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Chul-Hwan Lee, Jia-Ray Yu, Sunil Kumar, Ying Jin, Gary LeRoy, Natarajan Bhanu, Syuzo Kaneko, Benjamin A Garcia, Andrew D Hamilton, Danny Reinberg
PRC2 is a therapeutic target for several types of cancers currently undergoing clinical trials. Its activity is regulated by a positive feedback loop whereby its terminal enzymatic product, H3K27me3, is specifically recognized and bound by an aromatic cage present in its EED subunit. The ensuing allosteric activation of the complex stimulates H3K27me3 deposition on chromatin. Here we report a stepwise feedback mechanism entailing key residues within distinctive interfacing motifs of EZH2 or EED that are found to be mutated in cancers and/or Weaver syndrome...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
Keita Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Masakazu Kikai, Kensuke Terada, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Kami, Takehiro Ogata, Masakazu Ibi, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Satoaki Matoba
Depression is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the causal association remains undefined. We exposed mice to repeated social defeat (RSD) to precipitate depressive-like behaviors, and investigated the effects on atherosclerosis. Eight-week-old male apoE-/- mice were exposed to RSD by housing with a larger CD-1 mouse in a shared home cage. They were subjected to vigorous physical contact daily for 10 consecutive days and fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 6 weeks. The social interaction ratio and immobility time showed dramatic social avoidance before and after HCD feeding...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Audrius Mikalauskas, Rimantas Benetis, Edmundas Širvinskas, Judita Andrejaitienė, Šarūnas Kinduris, Andrius Macas, Žilvinas Padaiga
Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. Methods: In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
Mojtaba Naghshvarian, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast, Seyedeh Fatemeh Sajjadi
BACKGROUND: Research evidence shows that exercise is associated with positive physical and mental health. Moreover, exercise and wheel running in rats activate overlapping neural systems and reward system. The most commonly used models for the study of rewarding and aversive effects of exercise involve using treadmill and wheel running paradigms in mice or rats. The purpose of our experiment was to study the influence of continuous voluntary exercise on exercise-seeking behavior. METHODS: In this experimental study, we used 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 275-300 g on average...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Hiroshi Murakami
Persistent optical hole-burning spectroscopy has been conducted for a dye molecule within a very small (∼1 nm) reverse micelle at room temperature. The spectra show a spectral narrowing due to site-selective excitation. This definitely demonstrates that the surroundings of the dye molecule are in a glassy state regardless of a solution at room temperature. On the other hand, the hole-burning spectra exhibit large shifts from excitation frequencies, and their positions are almost independent of excitation frequencies...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
El-Desouky Ammar, David G Hall, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Michelle Heck
Genetic variability in insect vectors is valuable to study vector competence determinants and to select non-vector populations that may help reduce the spread of vector-borne pathogens. We collected and tested vector competency of 15 isofemale lines of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). CLas is associated with huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri adults were collected from orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) hedges in Florida, and individual pairs (females and males) were caged on healthy Murraya plants for egg laying...
2018: PloS One
Nissim Ohana, Daniel Benharroch, Dimitri Sheinis
A 26-year-old man, who was paraplegic for 6 years due to a motor vehicle accident, presented to the authors' clinic following his incapacity to withstand a sitting posture, the frequent sensation of "clicks" in his back, and a complaint of back pain while in his wheelchair. On imaging, his dorsal spine showed a complete arthrodesis of the primarily fused vertebrae. However, distal to this segment, a Charcot spinal arthropathy with subluxation of T12-L1 was evident. Repair of this complex, uncommon, late complication of his paraplegia by the frequently used fusion techniques was shown to be inappropriate...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Lyvia Lopes Miranda, Luciana Schulthais Altoé, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Virgínia Vinha Zanuncio, João Paulo Viana Leite, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves
Natural substances are used in folk medicines to treat injuries. Strychnos pseudoquina has scarring, antipyretic, and antimalarial actions. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of S. pseudoquina on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The S. pseudoquina extract was submitted to phytochemical prospection. The levels of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds in the extract were 50.7 mg/g and 2.59 mg/g, respectively. Thirty Wistar rats were individualized in cages with food and water ad libitum (registration no...
2018: PloS One
Yongjun Choi, Eun Chae Lee, Youngjun Na, Sang Rak Lee
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with fermented and non-fermented brown algae by-products on the laying performance, egg quality, relative organ weight, and blood profile of laying hens. Methods: Hy-Line Brown chickens (n = 180; 70-week-old) were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group (3 hens per cage, 4 cages per replicate), and fed with 5 experimental diets, namely the basal control diet (CON) or the control diet supplemented with 0...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Zhenchen Yin, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Xiaojun Yang
Our previous study indicated that paternal dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could induce endotoxin tolerance-like response in jejunum of offspring chickens. There exist positive interaction between intestinal mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. So we studied the transgenerational effect and nutri-epigenetic role of paternal dietary APS on spleen immunity. 64 one-day-old Avein breeder cocks were used in a single-factor design with 0 and 10 g/kg APS, respectively, 4 replicated cages each group, and 8 birds each cage...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dries Vandeweyer, Enya Wynants, Sam Crauwels, Christel Verreth, Nikolaas Viaene, Johan Claes, Bart Lievens, Leen Van Campenhout
In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus , was investigated. To this end, samples were analyzed of the cricket feed, before feeding as well as taken from the cages, and the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and subsequently oven-dried end products. Although the feed contained lower microbial numbers than the crickets, both were dominated by the same species-level operational taxonomic units as determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mamoona Chaudhry, Hamad B Rashid, Angélique Angot, Michael Thrusfield, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Susan C Welburn, Mark C Eisler
This study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with AIV infections in live bird retail stalls (LBRS) in Lahore District, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey of LBRS was conducted from December 2009-February 2010 using two-stage cluster sampling based on probability proportional to size. A total of 280 oropharyngeal swab sample pools were collected from 1400 birds in 8 clusters and tested by qRT-PCR for the matrix (M) gene of type A influenza virus and HA gene subtypes H9, H5 and H7. Thirty-four (34) samples were positive for the M gene, of which 28 were also positive for H9...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandy Koenig, Janne Bredehöft, Alexander Perniss, Franziska Fuchs, Joachim Roth, Christoph Rummel
Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin (NF-IL)6 can be used as an activation marker for inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and psychological novel environment stress (NES) in the rat brain. Here, we aimed to investigate age dependent changes of hypothalamic and pituitary responses to NES (cage switch) or LPS (100 μg/kg) in 2 and 24 months old rats. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, blood and brains withdrawn and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and bioassays...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Hiroya Seta, Daisuke Maki, Akihito Kazuno, Ippei Yamato, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Shuichi Soeda, Yoshiyasu Uchiyama, Tetsuro Tamaki
The therapeutic effects of voluntary exercise on the recovery of long-gap nerve injury following the bridging of an acellular conduit filled with human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) have been described. Human Sk-SCs were sorted as CD34⁺/45- (Sk-34) cells, then cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks. Surgery to generate a long-gap sciatic nerve injury was performed in athymic nude mice, after which the mice were divided into exercise (E) and non-exercise (NE) groups. The mice were housed in standard individual cages, and voluntary exercise wheels were introduced to the cages of the E group one week after surgery...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sarah Thurston, Lisa Burlingame, Patrick A Lester, Jennifer Lofgren
New Zealand White (NZW) laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), as well as their ancestors the European Rabbit, are a social species that exhibit numerous benefits to being housed accordingly. Although these rabbits are innately gregarious, certain behaviors can still arise when kept in captivity, which if left unchecked, can confound research results or lead to wounding, which in extreme cases can be severe. To prevent these issues, there must be a well-structured plan for the monitoring and maintenance of paired laboratory rabbits...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yanlong Wang, Wei Liu, Zhuanling Bai, Tao Zheng, Mark A Silver, Yuxiang Li, Yaxing Wang, Xia Wang, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Shuao Wang
Actinide based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are unique not only because compared to the transition metal and lanthanide systems, they are substantially less explored, but also owing to the uniqueness of actinide ions in bonding and coordination. We report here a new 3D thorium-organic framework (SCU-11) that contains a series of cages with an effective size of ca. 21  24 Å. Th4+ in SCU-11 is 10-coordinate with a new bicapped square prism coordination geometry, which has never been documented for any metal cation complexes before...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
John P Richard, Tina L Amyes, Archie C Reyes
The mystery associated with catalysis by what were once regarded as protein black boxes, diminished with the X-ray crystallographic determination of the three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. The report that several high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) failed to provide a consensus mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP to form uridine 5'-monophosphate, therefore, provoked a flurry of controversy. This controversy was fueled by the enormous 1023 -fold rate acceleration for this enzyme, which had " jolted many biochemists' assumptions about the catalytic potential of enzymes...
March 29, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yue Wu, Trevor Binford, Joshua A Hill, Sammy Shaker, John Wang, Anthony K Cheetham
Following the recent discovery of the [A]Mn(H2POO)3 (H2POO- = hypophosphite) perovskite family, we report the A = [NH2(CH3)2]+ (dimethylammonium, DMA) member. This phase shows an unusually large unit cell due to the position of the A-site cation within the perovskite cage windows rather than the centre, as is the norm. We discuss the tendency of the hypophosphite perovskite skeleton to accommodate differently shaped A-site cations through the generation of unconventional tilts and columnar shifts, then enumerate these tilts and shifts for all known [A]Mn(H2POO)3 phases...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Muluken Yayeh, Shimelis Dagnachew, Meseret Tilahun, Achenef Melaku, Tadegegn Mitiku, Mohamed Yesuf, Zewdu Seyoum, Habtamu Kefyalew
The current study was undertaken from December 2015 to May 2016 with the aim of determining and comparing the pathogenicity and response to diminazene aceturate (DA) and isometamidium chloride (ISM) treatment in experimentally infected mice with trypanosome isolates from Jawi and Birsheleko areas of northwest Ethiopia. A total of 42 mice were used for the experiment. These mice were randomly assigned in to 7 groups of 6 mice per group. Three of the groups (Group 1, 4 and 5) were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Jawi and three other groups (Group-2, 6 and 7) were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Birsheleko and the remaining one group (Group 3) was negative control...
February 2018: Heliyon
Shakthi Rk Devan, Suresh Vasu, Yogesha Mallikarjuna, Ramkumar Ponraj, Gireesh Kamath, Suresh Poosala
Biodecontamination is important for eliminating pathogens at research animal facilities, thereby preventing contamination within barrier systems. We enhanced our facility's standard biodecontamination method to replace the traditional foggers, and the new system was used effectively after creating bypass ducts in HVAC units so that individual rooms could be isolated. The entire system was controlled by inhouse-developed supervisory control and data-acquisition software that supported multiple cycles of decontamination by equipment, which had different decontamination capacities, operated in parallel, and used different agents, including H2O2 vapor and ClO2 gas...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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