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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100018/conversion-of-amazon-rainforest-to-agriculture-alters-community-traits-of-methane-cycling-organisms
#1
Kyle M Meyer, Ann M Klein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Klaus Nüsslein, Susannah G Tringe, Babur S Mirza, James M Tiedje, Brendan J M Bohannan
Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077687/stronger-seasonal-adjustment-in-leaf-turgor-loss-point-in-lianas-than-trees-in-an-amazonian-forest
#2
Isabelle Maréchaux, Megan K Bartlett, Amaia Iribar, Lawren Sack, Jérôme Chave
Pan-tropically, liana density increases with decreasing rainfall and increasing seasonality. This pattern has led to the hypothesis that lianas display a growth advantage over trees under dry conditions. However, the physiological mechanisms underpinning this hypothesis remain elusive. A key trait influencing leaf and plant drought tolerance is the leaf water potential at turgor loss point (πtlp). πtlp adjusts under drier conditions and this contributes to improved leaf drought tolerance. For co-occurring Amazonian tree (n = 247) and liana (n = 57) individuals measured during the dry and the wet seasons, lianas showed a stronger osmotic adjustment than trees...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070293/functional-community-structure-of-african-monodominant-gilbertiodendron-dewevrei-forest-influenced-by-local-environmental-filtering
#3
Elizabeth Kearsley, Hans Verbeeck, Koen Hufkens, Frederik Van de Perre, Sebastian Doetterl, Geert Baert, Hans Beeckman, Pascal Boeckx, Dries Huygens
Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062726/seasonal-variability-in-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-contributes-to-invasion-success-of-prosopis-juliflora-in-tropical-dry-forest
#4
Marciel T Oliveira, Gustavo M Souza, Silvia Pereira, Deborah A S Oliveira, Karla V Figueiredo-Lima, Emília Arruda, Mauro G Santos
We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031800/functional-traits-determine-heterospecific-use-of-risk-related-social-information-in-forest-birds-of-tropical-south-east-asia
#5
Fangyuan Hua, Ding Li Yong, Muhammad Nazri Janra, Liza M Fitri, Dewi Prawiradilaga, Kathryn E Sieving
In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974517/evolutionary-heritage-influences-amazon-tree-ecology
#6
Fernanda Coelho de Souza, Kyle G Dexter, Oliver L Phillips, Roel J W Brienen, Jerome Chave, David R Galbraith, Gabriela Lopez Gonzalez, Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, R Toby Pennington, Lourens Poorter, Miguel Alexiades, Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Ana Andrade, Luis E O C Aragão, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Eric J M M Arets, Gerardo A Aymard C, Christopher Baraloto, Jorcely G Barroso, Damien Bonal, Rene G A Boot, José L C Camargo, James A Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, Plínio B de Camargo, Anthony Di Fiore, Fernando Elias, Terry L Erwin, Ted R Feldpausch, Leandro Ferreira, Nikolaos M Fyllas, Emanuel Gloor, Bruno Herault, Rafael Herrera, Niro Higuchi, Eurídice N Honorio Coronado, Timothy J Killeen, William F Laurance, Susan Laurance, Jon Lloyd, Thomas E Lovejoy, Yadvinder Malhi, Leandro Maracahipes, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben H Marimon-Junior, Casimiro Mendoza, Paulo Morandi, David A Neill, Percy Núñez Vargas, Edmar A Oliveira, Eddie Lenza, Walter A Palacios, Maria C Peñuela-Mora, John J Pipoly, Nigel C A Pitman, Adriana Prieto, Carlos A Quesada, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Agustin Rudas, Kalle Ruokolainen, Rafael P Salomão, Marcos Silveira, Juliana Stropp, Hans Ter Steege, Raquel Thomas-Caesar, Peter van der Hout, Geertje M F van der Heijden, Peter J van der Meer, Rodolfo V Vasquez, Simone A Vieira, Emilio Vilanova, Vincent A Vos, Ophelia Wang, Kenneth R Young, Roderick J Zagt, Timothy R Baker
Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957534/deforestation-driven-food-web-collapse-linked-to-emerging-tropical-infectious-disease-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#7
Aaron L Morris, Jean-François Guégan, Demetra Andreou, Laurent Marsollier, Kevin Carolan, Marie Le Croller, Daniel Sanhueza, Rodolphe E Gozlan
Generalist microorganisms are the agents of many emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but their natural life cycles are difficult to predict due to the multiplicity of potential hosts and environmental reservoirs. Among 250 known human EIDs, many have been traced to tropical rain forests and specifically freshwater aquatic systems, which act as an interface between microbe-rich sediments or substrates and terrestrial habitats. Along with the rapid urbanization of developing countries, population encroachment, deforestation, and land-use modifications are expected to increase the risk of EID outbreaks...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928046/the-value-of-biodiversity-for-the-functioning-of-tropical-forests-insurance-effects-during-the-first-decade-of-the-sabah-biodiversity-experiment
#8
Sean L Tuck, Michael J O'Brien, Christopher D Philipson, Philippe Saner, Matteo Tanadini, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, H Charles J Godfray, Elia Godoong, Reuben Nilus, Robert C Ong, Bernhard Schmid, Waidi Sinun, Jake L Snaddon, Martijn Snoep, Hamzah Tangki, John Tay, Philip Ulok, Yap Sau Wai, Maja Weilenmann, Glen Reynolds, Andy Hector
One of the main environmental threats in the tropics is selective logging, which has degraded large areas of forest. In southeast Asia, enrichment planting with seedlings of the dominant group of dipterocarp tree species aims to accelerate restoration of forest structure and functioning. The role of tree diversity in forest restoration is still unclear, but the 'insurance hypothesis' predicts that in temporally and spatially varying environments planting mixtures may stabilize functioning owing to differences in species traits and ecologies...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928045/using-avian-functional-traits-to-assess-the-impact-of-land-cover-change-on-ecosystem-processes-linked-to-resilience-in-tropical-forests
#9
Tom P Bregman, Alexander C Lees, Hannah E A MacGregor, Bianca Darski, Nárgila G de Moura, Alexandre Aleixo, Jos Barlow, Joseph A Tobias
Vertebrates perform key roles in ecosystem processes via trophic interactions with plants and insects, but the response of these interactions to environmental change is difficult to quantify in complex systems, such as tropical forests. Here, we use the functional trait structure of Amazonian forest bird assemblages to explore the impacts of land-cover change on two ecosystem processes: seed dispersal and insect predation. We show that trait structure in assemblages of frugivorous and insectivorous birds remained stable after primary forests were subjected to logging and fire events, but that further intensification of human land use substantially reduced the functional diversity and dispersion of traits, and resulted in communities that occupied a different region of trait space...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915413/resource-partitioning-by-evergreen-and-deciduous-species-in-a-tropical-dry-forest
#10
Juan C Álvarez-Yépiz, Alberto Búrquez, Angelina Martínez-Yrízar, Mark Teece, Enrico A Yépez, Martin Dovciak
Niche differentiation can lead to coexistence of plant species by partitioning limiting resources. Light partitioning promotes niche differentiation in tropical humid forests, but it is unclear how niche partitioning occurs in tropical dry forests where both light and soil resources can be limiting. We studied the adult niche of four dominant evergreen (cycad, palm) and drought-deciduous (legume, oak) species co-occurring along environmental gradients. We analyzed light intensity and soil fertility effects on key functional traits related to plant carbon and water economy, how these traits determine species' functional strategies, and how these strategies relate to relative species abundance and spatial patterns...
December 3, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878078/cool-habitats-support-darker-and-bigger-butterflies-in-australian-tropical-forests
#11
Shuang Xing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Chin Cheung Tang, Evan J Pickett, Wenda Cheng, Sasha E Greenspan, Stephen E Williams, Brett R Scheffers
Morphology mediates the relationship between an organism's body temperature and its environment. Dark organisms, for example, tend to absorb heat more quickly than lighter individuals, which could influence their responses to temperature. Therefore, temperature-related traits such as morphology may affect patterns of species abundance, richness, and community assembly across a broad range of spatial scales. In this study, we examined variation in color lightness and body size within butterfly communities across hot and cool habitats in the tropical woodland-rainforest ecosystems of northeast Queensland, Australia...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870051/chemical-similarity-and-local-community-assembly-in-the-species-rich-tropical-genus-piper
#12
Diego Salazar, M Alejandra Jaramillo, Robert J Marquis
Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859219/vessel-diameter-and-related-hydraulic-traits-of-31-eucalyptus-species-arrayed-along-a-gradient-of-water-availability
#13
Sebastian Pfautsch, Craig Macfarlane, Marco Harbusch, Anita Wesolowski, Renee Smith, Matthias Boer, Mark G Tjoelker, Peter B Reich, Mark A Adams
We present two comprehensive data sets that describe xylem vessel diameters and related sapwood traits for species of Eucalyptus from arid and semi-arid woodlands and forests in Australia. Between 2009 and 2014, sapwood of mature trees was sampled in south-western, south-eastern and eastern Australia. One additional species was sampled from tropical north-western Australia. The first data set describes samples collected from the basal stem section (130 cm above ground) of three individuals of 31 species of which eight species were replicated at sites that differed in climatic conditions...
June 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859119/the-importance-of-biodiversity-and-dominance-for-multiple-ecosystem-functions-in-a-human-modified-tropical-landscape
#14
Madelon Lohbeck, Frans Bongers, Miguel Martinez-Ramos, Lourens Poorter
Many studies suggest that biodiversity may be particularly important for ecosystem multifunctionality, because different species with different traits can contribute to different functions. Support, however, comes mostly from experimental studies conducted at small spatial scales in low-diversity systems. Here, we test whether different species contribute to different ecosystem functions that are important for carbon cycling in a high-diversity human-modified tropical forest landscape in Southern Mexico. We quantified aboveground standing biomass, primary productivity, litter production, and wood decomposition at the landscape level, and evaluated the extent to which tree species contribute to these ecosystem functions...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857167/significant-phylogenetic-signal-and-climate-related-trends-in-leaf-caloric-value-from-tropical-to-cold-temperate-forests
#15
Guangyan Song, Ying Li, Jiahui Zhang, Meiling Li, Jihua Hou, Nianpeng He
Leaf caloric value (LCV) is a useful index to represent the conversion efficiency of leaves for solar energy. We investigated the spatial pattern of LCV and explored the factors (phylogeny, climate, and soil) that influence them at a large scale by determining LCV standardized by leaf area in 920 plant species from nine forest communities along the 3700 km North-South Transect of Eastern China. LCV ranged from 0.024 to 1.056 kJ cm(-2) with an average of 0.151 kJ cm(-2). LCV declined linearly with increasing latitude along the transect...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855174/contrasting-patterns-of-species-richness-and-functional-diversity-in-bird-communities-of-east-african-cloud-forest-fragments
#16
Werner Ulrich, Luc Lens, Joseph A Tobias, Jan C Habel
Rapid fragmentation and degradation of large undisturbed habitats constitute major threats to biodiversity. Several studies have shown that populations in small and highly isolated habitat patches are prone to strong environmental and demographic stochasticity and increased risk of extinction. Based on community assembly theory, we predict recent rapid forest fragmentation to cause a decline in species and functional guild richness of forest birds combined with a high species turnover among habitat patches, and well defined dominance structures, if competition is the major driver of community assembly...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844148/tree-diversity-promotes-generalist-herbivore-community-patterns-in-a-young-subtropical-forest-experiment
#17
Jiayong Zhang, Helge Bruelheide, Xufei Chen, David Eichenberg, Wenzel Kröber, Xuwen Xu, Liting Xu, Andreas Schuldt
Stand diversification is considered a promising management approach to increasing the multifunctionality and ecological stability of forests. However, how tree diversity affects higher trophic levels and their role in regulating forest functioning is not well explored particularly for (sub)tropical regions. We analyzed the effects of tree species richness, community composition, and functional diversity on the abundance, species richness, and beta diversity of important functional groups of herbivores and predators in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in south-east China...
November 14, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825871/evolution-in-african-tropical-trees-displaying-ploidy-habitat-association-the-genus-afzelia-leguminosae
#18
Armel S L Donkpegan, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jérémy Migliore, Jérôme Duminil, Kasso Dainou, Rosalía Piñeiro, Jan J Wieringa, Dominique Champluvier, Olivier J Hardy
Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821045/diversification-into-novel-habitats-in-the-africa-clade-of-dioscorea-dioscoreaceae-erect-habit-and-elephant-s-foot-tubers
#19
Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Pilar Catalan, Eugene Z Shongwe, Juan Viruel, Paul Wilkin, Michelle van der Bank
BACKGROUND: Dioscorea is a widely distributed and highly diversified genus in tropical regions where it is represented by ten main clades, one of which diversified exclusively in Africa. In southern Africa it is characterised by a distinct group of species with a pachycaul or "elephant's foot" structure that is partially to fully exposed above the substrate. In contrast to African representatives of the genus from other clades, occurring mainly in forest or woodland, the pachycaul taxa and their southern African relatives occur in diverse habitats ranging from woodland to open vegetation...
November 8, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786160/jumping-into-a-trap-high-prevalence-of-chytrid-fungus-in-the-preferred-microhabitats-of-a-bromeliad-specialist-frog
#20
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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