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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454079/burnout-and-its-association-with-extracurricular-activities-among-medical-students-in-saudi-arabia
#1
Sami A Almalki, Abdullah I Almojali, Ali S Alothman, Emad M Masuadi, Meshal K Alaqeel
Objectives: To assess levels of burnout in medical students, and to explore the influence of extracurricular activities on burnout at a medical school in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with first to fourth year medical students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Socio-demographic, burnout level (the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, MBI-SS) and participation in extracurricular activities data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454059/outcome-focused-judgements-of-moral-dilemmas-in-schizophrenia
#2
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. "Is it morally okay to [perform X]?") and 1st-person (i...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453985/realising-the-dream-of-becoming-a-nurse-underrepresented-bsc-nursing-students-experiences
#3
Brid O'Brien, Margaret M Graham, Deirdre O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the experiences of underrepresented BSc nursing students in realising the dream of becoming a nurse in one university. In the past ten years, pre-registration nurse education has become established within higher education in Ireland. This development includes promoting access and inclusion of students from traditionally underrepresented groups in higher education. A third of nursing students currently access places on programmes through routes specifically designed for underrepresented groups...
April 18, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453978/oxytocin-attenuates-social-and-non-social-avoidance-re-thinking-the-social-specificity-of-oxytocin
#4
Osnat Harari-Dahan, Amit Bernstein
Re-examining decades of the social construal of Oxytocin, the General Approach-Avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO) predicts that Oxytocin will modulate responding to emotionally-evocative and personally-relevant social and non-social stimuli due to its action on the neural substrate of approach and avoidance motivation. We report the first critical experimental test of GAAO predictions by means of a double-blind intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin vs. placebo in 90 healthy adults (N=90, 50% women). As predicted, we found that among men and women for whom negative emotion (anxious arousal) is motivationally-relevant, intra-nasal administration of Oxytocin reduced behavioral avoidance of emotionally-evocative negatively-valenced social and non-social stimuli, but not closely matched emotionally-neutral stimuli...
April 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453924/correlates-of-common-mental-disorders-among-dutch-women-who-have-had-an-abortion-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#5
Jenneke van Ditzhuijzen, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Carolus H C J van Nijnatten, Wilma A M Vollebergh
CONTEXT: Credible research has not found any evidence that abortion causes mental disorders. It is not known, however, whether abortion-specific risk indicators and other variables are associated with the incidence or recurrence of mental disorders after abortion. METHODS: As part of a prospective cohort study conducted in the Netherlands, 325 women were interviewed between April 2010 and January 2011, between 20 and 40 days after having an abortion; 264 were followed up an average of 2...
April 28, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453642/facilitation-of-contextual-fear-extinction-by-orexin-1-receptor-antagonism-is-associated-with-the-activation-of-specific-amygdala-cell-subpopulations
#6
África Flores, Cyril Herry, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Background: Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides recently involved in the regulation of emotional memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), an area orchestrating fear memory processes, appears to be modulated by orexin transmission during fear extinction. However, the neuronal types within the BLA involved in this modulation remain to be elucidated. Methods: We used retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence techniques in mice to identify BLA projection neurons and cell subpopulations in this brain region influenced by orexin transmission during contextual fear extinction consolidation...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453573/how-reliable-and-valid-is-the-teacher-version-of-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-in-primary-school-children
#7
Meta van den Heuvel, Danielle E M C Jansen, Roy E Stewart, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Boudien C T Flapper
INTRODUCTION: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is validated for parents, but not yet for teachers in a broad age range of children. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 4-10 years old school children to investigate if the SDQ-T can be used instead of the validated but lengthy Teacher's Report Form (TRF) to acquire information about emotional and behavioral problems in the school community. METHODS: Teachers of 453 children from primary schools were approached...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453543/altered-resting-state-intra-and-inter-network-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-persistent-somatoform-pain-disorder
#8
Zhiyong Zhao, Tianming Huang, Chaozheng Tang, Kaiji Ni, Xiandi Pan, Chao Yan, Xiaoduo Fan, Dongrong Xu, Yanli Luo
Patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) usually experience various functional impairments in pain, emotion, and cognition, which cannot be fully explained by a physiological process or a physical disorder. However, it is still not clear for the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PSPD. The present study aimed to explore the intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) differences between PSPD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 13 PSPD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched HCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453500/rasch-derived-teachers-emotions-questionnaire
#9
Kristin L K Koskey, Renee R Mudrey, Wondimu Ahmed
The purpose of this research was to estimate the reliability of the scores produced from and validity of the inferences drawn from the revised 90-item Teachers' Emotion Questionnaire consisting of three measures: frequency of emotional expressivity, self-efficacy for regulation of emotional expressivity when teaching, and self-efficacy for regulation of context-specific emotional expressivity. A void exists in an instrument assessing teachers' regulation and communication of their emotions. One-hundred seventeen practicing teachers participated in this study at Time 1 and 46 at Time 2...
2017: Journal of Applied Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453400/what-s-love-got-to-do-with-it-investigating-consumer-commitment-in-health-care
#10
Elyria Kemp, Sonja Martin Poole
Building relationships with patients to create patient-centered care is critical to the success of health care organizations. A core element in relationships is commitment. Commitment may be based on affect and emotions, perceived costs, and even obligation. This research proposes that three types of commitment-affective, continuance, and normative commitment-differentially impact consumer purchase loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, and advocacy for a health care provider. To examine the impact of commitment type on consumer relationships, exploratory data were garnered and surveys were administered...
April 28, 2017: Health Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453300/psychiatry-sex-and-science-the-making-of-adolescent-motherhood-in-southern-brazil
#11
Dominique P Béhague
Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts' long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epistemic struggles, remedial interventions, and ontological politics...
April 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453297/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-use-and-its-association-with-emotional-status-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-a-solid-tumor-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Aelee Jang, Duck-Hee Kang, Dong Uk Kim
OBJECTIVES: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used widely in various populations for various purposes, including emotional support and improvement of quality of life (QOL). However, CAM use and purposes for using CAM are less clear among Korean patients with a solid tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of CAM use, and the association between CAM use and anxiety, depression, and QOL in patients with a solid tumor. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449364/the-association-between-peritraumatic-dissociation-and-ptsd-symptoms-the-mediating-role-of-negative-beliefs-about-the-self
#13
Johanna Thompson-Hollands, Janie J Jun, Denise M Sloan
Peritraumatic dissociation, a term used to describe a complex array of reactions to trauma, including depersonalization, derealization, and emotional numbness, has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a number of studies. Cognitive theory suggests that interpretations of traumatic events and reactions underlie the persistence of PTSD. The present study examined the associations among peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD symptoms in a group of trauma-exposed adults (N = 169)...
April 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449285/research-review-childhood-chronic-physical-illness-and-adult-emotional-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ekin Secinti, Ellen J Thompson, Marcus Richards, Darya Gaysina
BACKGROUND: Childhood chronic physical illness is associated with a greater vulnerability for emotional problems (i.e. depression and anxiety) in childhood. However, little is known about life-long effects of childhood chronic physical illness on mental health. The present study aims to systematically review evidence for associations between eight chronic physical illnesses with childhood onset (arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, type 1 diabetes, and epilepsy) and adult emotional problems...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449279/review-of-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-translated-into-languages-spoken-by-children-and-adolescents-of-refugee-background
#15
Yvonne Stolk, Ida Kaplan, Josef Szwarc
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), routinely used to screen for children's and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems, has been translated into at least 80 languages. As children of refugee background are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems resulting from their refugee experiences, this review examines whether SDQs translated into languages spoken by major refugee groups are validated and culturally equivalent to the original SDQ and sensitive to change following interventions...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449127/effects-of-emotional-valence-and-arousal-on-the-voice-perception-network
#16
Patricia E G Bestelmeyer, Sonja A Kotz, Pascal Belin
Several theories conceptualise emotions along two main dimensions: valence (a continuum from negative to positive) and arousal (a continuum that varies from low to high). These dimensions are typically treated as independent in many neuroimaging experiments, yet recent behavioural findings suggest that they are actually interdependent. This result has impact on neuroimaging design, analysis and theoretical development. We were interested in determining the extent of this interdependence both behaviourally and neuroanatomically, as well as teasing apart any activation that is specific to each dimension...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#17
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449066/childhood-maltreatment-and-psychological-well-being-in-later-life-the-mediating-effect-of-contemporary-relationships-with-the-abusive-parent
#18
Jooyoung Kong
Objectives: Parental childhood maltreatment has a negative impact on psychological well-being in adulthood. However, little is known about whether and how contemporary relationships with an abusive parent might explain the long-term harmful effects. Thus, this study aims to examine the mediating effect of later-life relationships with an abusive parent on the association between parental childhood maltreatment and psychological well-being. Methods: Using the 2004-2005 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, this study analyzed a total of 1,696 adults aged 65 years...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449049/professional-burnout-in-european-young-oncologists-results-of-the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-esmo-young-oncologists-committee-burnout-survey
#19
S Banerjee, R Califano, J Corral, E de Azambuja, L De Mattos-Arruda, V Guarneri, M Hutka, K Jordan, E Martinelli, G Mountzios, M A Ozturk, M Petrova, S Postel-Vinay, M Preusser, C Qvortrup, M N M Volkov, J Tabernero, D Olmos, M H Strijbos
Background: Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). Methods: A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with burnout...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#20
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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