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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137616/foraging-dispersion-of-ryukyu-flying-foxes-and-relationships-with-fig-abundance-in-east-asian-subtropical-island-forests
#1
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Hsin-Yi Chang, Chi-Feng Tsai, Shigeyuki Baba
BACKGROUND: Figs are widely distributed key resources to many tropical-subtropical animals, and flying-foxes are major consumers and seed dispersers of figs. Bat-fig interrelationships, however, may vary among species differing in fruiting traits, i.e., bat- versus bird-dispersed figs. We examined Ryukyu flying-fox foraging dispersion and the relationships with tree species composition and fig abundance in forests of Iriomote Island. RESULTS: Bat foraging dispersion showed no spatial patterns with respect to different areas of the island, and was not explained by heterogeneity, density, or basal area (BA) of total trees, nor by relative density or BA of fruiting trees or total fruiting figs among sites...
November 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128984/taxonomic-resolution-and-functional-traits-in-the-analysis-of-tropical-oribatid-mite-assemblages
#2
Maria A Minor, Sergey G Ermilov, Alexei V Tiunov
We analysed species-level datasets representing Oribatida assemblages along a gradient of old-growth primary tropical forests, secondary forests, and plantation forests in Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam. We identified patterns in abundance, species richness and species assemblages of Oribatida, then applied taxonomic sufficiency approach to the datasets. Using three levels of higher-taxon aggregation, we evaluated whether aggregated datasets are useful in identifying ecological patterns, in comparison to species-level data...
November 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#3
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117202/oil-palm-monoculture-induces-drastic-erosion-of-an-amazonian-forest-mammal-fauna
#4
Ana Cristina Mendes-Oliveira, Carlos A Peres, Paula Cristina R de A Maués, Geovana Linhares Oliveira, Ivo G B Mineiro, Susanne L Silva de Maria, Renata C S Lima
Oil palm monoculture comprises one of the most financially attractive land-use options in tropical forests, but cropland suitability overlaps the distribution of many highly threatened vertebrate species. We investigated how forest mammals respond to a landscape mosaic, including mature oil palm plantations and primary forest patches in Eastern Amazonia. Using both line-transect censuses (LTC) and camera-trapping (CT), we quantified the general patterns of mammal community structure and attempted to identify both species life-history traits and the environmental and spatial covariates that govern species intolerance to oil palm monoculture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078339/evolutionary-cascades-induced-by-large-frugivores
#5
Jedediah F Brodie
Large, fruit-eating vertebrates have been lost from many of the world's ecosystems. The ecological consequences of this defaunation can be severe, but the evolutionary consequences are nearly unknown because it remains unclear whether frugivores exert strong selection on fruit traits. I assessed the macroevolution of fruit traits in response to variation in the diversity and size of seed-dispersing vertebrates. Across the Indo-Malay Archipelago, many of the same plant lineages have been exposed to very different assemblages of seed-dispersing vertebrates...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049301/plant-dna-barcodes-and-assessment-of-phylogenetic-community-structure-of-a-tropical-mixed-dipterocarp-forest-in-brunei-darussalam-borneo
#6
Jacqueline Heckenhauer, Kamariah Abu Salim, Mark W Chase, Kyle G Dexter, R Toby Pennington, Sylvester Tan, Maria Ellen Kaye, Rosabelle Samuel
DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m) of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#7
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
October 12, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040340/measuring-local-depletion-of-terrestrial-game-vertebrates-by-central-place-hunters-in-rural-amazonia
#8
Mark I Abrahams, Carlos A Peres, Hugo C M Costa
The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985388/leaf-surface-traits-and-water-storage-retention-affect-photosynthetic-responses-to-leaf-surface-wetness-among-wet-tropical-forest-and-semiarid-savanna-plants
#9
Luiza M T Aparecido, Gretchen R Miller, Anthony T Cahill, Georgianne W Moore
While it is reasonable to predict that photosynthetic rates are inhibited while leaves are wet, leaf gas exchange measurements during wet conditions are challenging to obtain due to equipment limitations and the complexity of canopy-atmosphere interactions in forested environments. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate responses of seven tropical and three semiarid savanna plant species to simulated leaf wetness and test the hypotheses that (i) leaf wetness reduces photosynthetic rates (Anet), (ii) leaf traits explain different responses among species and (iii) leaves from wet environments are better adapted for wet leaf conditions than those from drier environments...
October 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985366/different-hydraulic-traits-of-woody-plants-from-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-soil-water-availability
#10
Shi-Dan Zhu, Ya-Jun Chen, Pei-Li Fu, Kun-Fang Cao, Guillermo Goldstein
In southwestern China, tropical karst forests (KF) and non-karst rain forests (NKF) have different species composition and forest structure owing to contrasting soil water availability, but with a few species that occur in both forests. Plant hydraulic traits are important for understanding the species' distribution patterns in these two forest types, but related studies are rare. In this study, we investigated hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and wood anatomy of 23 abundant and typical woody species from a KF and a neighboring NKF, as well as two Bauhinia liana species common to both forests...
July 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985306/plastome-evolution-in-the-sole-hemiparasitic-genus-laurel-dodder-cassytha-and-insights-into-the-plastid-phylogenomics-of-lauraceae
#11
Chung-Shien Wu, Ting-Jen Wang, Chia-Wen Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Miaw Chaw
To date, little is known about the evolution of plastid genomes (plastomes) in Lauraceae. As one of the top five largest families in tropical forests, the Lauraceae contain many species that are important ecologically and economically. Lauraceous species also provide wonderful materials to study the evolutionary trajectory in response to parasitism because they contain both non-parasitic and parasitic species. This study compared the plastomes of nine Lauraceous species, including the sole hemiparasitic and herbaceous genus Cassytha (laurel dodder; here represented by Cas...
September 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#12
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait-response effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P, and N + P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size, and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863778/gene-flow-during-glacial-habitat-shifts-facilitates-character-displacement-in-a-neotropical-flycatcher-radiation
#13
Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M Garg, Chyi Yin Gwee, Scott V Edwards, Frank E Rheindt
BACKGROUND: Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are known to be an engine of biotic diversification at higher latitudes, but their impact on highly diverse tropical areas such as the Andes remains less well-documented. Specifically, while periods of global cooling may have led to fragmentation and differentiation at colder latitudes, they may - at the same time - have led to connectivity among insular patches of montane tropical habitat with unknown consequences on diversification. In the present study we utilized ~5...
September 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833132/foraging-traits-modulate-stingless-bee-community-disassembly-under-forest-loss
#14
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Chase D Mendenhall, Berry Brosi
Anthropogenic land use change is an important driver of impacts to biological communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Pollination is one ecosystem service that may be threatened by community disassembly. Relatively little is known about changes in bee community composition in the tropics, where pollination limitation is most severe and land use change is rapid. Understanding how anthropogenic changes alter community composition and functioning has been hampered by high variability in responses of individual species...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833040/demographic-drivers-of-functional-composition-dynamics
#15
Robert Muscarella, Madelon Lohbeck, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Lourens Poorter, Jorge Enrique Rodríguez-Velázquez, Michiel van Breugel, Frans Bongers
Mechanisms of community assembly and ecosystem function are often analyzed using community-weighted mean trait values (CWMs). We present a novel conceptual framework to quantify the contribution of demographic processes (i.e., growth, recruitment, and mortality) to temporal changes in CWMs. We used this framework to analyze mechanisms of secondary succession in wet tropical forests in Mexico. Seed size increased over time, reflecting a trade-off between colonization by small seeds early in succession, to establishment by large seeds later in succession...
November 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#16
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748565/evaluating-mechanisms-of-diversification-in-a-guineo-congolian-tropical-forest-frog-using-demographic-model-selection
#17
Daniel M Portik, Adam D Leaché, Danielle Rivera, Michael F Barej, Marius Burger, Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C Blackburn, Matthew K Fujita
The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744869/a-meta-analysis-on-growth-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-woody-species-to-ground-level-ozone-highlights-the-role-of-plant-functional-types
#18
Pin Li, Zhaozhong Feng, Vicent Catalayud, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Elena Paoletti
The carbon-sink strength of temperate and boreal forests at midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere is decreased by ozone pollution, but knowledge on subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests is missing. Taking the dataset from Chinese studies covering temperate and subtropical regions, effects of elevated ozone concentration ([O3 ]) on growth, biomass, and functional leaf traits of different types of woody plants were quantitatively evaluated by meta-analysis. Elevated mean [O3 ] of 116 ppb reduced total biomass of woody plants by 14% compared with control (mean [O3 ] of 21 ppb)...
October 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731828/geographical-variation-in-community-divergence-insights-from-tropical-forest-monodominance-by-ectomycorrhizal-trees
#19
Tadashi Fukami, Mifuyu Nakajima, Claire Fortunel, Paul V A Fine, Christopher Baraloto, Sabrina E Russo, Kabir G Peay
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731793/phylogeny-traits-and-biodiversity-of-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage-close-relatives-show-similar-responses-to-local-deforestation
#20
Hannah K Frank, Luke O Frishkoff, Chase D Mendenhall, Gretchen C Daily, Elizabeth A Hadly
If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends...
August 2017: American Naturalist
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