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Diogo Taschetto, Sergio Luiz Vieira, Clara Roselina Angel, Catarina Stefanello, Liris Kindlein, Marco Antonio Ebbing, Cristina Tonial Simões
A study was conducted to investigate Fe requirements of broiler breeders. One-hundred-fifty-six Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens were individually placed in electrostatically painted cages at 22 weeks. The study was composed of an adaptation phase, in which hens were fed corn-soy-wheat bran diets until 35 wks. An Fe deficient mash diet (24.6 ppm Fe) was provided from 35 to 46 wk in order to induce a partial body Fe depletion. A production phase followed from 47 to 70 wk when hens were fed 6 diets with increasing Fe sulfate supplementation, which, upon analyses had 24...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Susanne Löffler, Axel Wuttke, Bo Zhang, Julian J Holstein, Ricardo A Mata, Guido H Clever
A halide-triggered metallosupramolecular host was systematically studied for the uptake of small neutral molecules using NMR and MS experiments. Starting from benzene, cyclic guests were screened with respect to size (ring count), shape (flatness, 3D structure, substitution pattern, flexibility) and hetero atom content (number, position, donor character). 5-Rings and substituted 5/6-rings bind only weakly, while oversized (e.g. naphthalene, adamantane, ferrocene) and linear alkanes do not bind at all. Bridged 6-rings of the norbornane type and in particular DABCO bind strongly, likewise other guests with oppositely arranged hetero atoms...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
M C Herrera, K A Konda, S R Leon, B Brown, G M Calvo, H J Salvatierra, C F Caceres, J D Klausner, R Deiss
Alcohol abuse can influence sexual risk behavior; however, its measurement is not straightforward. This study compared self-reported alcohol use, via the AUDIT and CAGE, with levels of phosphatidylethanol (Peth), a phospholipid biomarker that forms with chronic, heavy drinking, among high-risk MSM and TW in Lima, Peru. Chi square, Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon ranksum tests compared the instruments. Receiver operating curves determined sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported measures. Among 69 MSM and 17 TW, PEth was positive for 86% (95% CI 77-93%) of participants, while 67% reported binge-drinking in the last 2 weeks...
October 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Deepak K Sharma, Spencer T Adams, Kate L Liebmann, Stephen C Miller
Light-emitting firefly luciferin analogues contain electron-donating groups in the 6'-position, but the scope of known 6'-substitution remains narrow. A two-step route to a broad range of 6'-substituted luciferin analogues was developed to fill this void and enable more extensive study of the 6'-functionality. This chemistry allowed direct access to "caged" amide and bright azetidine analogues, but also revealed thioether inhibitors and unexpectedly luminogenic aryl amine derivatives.
October 17, 2017: Organic Letters
Ibrahim O Farah, Carlene Holt-Gray, Joseph A Cameron, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi
The role of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of hypervitaminosis A pathophysiology is not well understood or established in the literature. As well, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function; a non-toxic chemical that exists in two forms (diethyl; C1 or cis-trans dimethyl; C2).) in the reversal of pathophysiological implications is also not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ovalbumin exposure will sensitize the body to supra-physiologic levels of retinoic acid leading to a negative pathophysiological impact and that Citrals 1 and 2 will reverse or ameliorate the related damage to the body's pathophysiology...
March 2017: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Ibrahim O Farah, Carlene Holt-Gray, Joseph A Cameron, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi
The paradoxical role of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of allergic and/or inflammatory complications in contrast to a therapeutic modality for lung pathology is not well understood or established in the literature. As well, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function; a non-toxic chemical that exists in two forms (diethyl; C1 or cis-trans dimethyl; C2), in the reversal of retinoic acid, ovalbumin and allergic mold spore pathophysiology is also not well ascertained under an in vivo setting...
March 2017: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Elena D Stavrovskaya, Tejasvi Niranjan, Elana J Fertig, Sarah J Wheelan, Alexander V Favorov, Andrey A Mironov
Motivation: Genomics features with similar genome-wide distributions are generally hypothesized to be functionally related, for example, colocalization of histones and transcription start sites indicate chromatin regulation of transcription factor activity. Therefore, statistical algorithms to perform spatial, genome-wide correlation among genomic features are required. Results: Here, we propose a method, StereoGene, that rapidly estimates genome-wide correlation among pairs of genomic features...
October 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
Toru Yamagata, Kentaro Naito, Masaki Yoshimura, Kenji Ohata, Toshihiro Takami
BACKGROUND: Postoperative oropharyngeal complications such as dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery are some of the least discussed surgery-related complications. The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the incidence and possible risk factors for 30-day postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 152 consecutive patients who underwent 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage in our institutes...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
V V Novikov, K S Pilipenko, A V Matovnikov, N V Mitroshenkov, B I Kornev, M S Likhanov, A S Tyablikov, A V Shevelkov
The temperature dependencies of heat capacity, CP(T), and cubic unit cell parameter, a(T), were experimentally obtained in the range of 2-300 K for the compounds Sn24P19.2I8, Sn20Zn4P20.8I8, and Sn17Zn7P22I8, which belong to a family of type-I clathrates. The experimental data were analyzed in the frames of the Debye-Einstein approximation, further accounting for the contributions of positional disorder in the clathrate frameworks as well as those of defect modes arising from the distribution of guest atoms over unequal in energy but close in space positions inside the framework cages...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andrew M Hammond, Kyros Kyrou, Marco Bruttini, Ace North, Roberto Galizi, Xenia Karlsson, Nace Kranjc, Francesco M Carpi, Romina D'Aurizio, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan
Gene drives have enormous potential for the control of insect populations of medical and agricultural relevance. By preferentially biasing their own inheritance, gene drives can rapidly introduce genetic traits even if these confer a negative fitness effect on the population. We have recently developed gene drives based on CRISPR nuclease constructs that are designed to disrupt key genes essential for female fertility in the malaria mosquito. The construct copies itself and the associated genetic disruption from one homologous chromosome to another during gamete formation, a process called homing that ensures the majority of offspring inherit the drive...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
S Sanz, H M O'Connor, V Martí-Centelles, P Comar, M B Pitak, S J Coles, G Lorusso, E Palacios, M Evangelisti, A Baldansuren, N F Chilton, H Weihe, E J L McInnes, P J Lusby, S Piligkos, E K Brechin
A family of five [MIII2MII3] (n+) trigonal bipyramidal cages (M(III) = Fe, Cr and Al; M(II) = Co, Zn and Pd; n = 0 for 1-3 and n = 6 for 4-5) of formulae [Fe2Co3L6Cl6] (1), [Fe2Zn3L6Br6] (2), [Cr2Zn3L6Br6] (3), [Cr2Pd3L6(dppp)3](OTf)6 (4) and [Al2Pd3L6(dppp)3](OTf)6 (5) (where HL is 1-(4-pyridyl)butane-1,3-dione and dppp is 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) are reported. Neutral cages 1-3 were synthesised using the tritopic [M(III)L3] metalloligand in combination with the salts Co(II)Cl2 and Zn(II)Br2, which both act as tetrahedral linkers...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Fabio Gualtieri, Catherine Brégère, Grace C Laws, Elena A Armstrong, Nicholas J Wylie, Theo T Moxham, Raphael Guzman, Timothy Boswell, Tom V Smulders
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maria Zuccaro, James Zuccaro, Amer F Samdani, Joshua M Pahys, Steven W Hwang
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) involves the use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (TceMEPs). In this retrospective study the authors examined the sensitivity and specificity of both SSEPs and TceMEPs during pediatric spinal deformity surgeries. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective quantitative analysis of data obtained in 806 patients (197 males and 609 females) treated from December 2011 until October 2015. All patients were diagnosed with scoliosis that was classified as one of the following: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) (38%), congenital scoliosis (22%), or syndromic scoliosis (40%)...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
J P Cleland, E F Willis, P F Bartlett, J Vukovic
Activated neurons express immediate-early genes, such as Arc. Expression of Arc in the hippocampal granule cell layer, an area crucial for spatial learning and memory, is increased during acquisition of spatial learning; however, it is unclear whether this effect is related to the task-specific learning process or to nonspecific aspects of the testing procedure (e.g. exposure to the testing apparatus and exploration of the environment). Herein, we show that Arc-positive cells numbers are increased to the same extent in the granule cell layer after both acquisition of a single spatial learning event in the active place avoidance task and exploration of the testing environment, as compared to naïve (i...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ashwin Malhotra, Qin Rao, Sean Kelly, Danielle Schwartz, Robert Chow
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a leading of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. However, there are few documented cases in immunocompetent patients. We present a rare case of disseminated Cryptococcus with progression to meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient, with a possible atypical presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram to rule out brain metastasis were negative. Lumbar puncture resulted positive for Cryptococcus neoformans antigen at titers of 1:2048 and a detailed history later revealed occupational exposure to bird dander by cleaning floors and cages...
September 15, 2017: Clinics and Practice
Richard K Gast, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Jean Guard, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonella persistence and transmission. Animal welfare aspects of poultry housing have been widely debated, but their food safety ramifications are not thoroughly understood. The present study assessed the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the frequency and duration of fecal shedding of strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Frank R Wagner, Qiang Zheng, Roman Gumeniuk, David Bende, Yurii Prots, Matej Bobnar, Dong-Li Hu, Ulrich Burkhardt, Yuri Grin, Andreas Leithe-Jasper
The compounds MNi21B20 (M = In, Sn) have been synthesized and their cubic crystal structure determined (space group Pm3[combining macron]m, lattice parameters a = 7.1730(1) Å and a = 7.1834(1) Å, respectively). The structure can be described as a hierarchical partitioning of space based on a reo-e net formed by Ni3 species with large cubical, cuboctahedral and rhombicuboctahedral voids being filled according to [Ni1@Ni38], [M@Ni312], and [Ni26@B20@Ni324], respectively. The [Ni6@B20] motif inside the rhombicuboctahedral voids features an empty [Ni6] octahedron surrounded by a [B20] cage recently described in E2Ni21B20 (E = Zn, Ga)...
October 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
E M Cabaleiro-Lago, J Rodríguez-Otero, J A Carrazana-García
The complexation of the pristine fullerenes C60 and C70 and the endohedral fullerenes Sc3N@C80 and Sc3N@C68 has been tested using a series of hosts of different nature, including the buckybowls corannulene and sumanene, a zinc porphyrin, a chloro boron subphthalocyanine, and a corannulene pentasubstituted with nitrile groups. A systematic theoretical study has been carried out in order to explore both the strength of the interaction and the feasibility for electron transfer of the dimers. Dispersion is the main stabilizing contribution in these dimers, so both molecules orientate so as to maximize the number of close contacts among atoms...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shan Su, Fu-Sheng Du, Zi-Chen Li
Maleamic acid derivatives as weakly acid-sensitive linkers or caging groups have been used widely in smart delivery systems. Here we report on the controlled synthetic methods to mono- and dialkyl substituted maleamic acids and their pH-dependent hydrolysis behaviors. Firstly, we studied the reaction between n-butylamine and citraconic anhydride, and found that the ratio of the two n-butyl citraconamic acid isomers (α and β) could be finely tuned by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Secondly, we investigated the effects of solvent, basic catalyst, and temperature on the reaction of n-butylamine with 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, and optimized the reaction conditions to efficiently synthesize the dimethylmaleamic acids...
October 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
P Regmi, N Nelson, R C Haut, M W Orth, D M Karcher
This study was aimed at analyzing bone properties of Lohmann White hens in different commercial housing systems at various points throughout production. Pullets reared in conventional cages (CC) were either continued in CC or moved to enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. Pullets reared in cage-free aviaries (AV) were moved to AV hen houses. Bone samples were collected from 60 hens at each of 18 and 72 wk and 30 hens at 26 and 56 wk from each housing system. Left tibiae and humeri were broken under uniform bending to analyze mechanical properties...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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