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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915413/resource-partitioning-by-evergreen-and-deciduous-species-in-a-tropical-dry-forest
#1
Juan C Álvarez-Yépiz, Alberto Búrquez, Angelina Martínez-Yrízar, Mark Teece, Enrico A Yépez, Martin Dovciak
Niche differentiation can lead to coexistence of plant species by partitioning limiting resources. Light partitioning promotes niche differentiation in tropical humid forests, but it is unclear how niche partitioning occurs in tropical dry forests where both light and soil resources can be limiting. We studied the adult niche of four dominant evergreen (cycad, palm) and drought-deciduous (legume, oak) species co-occurring along environmental gradients. We analyzed light intensity and soil fertility effects on key functional traits related to plant carbon and water economy, how these traits determine species' functional strategies, and how these strategies relate to relative species abundance and spatial patterns...
December 3, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878078/cool-habitats-support-darker-and-bigger-butterflies-in-australian-tropical-forests
#2
Shuang Xing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Chin Cheung Tang, Evan J Pickett, Wenda Cheng, Sasha E Greenspan, Stephen E Williams, Brett R Scheffers
Morphology mediates the relationship between an organism's body temperature and its environment. Dark organisms, for example, tend to absorb heat more quickly than lighter individuals, which could influence their responses to temperature. Therefore, temperature-related traits such as morphology may affect patterns of species abundance, richness, and community assembly across a broad range of spatial scales. In this study, we examined variation in color lightness and body size within butterfly communities across hot and cool habitats in the tropical woodland-rainforest ecosystems of northeast Queensland, Australia...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870051/chemical-similarity-and-local-community-assembly-in-the-species-rich-tropical-genus-piper
#3
Diego Salazar, M Alejandra Jaramillo, Robert J Marquis
Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859219/vessel-diameter-and-related-hydraulic-traits-of-31-eucalyptus-species-arrayed-along-a-gradient-of-water-availability
#4
Sebastian Pfautsch, Craig Macfarlane, Marco Harbusch, Anita Wesolowski, Renee Smith, Matthias Boer, Mark G Tjoelker, Peter B Reich, Mark A Adams
We present two comprehensive data sets that describe xylem vessel diameters and related sapwood traits for species of Eucalyptus from arid and semi-arid woodlands and forests in Australia. Between 2009 and 2014, sapwood of mature trees was sampled in south-western, south-eastern and eastern Australia. One additional species was sampled from tropical north-western Australia. The first data set describes samples collected from the basal stem section (130 cm above ground) of three individuals of 31 species of which eight species were replicated at sites that differed in climatic conditions...
June 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859119/the-importance-of-biodiversity-and-dominance-for-multiple-ecosystem-functions-in-a-human-modified-tropical-landscape
#5
Madelon Lohbeck, Frans Bongers, Miguel Martinez-Ramos, Lourens Poorter
Many studies suggest that biodiversity may be particularly important for ecosystem multifunctionality, because different species with different traits can contribute to different functions. Support, however, comes mostly from experimental studies conducted at small spatial scales in low-diversity systems. Here, we test whether different species contribute to different ecosystem functions that are important for carbon cycling in a high-diversity human-modified tropical forest landscape in Southern Mexico. We quantified aboveground standing biomass, primary productivity, litter production, and wood decomposition at the landscape level, and evaluated the extent to which tree species contribute to these ecosystem functions...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857167/significant-phylogenetic-signal-and-climate-related-trends-in-leaf-caloric-value-from-tropical-to-cold-temperate-forests
#6
Guangyan Song, Ying Li, Jiahui Zhang, Meiling Li, Jihua Hou, Nianpeng He
Leaf caloric value (LCV) is a useful index to represent the conversion efficiency of leaves for solar energy. We investigated the spatial pattern of LCV and explored the factors (phylogeny, climate, and soil) that influence them at a large scale by determining LCV standardized by leaf area in 920 plant species from nine forest communities along the 3700 km North-South Transect of Eastern China. LCV ranged from 0.024 to 1.056 kJ cm(-2) with an average of 0.151 kJ cm(-2). LCV declined linearly with increasing latitude along the transect...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855174/contrasting-patterns-of-species-richness-and-functional-diversity-in-bird-communities-of-east-african-cloud-forest-fragments
#7
Werner Ulrich, Luc Lens, Joseph A Tobias, Jan C Habel
Rapid fragmentation and degradation of large undisturbed habitats constitute major threats to biodiversity. Several studies have shown that populations in small and highly isolated habitat patches are prone to strong environmental and demographic stochasticity and increased risk of extinction. Based on community assembly theory, we predict recent rapid forest fragmentation to cause a decline in species and functional guild richness of forest birds combined with a high species turnover among habitat patches, and well defined dominance structures, if competition is the major driver of community assembly...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844148/tree-diversity-promotes-generalist-herbivore-community-patterns-in-a-young-subtropical-forest-experiment
#8
Jiayong Zhang, Helge Bruelheide, Xufei Chen, David Eichenberg, Wenzel Kröber, Xuwen Xu, Liting Xu, Andreas Schuldt
Stand diversification is considered a promising management approach to increasing the multifunctionality and ecological stability of forests. However, how tree diversity affects higher trophic levels and their role in regulating forest functioning is not well explored particularly for (sub)tropical regions. We analyzed the effects of tree species richness, community composition, and functional diversity on the abundance, species richness, and beta diversity of important functional groups of herbivores and predators in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in south-east China...
November 14, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825871/evolution-in-african-tropical-trees-displaying-ploidy-habitat-association-the-genus-afzelia-leguminosae
#9
Armel S L Donkpegan, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jérémy Migliore, Jérôme Duminil, Kasso Dainou, Rosalía Piñeiro, Jan J Wieringa, Dominique Champluvier, Olivier J Hardy
Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821045/diversification-into-novel-habitats-in-the-africa-clade-of-dioscorea-dioscoreaceae-erect-habit-and-elephant-s-foot-tubers
#10
Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Pilar Catalan, Eugene Z Shongwe, Juan Viruel, Paul Wilkin, Michelle van der Bank
BACKGROUND: Dioscorea is a widely distributed and highly diversified genus in tropical regions where it is represented by ten main clades, one of which diversified exclusively in Africa. In southern Africa it is characterised by a distinct group of species with a pachycaul or "elephant's foot" structure that is partially to fully exposed above the substrate. In contrast to African representatives of the genus from other clades, occurring mainly in forest or woodland, the pachycaul taxa and their southern African relatives occur in diverse habitats ranging from woodland to open vegetation...
November 8, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786160/jumping-into-a-trap-high-prevalence-of-chytrid-fungus-in-the-preferred-microhabitats-of-a-bromeliad-specialist-frog
#11
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755700/taxonomic-and-functional-divergence-of-tree-assemblages-in-a-fragmented-tropical-forest
#12
Julia C Sfair, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Bráulio A Santos, Marcelo Tabarelli
Tropical forests are being exposed to increasing levels of habitat loss and fragmentation, threatening the maintenance of global biodiversity. However, the effect that land-use change may have on the spatial dissimilarities in taxonomic and functional composition of remaining assemblages (i.e., taxonomic/functional β-diversity) remains poorly understood. We examined a large vegetation database from an old and severely fragmented Atlantic forest landscape to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) tree assemblages experience a taxonomic and functional homogenization (reduced β-diversity) between forest fragments and along forest edges, or alternatively, (2) these edge-affected forests show increased taxonomic and functional differentiation (increased β-diversity) when compared to forest interior (reference) stands...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648242/desiccation-resistance-in-tropical-insects-causes-and-mechanisms-underlying-variability-in-a-panama-ant-community
#13
Jelena Bujan, Stephen P Yanoviak, Michael Kaspari
Desiccation resistance, the ability of an organism to reduce water loss, is an essential trait in arid habitats. Drought frequency in tropical regions is predicted to increase with climate change, and small ectotherms are often under a strong desiccation risk. We tested hypotheses regarding the underexplored desiccation potential of tropical insects. We measured desiccation resistance in 82 ant species from a Panama rainforest by recording the time ants can survive desiccation stress. Species' desiccation resistance ranged from 0...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582361/two-tropical-conifers-show-strong-growth-and-water-use-efficiency-responses-to-altered-co2-concentration
#14
James W Dalling, Lucas A Cernusak, Klaus Winter, Jorge Aranda, Milton Garcia, Aurelio Virgo, Alexander W Cheesman, Andres Baresch, Carlos Jaramillo, Benjamin L Turner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at ca levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in ca affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups...
November 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559061/global-mammal-beta-diversity-shows-parallel-assemblage-structure-in-similar-but-isolated-environments
#15
Caterina Penone, Ben G Weinstein, Catherine H Graham, Thomas M Brooks, Carlo Rondinini, S Blair Hedges, Ana D Davidson, Gabriel C Costa
The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550162/the-impact-of-tropical-peat-fire-on-termite-assemblage-in-sumatra-indonesia-reduced-complexity-of-community-structure-and-survival-strategies
#16
Kok-Boon Neoh, Lee-Jin Bong, Ahmad Muhammad, Masayuki Itoh, Osamu Kozan, Yoko Takematsu, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Tropical peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia account for approximately 72% of global peatland. However, extensive forest exploitation following peat drainage for agricultural expansion has been leading to catastrophic peat fires. In this study, we compared the termite assemblage in burnt and unburnt peats in Sumatra, Indonesia. We also identified which taxonomic group is particularly resistant to fire disturbance and the traits that correlate with its persistence in fire-impacted peatlands. Overall, the termite species richness in fire-impacted peats was up to 40% lower than that of the total species found in peat swamp forests...
October 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547346/examining-variation-in-the-leaf-mass-per-area-of-dominant-species-across-two-contrasting-tropical-gradients-in-light-of-community-assembly
#17
Margot Neyret, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Imma Oliveras, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon-Junior, Edmar Almeida de Oliveira, Fábio Barbosa Passos, Rosa Castro Ccoscco, Josias Dos Santos, Simone Matias Reis, Paulo S Morandi, Gloria Rayme Paucar, Arturo Robles Cáceres, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Yovana Yllanes Choque, Norma Salinas, Alexander Shenkin, Gregory P Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J Enquist, Yadvinder Malhi
Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509751/limited-carbon-and-biodiversity-co-benefits-for-tropical-forest-mammals-and-birds
#18
Lydia Beaudrot, Kailin Kroetz, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Eda Amaral, Thomas Breuer, Christine Fletcher, Patrick A Jansen, David Kenfack, Marcela Guimarães Moreira Lima, Andrew R Marshall, Emanuel H Martin, Mireille Ndoundou-Hockemba, Timothy O'Brien, Jean Claude Razafimahaimodison, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Francesco Rovero, Cisquet Hector Roy, Douglas Sheil, Carlos E F Silva, Wilson Roberto Spironello, Renato Valencia, Alex Zvoleff, Jorge Ahumada, Sandy Andelman
The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon stock conservation will provide benefits to biodiversity in part because whether forests that contain high carbon density in their aboveground biomass also contain high animal diversity is unknown. Here, we empirically examined medium to large bodied ground-dwelling mammal and bird (hereafter "wildlife") diversity and carbon stock levels within the tropics using camera trap and vegetation data from a pantropical network of sites...
June 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489160/are-inter-and-intraspecific-variations-of-sapling-crown-traits-consistent-with-a-strategy-promoting-light-capture-in-tropical-moist-forest
#19
Marilyne Laurans, Gregoire Vincent
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Morphological variation in light-foraging strategies potentially plays important roles in efficient light utilization and carbon assimilation in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments such as tropical moist forest understorey. By considering a suite of morphological traits at various hierarchical scales, we examined the functional significance of crown shape diversity and plasticity in response to canopy openness. METHODS: We conducted a field comparative study in French Guiana among tree saplings of 14 co-occurring species differing in light-niche optimum and breadth...
August 3, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463359/variation-in-leaf-wettability-traits-along-a-tropical-montane-elevation-gradient
#20
Gregory R Goldsmith, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Norma Salinas, Benjamin Blonder, Roberta E Martin, Rosa Castro-Ccossco, Percy Chambi-Porroa, Sandra Diaz, Brian J Enquist, Gregory P Asner, Yadvinder Malhi
Leaf wetting is often considered to have negative effects on plant function, such that wet environments may select for leaves with certain leaf surface, morphological, and architectural traits that reduce leaf wettability. However, there is growing recognition that leaf wetting can have positive effects. We measured variation in two traits, leaf drip tips and leaf water repellency, in a series of nine tropical forest communities occurring along a 3300-m elevation gradient in southern Peru. To extend this climatic gradient, we also assembled published leaf water repellency values from 17 additional sites...
July 27, 2016: New Phytologist
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