogenetic-and-functional-diversity
#13
Cindy C P Cosset, David P Edwards
Selective logging is the most prevalent land-use change in the tropics. Despite the resulting degradation of forest structure, selectively logged forests still harbor a substantial amount of biodiversity leading to suggestions that their protection is the next best alternative to conserving primary, old-growth forests. Restoring carbon stocks under Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes is a potential method for obtaining funding to protect logged forests, via enrichment planting and liberation cutting of vines...
September 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541561/effects-of-rainfall-exclusion-on-leaf-gas-exchange-traits-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-mature-canopy-trees-of-dryobalanops-aromatica-dipterocarpaceae-in-a-malaysian-tropical-rain-forest
#14
Yuta Inoue, Tomoaki Ichie, Tanaka Kenzo, Aogu Yoneyama, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Tohru Nakashizuka
Climate change exposes vegetation to unusual levels of drought, risking a decline in productivity and an increase in mortality. It still remains unclear how trees and forests respond to such unusual drought, particularly Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. To understand leaf ecophysiological responses of tropical rain forest trees to soil drying, a rainfall exclusion experiment was conducted on mature canopy trees of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae) for 4 months in an aseasonal tropical rain forest in Sarawak, Malaysia...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516322/do-functional-diversity-and-trait-dominance-determine-carbon-storage-in-an-altered-tropical-landscape
#15
Achim Häger, Gerardo Avalos
Altered landscapes play a major role in biodiversity conservation and carbon (C) storage in the tropics. There is increasing evidence that C storage potential is controlled by tree functional diversity, but underlying mechanisms are debated. We analyzed the effects of trait dominance (mass-ratio hypothesis), species diversity, and trait variation (species complementarity) on C storage in the soils and vegetation of 20 agroforestry systems (AFS) and seven forested sites in Costa Rica. AFS consisted of organic and conventional coffee farms and pastures with trees...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#16
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
September 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#17
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure of Amazon forests. Building upon results from two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon that observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others, in this study we investigate the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ), and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403166/functional-decay-in-tree-community-within-tropical-fragmented-landscapes-effects-of-landscape-scale-forest-cover
#18
Larissa Rocha-Santos, Maíra Benchimol, Margaret M Mayfield, Deborah Faria, Michaele S Pessoa, Daniela C Talora, Eduardo Mariano-Neto, Eliana Cazetta
As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397361/using-traits-to-uncover-tropical-forest-function
#19
Nate G McDowell, Chonggang Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382230/mountain-colonisation-miniaturisation-and-ecological-evolution-in-a-radiation-of-direct-developing-new-guinea-frogs-choerophryne-microhylidae
#20
Paul M Oliver, Amy Iannella, Stephen J Richards, Michael S Y Lee
AIMS: Mountain ranges in the tropics are characterised by high levels of localised endemism, often-aberrant evolutionary trajectories, and some of the world's most diverse regional biotas. Here we investigate the evolution of montane endemism, ecology and body size in a clade of direct-developing frogs (Choerophryne, Microhylidae) from New Guinea. METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from a mitochondrial molecular dataset using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches...
2017: PeerJ
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