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Seed size

Sonam Verma, Alka Srivastava
Environmental pollution is one of the major problems of these days. One of the reasons of environmental pollution is the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals in agriculture. Fungicides are being extensively used in agriculture for enhancing crop yield and growth by controlling fungal growth. Fungicide carbendazim is widely applied to soil and seeds of vegetable/cereal crops in India and is effective against a very broad spectrum of fungi. The present study was designed to monitor the cyto-genotoxic effects of carbendazim directly in treated soils by cytogenetical analysis using Allium cepa root tip bioassay...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Gileung Lee, Kang-Ie Lee, Yunjoo Lee, Backki Kim, Dongryung Lee, Jeonghwan Seo, Su Jang, Joong Hyoun Chin, Hee-Jong Koh
The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage...
March 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Henok D Belayneh, Randy L Wehling, Yue Zhang, Ozan N Ciftci
Camelina sativa seed is an underutilized oil source rich in omega-3 fatty acids; however, camelina oil is not fully explored for food applications. Its high omega-3 content makes it susceptible to oxidation, which may limit food applications. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of camelina seed oil to form physically and oxidatively stable emulsions as a potential delivery system for omega-3 fatty acids. Effects of homogenization conditions, namely, pressure (15 MPa-30 MPa), number of passes (1,3,5, and 7), and type of homogenizers (high pressure and high shear) on the structural properties and stability of camelina seed oil emulsions stabilized with whey protein isolate were studied...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Sonia R Lakhotia, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay, Premlata Kumari
In this paper, a new approach to synthesize thin-film nanocomposite membranes using cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) by pre-seeding interfacial polymerization method was reported. Prepared membranes were examined using contact angle, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to observe its hydrophilicity, pore size, morphology, surface chemistry, and roughness, respectively. Surface charges of the prepared membranes were also qualitatively calculated with the help of contact angle measurements by using the Grahame equation...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gerald Guerin, Paul A Rupar, Ian Manners, Mitchell A Winnik
Enhanced control over crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) of coil-crystalline block copolymers has led to the formation of intricate structures with well-defined morphology and dimensions. While approaches to build those sophisticated structures may strongly differ from each other, they all share a key cornerstone: a polymer crystallite. Here we report a trapping technique that enables tracking of the change in length of one-dimensional (1D) polymer crystallites as they are annealed in solution at different temperatures...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Michael Mader, Valerie Jerome, Ruth Freitag, Seema Agarwal, Andreas Greiner
Ultraporous, biodegradable sponges made of either polylactide or of blends of polylactide/poly(ε caprolactone) are prepared by freeze-drying of dispersions of short electrospun fibers and subsequent thermal annealing. The sponges feature ultrahigh porosity (99.6 %), a hierarchical cellular structure, and high reversible compressibility with fast recovery from deformation in the dry as well as in wet state. The sponge properties depend on the fiber dispersion concentration and the annealing temperature. Sponge characteristics like fiber density (2...
March 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Ji Hoon Lee, Kyoung Doo Song, Dong Ik Cha, Seung Hyup Hyun
PURPOSE: To identify differential clinical and imaging findings between intra-abdominal desmoid tumors and peritoneal seeding that developed after surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: 8 patients (9 desmoid tumors) and 11 patients (13 peritoneal seeding masses) were enrolled in our retrospective study. Patients with three or more tumors were excluded. Clinical findings including location of initial tumors, type of surgery, T- and N-stages of initial tumors, time interval between initial surgery and development of intra-abdominal tumors, and level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were evaluated...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Yun-Yan Zhang, En Shi, Zhao-Ping Yang, Qi-Fang Geng, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Zhong-Sheng Wang
Parrotia subaequalis is an endangered palaeoendemic tree from disjunct montane sites in eastern China. Due to the lack of effective genomic resources, the genetic diversity and population structure of this endangered species are not clearly understood. In this study, we conducted paired-end shotgun sequencing (2 × 125 bp) of genomic DNA for two individuals of P. subaequalis on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Based on the resulting sequences, we have successfully assembled the complete chloroplast genome of P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle, Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karl A G Kremling, Shu-Yun Chen, Mei-Hsiu Su, Nicholas K Lepak, M Cinta Romay, Kelly L Swarts, Fei Lu, Anne Lorant, Peter J Bradbury, Edward S Buckler
Here we report a multi-tissue gene expression resource that represents the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of modern inbred maize, and includes transcriptomes in an average of 255 lines in seven tissues. We mapped expression quantitative trait loci and characterized the contribution of rare genetic variants to extremes in gene expression. Some of the new mutations that arise in the maize genome can be deleterious; although selection acts to keep deleterious variants rare, their complete removal is impeded by genetic linkage to favourable loci and by finite population size...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Diego Hojsgaard
Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced) and rare (unreduced) gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tanya M Llorens, David J Ayre, Robert J Whelan
Many plant species have pollination and seed dispersal systems and evolutionary histories that have produced strong genetic structuring. These genetic patterns may be consistent with expectations following recent anthropogenic fragmentation, making it difficult to detect fragmentation effects if no pre-fragmentation genetic data are available. We used microsatellite markers to investigate whether severe habitat fragmentation may have affected the structure and diversity of populations of the endangered Australian bird-pollinated shrub Grevillea caleyi R...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Lindsay D Leverett, George F Schieder Iv, Kathleen Donohue
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenology, the seasonal timing of development, can alter biotic interactions. Emergence from dormant or quiescent stages often occurs earlier when neighbors are present, which may reduce the neighbors' competitive effects. Delayed emergence in response to neighbors also has been observed, but the potential benefits of such delays are unclear. Further, emergence time may respond to neighbors experienced by parents, which may predict future competition in offspring...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Kaoru Tsuji, Takayuki Ohgushi
Species often interact indirectly with each other via their traits. There is increasing appreciation of trait-mediated indirect effects linking multiple interactions. Flowers interact with both pollinators and floral herbivores, and the flower-pollinator interaction may be modified by indirect effects of floral herbivores (i.e., florivores) on flower traits such as flower size attracting pollinators. To explore whether flower size affects the flower-pollinator interaction, we used Eurya japonica flowers. We examined whether artificial florivory decreased fruit and seed production, and also whether flower size affected florivory and the number of floral visitors...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Regina G Belz, Marjo Patama, Aki Sinkkonen
Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lai-Sheng Meng, Meng-Ke Xu, Wen Wan, Jing-Yi Wang
In higher plants, seed mass is an important to evolutionary fitness. In this context, seedling establishment positively correlates with seed mass under conditions of environmental stress. Thus, seed mass constitutes an important agricultural trait. Here, we show loss-of-function of YODA (YDA), a MAPKK Kinase, and decreased seed mass, which leads to susceptibility to drought. Furthermore, we demonstrate that yda disrupts sugar metabolisms but not the gaseous plant hormone, ethylene. Our data suggest that the transcription factor EIN3 (ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3), integral to both sugar and ethylene metabolisms, physically interacts with YDA...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiaodong Cui, Ru Wang, Zhuanhua Wang
A cationic peroxidase (POD) was purified from proso millet seeds (PmPOD) using ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange, and size exclusion chromatography. The purified PmPOD showed toxicity to normal cells and tumor cells, but was more sensitive in HT29 cells. Furthermore, the mechanism driving HCT116 and HT29 cell death by PmPOD was the induction of receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)- and RIPK3-dependent necroptosis, independent of apoptosis. More importantly, PmPOD could induce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production through transcriptional upregulation...
March 12, 2018: Food & Function
Gautier Follain, Naël Osmani, Cédric Fuchs, Guillaume Allio, Sébastien Harlepp, Jacky G Goetz
Most cancers end up with the death of patients caused by the formation of secondary tumors, called metastases. However, how these secondary tumors appear and develop is only poorly understood. A fine understanding of the multiple steps of the metastasis cascade requires in vivo models allowing high spatiotemporal analysis of the behavior of metastatic cells. Zebrafish embryos combine several advantages such as transparency, small size, stereotyped anatomy, and easy handling, making it a very powerful model for cell and cancer biology, and in vivo imaging analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Reiko Ashida, Ken-Ichi Kawabata, Takashi Maruoka, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hideki Yoshikawa, Tatsuya Ioka, Kazuhiro Katayama, Sachiko Tanaka
Bubble-seeded histotripsy (BSH) is a newly developed ultrasound-based mechanical fractionation technique using locally injected phase change nanodroplets (PCNDs) as sensitizers. The PCNDs are a kind of microbubble precursor compressed into submicron-size in droplets form, which were designed for local administration and will expand into microbubbles under ultrasound exposure. Previously, we reported that a combination of PCNDs injection and pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) with an acoustic intensity as low as about 3 kW/cm2 at 1...
March 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Gert Van Peer, Evelien Mets, Shana Claeys, Ines De Punt, Steve Lefever, Maté Ongenaert, Pieter Rondou, Frank Speleman, Pieter Mestdagh, Jo Vandesompele
INTRODUCTION: Despite the established contribution of deregulated microRNA (miRNA) function to carcinogenesis, relatively few miRNA-cancer gene interactions have been validated, making it difficult to appreciate the true complexity of miRNA-cancer gene regulatory networks. RESULTS: In this effort, we identify miRNA interactomes of 17 well-established cancer genes, involved in various cancer types, through a miRNome-wide 3' UTR reporter screening. Using a novel and performant strategy for high-throughput screening data analysis, we identify 390 interactions, quadrupling the size of the known miRNA interactome for the cancer genes under investigation...
2018: PloS One
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