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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922365/isothiocyanate-enriched-moringa-seed-extract-alleviates-ulcerative-colitis-symptoms-in-mice
#1
Youjin Kim, Alex G Wu, Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Brittany L Graf, Carrie Waterman, Michael P Verzi, Ilya Raskin
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920942/exponential-growth-and-selection-in-self-replicating-materials-from-dna-origami-rafts
#2
Xiaojin He, Ruojie Sha, Rebecca Zhuo, Yongli Mi, Paul M Chaikin, Nadrian C Seeman
Self-replication and evolution under selective pressure are inherent phenomena in life, and but few artificial systems exhibit these phenomena. We have designed a system of DNA origami rafts that exponentially replicates a seed pattern, doubling the copies in each diurnal-like cycle of temperature and ultraviolet illumination, producing more than 7 million copies in 24 cycles. We demonstrate environmental selection in growing populations by incorporating pH-sensitive binding in two subpopulations. In one species, pH-sensitive triplex DNA bonds enable parent-daughter templating, while in the second species, triplex binding inhibits the formation of duplex DNA templating...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917881/structural-characterization-and-rheological-properties-of-a-galactomannan-from-astragalus-gombo-bunge-seeds-harvested-in-algerian-sahara
#3
T Chouana, G Pierre, C Vial, C Gardarin, A Wadouachi, D Cailleu, D Le Cerf, Z Boual, M D Ould El Hadj, P Michaud, C Delattre
A water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) was extracted and purified from Astragalus gombo seeds (Fabaceae) harvested in Septentrional Sahara (Ouargla, Algeria) with a yield of 6.8% (w/w of the dry seed ground). It was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC-MS), size exclusion chromatography with Multi-Angle Light Scattering analysis (SEC-MALLS), high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR, and rheological measurements. The structural characterization indicated that this WSP fraction is a galactomannan with a mannose/galactose ratio of 1...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917149/a-comparison-study-between-electrospun-polycaprolactone-and-piezoelectric-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#4
Svetlana N Gorodzha, Albert R Muslimov, Dina S Syromotina, Alexander S Timin, Nikolai Y Tcvetkov, Kirill V Lepik, Aleksandra V Petrova, Maria A Surmeneva, Dmitry A Gorin, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Roman A Surmenev
In this study, bone scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), piezoelectric poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and a combination of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and silicate containing hydroxyapatite (PHBV-SiHA) were successfully fabricated by a conventional electrospinning process. The morphological, chemical, wetting and biological properties of the scaffolds were examined. All fabricated scaffolds are composed of randomly oriented fibres with diameters from 800nm to 12μm...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915785/seed-maturation-associated-transcriptional-programs-and-regulatory-networks-underlying-genotypic-difference-in-seed-dormancy-and-size-weight-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Yuji Yamasaki, Feng Gao, Mark C Jordan, Belay T Ayele
BACKGROUND: Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype...
September 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914738/age-related-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-olfactory-and-trigeminal-networks
#6
Prasanna Karunanayaka, Michael J Tobia, Qing X Yang
Brain networks for intranasal chemosensation have been shown to be intrinsically organized in humans . However, little is known about how changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in chemosensory networks are related to aging. We, therefore, investigated the impact of age on resting-state FC in the olfactory and trigeminal networks (ON and TN) by combining two freely available resting-state fMRI data sets (obtained from the NITRC.org; Atlanta and New York) with data collected in our lab to generate a large sample size (N=103; 51 women) spanning the age range of 20-61 years...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914400/an-in-vivo-study-on-endothelialized-vascular-grafts-produced-by-autologous-biotubes-and-adipose-stem-cells-adscs
#7
Yu Chieh Tseng, Jun Neng Roan, Ying Chiang Ho, Chih Chan Lin, Ming Long Yeh
Currently, commercial synthetic vascular grafts made from Dacron and ePTFE for small-diameter, vascular applications (<6 mm) show limited reendothelization and are less compliant, often resulting in thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Although good blood compatibility can be achieved in autologous arteries and veins, the number of high quality harvest sites is limited, and the grafts are size-mismatched for use in the fistula or cardiovascular bypass surgery; thus, alternative small graft substitutes must be developed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912505/biomimetic-silica-nanoparticles-prepared-by-a-combination-of-solid-phase-imprinting-and-ostwald-ripening
#8
Elena Piletska, Heersh Yawer, Francesco Canfarotta, Ewa Moczko, Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty, Stanislav S Piletsky, Antonio Guerreiro, Michael J Whitcombe, Sergey A Piletsky
Herein we describe the preparation of molecularly imprinted silica nanoparticles by Ostwald ripening in the presence of molecular templates immobilised on glass beads (the solid-phase). To achieve this, a seed material (12 nm diameter silica nanoparticles) was incubated in phosphate buffer in the presence of the solid-phase. Phosphate ions act as a catalyst in the ripening process which is driven by differences in surface energy between particles of different size, leading to the preferential growth of larger particles...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911827/single-site-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-staging-surgery-for-presumed-clinically-early-stage-ovarian-cancer
#9
Ji Geun Yoo, Woo Jin Kim, Keun Ho Lee
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To present the demonstration of Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site(R-LESS) staging surgery in presumed clinically early stage ovarian cancer. DESIGN: A step-by-step presentation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: A university hospital. INTERVENTION: A 29-year-old woman was referred from a local clinic for an 8x6cm sized left ovarian tumor suggesting malignancy...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910535/emergence-of-a-new-self-replicator-from-a-dynamic-combinatorial-library-requires-a-specific-pre-existing-replicator
#10
Yigit Altay, Meniz Tezcan, Sijbren Otto
Our knowledge regarding the early steps in the formation of evolvable life and what constitutes the minimal molecular basis of life remains far from complete. The recent emergence of systems chemistry reinvigorated the investigation of systems of self-replicating molecules to address these questions. Most of these studies focus on single replicators and the effects of replicators on the emergence of other replicators remains under-investigated. Here we show the cross-catalyzed emergence of a novel self-replicator from a dynamic combinatorial library made from a threonine containing peptide building block, which, by itself, only forms trimers and tetramers that do not replicate...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904403/an-in-planta-biolistic-method-for-stable-wheat-transformation
#11
Haruyasu Hamada, Qianyan Linghu, Yozo Nagira, Ryuji Miki, Naoaki Taoka, Ryozo Imai
The currently favoured method for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation is inapplicable to many elite cultivars because it requires callus culture and regeneration. Here, we developed a simple, reproducible, in planta wheat transformation method using biolistic DNA delivery without callus culture or regeneration. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) grown from dry imbibed seeds were exposed under a microscope and subjected to bombardment with different-sized gold particles coated with the GFP gene construct, introducing DNA into the L2 cell layer...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903734/transcriptomic-profiling-of-genes-in-matured-dimorphic-seeds-of-euhalophyte-suaeda-salsa
#12
Yange Xu, Yuanqin Zhao, Huimin Duan, Na Sui, Fang Yuan, Jie Song
BACKGROUND: Suaeda salsa (S. salsa) is a euhalophyte with high economic value. S. salsa can produce dimorphic seeds. Brown seeds are more salt tolerant, can germinate quickly and maintain the fitness of the species under high saline conditions. Black seeds are less salt tolerant, may become part of the seed bank and germinate when soil salinity is reduced. Previous reports have mainly focused on the ecophysiological traits of seed germination and production under saline conditions in this species...
September 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902161/biological-evaluation-of-flexible-polyurethane-poly-l-lactic-acid-composite-scaffold-as-a-potential-filler-for-bone-regeneration
#13
Yuk Fai Lui, Wing Yuk Ip
Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue...
September 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900434/contrasting-effects-of-extreme-drought-and-snowmelt-patterns-on-mountain-plants-along-an-elevation-gradient
#14
Sergey Rosbakh, Annette Leingärtner, Bernhard Hoiss, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Peter Poschlod
Despite the evidence that increased frequency and magnitude of extreme climate events (ECE) considerably affect plant performance, there is still a lack of knowledge about how these events affect mountain plant biodiversity and mountain ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed the short-term (one vegetation period) effects of simulated ECEs [extreme drought (DR), advanced and delayed snowmelt (AD and DE), respectively] on the performance of 42 plant species occurring in the Bavarian Alps (Germany) along an elevational gradient of 600-2000 m a...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898756/bioreactor-culture-duration-of-engineered-constructs-influences-bone-formation-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Debika Mitra, Jacklyn Whitehead, Osamu W Yasui, J Kent Leach
Perfusion culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in biomaterial scaffolds provides nutrients for cell survival, enhances extracellular matrix deposition, and increases osteogenic cell differentiation. However, there is no consensus on the appropriate perfusion duration of cellular constructs in vitro to boost their bone forming capacity in vivo. We investigated this phenomenon by culturing human MSCs in macroporous composite scaffolds in a direct perfusion bioreactor and compared their response to scaffolds in continuous dynamic culture conditions on an XYZ shaker...
September 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898659/the-abc-model-of-floral-development
#16
Vivian Irish
Flowers are organized into concentric whorls of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, with each of these floral organ types having a unique role in reproduction (Figure 1). Sepals enclose and protect the flower bud, while petals can be large and showy so as to attract pollinators (or people!). Stamens produce pollen grains that contain male gametes, while the carpels contain the ovules that when fertilized will produce the seeds. While the size, shape, number and elaboration of each of these organ types can be quite different, the same general organization of four floral organ types arranged in concentric whorls exists across all flowering plant (angiosperm) species...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898654/plant-cell-walls
#17
Herman Höfte, Aline Voxeur
Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895865/long-term-culture-and-differentiation-of-porcine-red-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-cells-co-cultured-with-immortalized-mesenchymal-cells
#18
Abubakar Garba, Delphine D Acar, Inge D M Roukaerts, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Bert Devriendt, Hans J Nauwynck
Mesenchymal cells are multipotent stromal cells with self-renewal, differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities. We aimed to develop a co-culture model for differentiating hematopoietic cells on top of immortalized mesenchymal cells for studying interactions between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, useful for adequately exploring the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the survival, proliferation and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells for a period of five weeks...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894020/transcription-factor-oswrky53-positively-regulates-brassinosteroid-signaling-and-plant-architecture
#19
Xiaojie Tian, Xiufeng Li, Wenjia Zhou, Yuekun Ren, Zhenyu Wang, Zhiqi Liu, Jiaqi Tang, Hongning Tong, Jun Fang, Qingyun Bu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid hormones regulating multiple aspects of plant growth, development, and adaptation. Compared with extensive studies in Arabidopsis, the mechanism of BR signaling in rice is less understood. Here, we identified OsWRKY53, a transcription factor involved in defense responses, as an important regulator of rice BR signaling. Phenotypic analyses showed that OsWRKY53 overexpression led to enlarged leaf angles and increased grain size, in contrast to the erect leaves and smaller seeds in oswrky53 mutant...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893630/engineered-axially-vascularized-osteogenic-grafts-from-human-adipose-derived-cells-to-treat-avascular-necrosis-of-bone-in-a-rat-model
#20
Tarek Ismail, Rik Osinga, Atanas Todorov, Alexander Haumer, Laurent A Tchang, Christian Epple, Nima Allafi, Nadia Menzi, René D Largo, Alexandre Kaempfen, Ivan Martin, Dirk J Schaefer, Arnaud Scherberich
BACKGROUND: Avascular necrosis of bone (AVN) leads to sclerosis and collapse of bone and joints. The standard of care, vascularized bone grafts, is limited by donor site morbidity and restricted availability. The aim of this study was to generate and test engineered, axially vascularized SVF cells-based bone substitutes in a rat model of AVN. METHODS: SVF cells were isolated from lipoaspirates and cultured onto porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds within a perfusion-based bioreactor system for 5 days...
September 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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