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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346506/small-and-surrounded-population-size-and-land-use-intensity-interact-to-determine-reliance-on-autonomous-selfing-in-a-monocarpic-plant
#1
Rachel B Spigler
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation has transformed landscapes globally, leaving remnants embedded within a complex matrix that is rapidly becoming more developed. For many plant populations, the associated factors of decreased size and intensification of land use surrounding them are expected to increase pollen limitation ('PL'), unless autonomous self-pollination provides reproductive assurance ('RA'). Decreased pollinator visitation is often assumed to drive these patterns, but other, less studied mechanisms might include increased heterospecific pollen transfer or decreased conspecific pollen availability via florivory...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345701/effects-of-particle-size-and-annealing-on-plasmon-induced-charge-separation-at-self-assembled-gold-nanoparticle-arrays
#2
Kun-Che Kao, Hiroyasu Nishi, Tetsu Tatsuma
Two-dimensional periodic Au nanoparticle arrays were constructed on TiO2 thin films by a micelle lithography method and seed-mediated photoelectrochemical growth. Their adjustable interparticle distance allows investigation of a particle size effect on plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS) efficiencies without interference from particle aggregation or plasmon coupling. External or internal PICS efficiencies were found to increase and decrease, respectively, with an increase in particle diameter from 25 to 38 nm...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345308/positive-size-speed-relationships-in-gametes-and-vegetative-cells-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-implications-for-the-evolution-of-sperm
#3
Catherine E Seed, Joseph L Tomkins
It is commonly held that differences in gametes of the two sexes (anisogamy) evolved from ancestors whose gametes were similar in size and behaviour (isogamy). Underlying many hypotheses explaining anisogamy are assumed relationships between cell size and speed in the ancestral isogamous population. Using the isogamous alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explored size-speed distributions in vegetative and gamete cells of ten cell lines, and clonal data from within two cell lines. We applied an independent speed selection approach to gamete populations of C...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342467/boiling-and-pressure-cooking-impact-on-ige-reactivity-of-soybean-allergens
#4
Beatriz Cabanillas, Carmen Cuadrado, Julia Rodriguez, Maria Carmen Dieguez, Jesus F Crespo, Natalija Novak
BACKGROUND: Soybean is one of the 8 foods that causes the most significant rate of food allergies in the USA and Europe. Thermal processing may impact on the allergenic potential of certain foods. We aimed to investigate modifications of the IgE-binding properties of soybean proteins due to processing methods that have been previously found to impact on the allergenicity of legumes such as peanut. METHODS: Soybean seeds were subjected to different thermal processing treatments...
January 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340024/chitosan-composite-scaffold-combined-with-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-bone-regeneration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#5
Shengqi Zang, Lei Zhu, Kefu Luo, Rui Mu, Feng Chen, Xiaocui Wei, Xiaodong Yan, Biyao Han, Xiaolei Shi, Qintao Wang, Lei Jin
The study aimed to develop a chitosan (CS)-based scaffold for repairing calvarial bone defects. We fabricated composite scaffolds made of CS and bovine-derived xenograft (BDX), characterized their physicochemical properties including pore size and porosity, absorption, degradation, and compressive strength, compared their efficacy to support in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hJBMMSCs), and evaluated their bone regeneration capacity in critical-size rat calvarial defects...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339198/cd90-cardiac-fibroblasts-reduce-fibrosis-of-acute-myocardial-injury-in-rats
#6
Yuqiao Chang, Cixia Li, Yangyang Jia, Peng Chen, Yonglong Guo, Airong Li, Zhikun Guo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the differentiation tendency of CD90+ cardiac fibroblast (CFs) into cardiomyogenic cells in vitro and repair functions in acute myocardial infarction rats. METHODS: CD90+ subpopulation was sorted from rat CFs by flow cytometry. 10 μmoL/L of 5-Azacytosine (5-aza) was used to induce differentiation of CFs into cardiomyogenic cells. An acute myocardial infarction model was prepared by ligation of the rat left anterior descending coronary artery...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337096/fabrication-and-characterization-of-nanoengineered-biocompatible-n-ha-chitosan-tamarind-seed-polysaccharide-bio-inspired-nanocomposites-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#7
Mohammad Shakir, Iram Zia, Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah
In this communication we describe the fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide (n-HA/CS-TSP) nanocomposite with a weight ratio of 70/20/10, 70/15/15 and 70/10/20, respectively through a co-precipitation method. A comparative assessment of the properties of n-HA/CS-TSP and n-HA/CS nanocomposites was done by FT-IR, SEM-EDX, TEM, TGA/DTA, XRD and mechanical testing. The results suggested strong chemical interactions between the three components, decreased particle size and homogeneous dispersion of n-HA particles in n-HA/CS-TSP as compared to n-HA/CS...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335785/heterologous-expression-of-rice-9-cis-epoxycarotenoid-dioxygenase-4-osnced4-in-arabidopsis-confers-sugar-oversensitivity-and-drought-tolerance
#8
San-Gwang Hwang, Chia-Yun Lee, Ching-Shan Tseng
BACKGROUND: The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases OsNCED4 was cloned from rice in conjunction with OsNCED 1-3 and 5, of which 3 has been shown to function in ABA biosynthesis and alteration of leaf morphology. In higher plants, NCEDs have been shown to be key enzymes controlling ABA biosynthesis and belong to a differentially expressed gene family. Aside from OsNCED3, it remains largely unknown if other OsNCED genes are involved in ABA biosynthesis in rice. Thus, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsNCED4 were generated in the 129B08/nced3 mutant background to explore OsNCED4 function in ABA biosynthesis...
January 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334777/endovascular-implantation-of-125i-seed-combined-with-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-for-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Houbin Sun, Minghui Zhang, Ruibao Liu, Yan Liu, Yingwen Hou, Changjun Wu
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the endovascular implantation of 125I seed under ultrasound and x-ray guidance combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). PATIENTS & METHODS: The study included 134 pathologically proven or clinically confirmed primary HCC patients with PVTT in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2015...
January 16, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334646/17%C3%AE-estradiol-improves-the-efficacy-of-exploited-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-non-union-radial-defect-healing-a-rabbit-model
#10
Delaram Zamani Mazdeh, Pezhman Mirshokraei, Mohammadreza Emami, Ali Mirshahi, Iraj Karimi
Exploiting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appears to be an appealing alternative to the traditional clinical approach in the treatment of non-union bone defects. It has been shown that 17β-estradiol improves the osteogenesis and proliferation potential of the MSCs via estrogen receptors. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on exploiting autologous BMSCs (bone marrow-derived MSCs) for the purpose of healing of radial non-union segmental defect in rabbit. Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 experimental groups: 1...
December 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333349/annual-and-spatial-variation-in-composition-and-activity-of-terrestrial-mammals-on-two-replicate-plots-in-lowland-forest-of-eastern-ecuador
#11
John G Blake, Bette A Loiselle
Terrestrial mammals are important components of lowland forests in Amazonia (as seed dispersal agents, herbivores, predators) but there are relatively few detailed studies from areas that have not been affected by human activities (e.g., hunting, logging). Yet, such information is needed to evaluate effects of humans elsewhere. We used camera traps to sample medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals at a site in lowland forests of eastern Ecuador, one of the most biologically rich areas in the world. We deployed cameras on two study plots in terra firme forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331852/no-time-to-waste-organic-waste-nanosizing-converts-remains-of-food-processing-into-refined-materials
#12
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Sarfraz, Verda Farida, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331224/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-enables-selective-enrichment-of-trimeric-and-tetrameric-proanthocyanidins-for-biomaterial-development
#13
Rasika S Phansalkar, Joo-Won Nam, Shao-Nong Chen, James B McAlpine, Ariene A Leme, Berdan Aydin, Ana-Karina Bedran-Russo, Guido F Pauli
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331090/enhanced-chondrogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-over-silk-fibroin-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-three-dimensional-scaffold-in-dynamic-culture-condition
#14
Parinita Agrawal, Krishna Pramanik, Varshini Vishwanath, Amit Biswas, Akalabya Bissoyi, Pradeep Kumar Patra
Chondroitin sulfate (Ch) is one of the main structural components of cartilage tissue, therefore, its presence in tissue engineered scaffold is expected to enhance cartilage regeneration. Previously, silk fibroin/chitosan (SF/CS) blend was proven to be a potential biomaterial for tissue development. In this study, the effect of Ch on physicochemical and biological properties of SF/CS blend was investigated and scaffolds with 0.8 wt% Ch was found to be favorable. The scaffolds possess pore size of 37-212 µm, contact angle 46...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330900/overexpression-of-microrna408-enhances-photosynthesis-growth-and-seed-yield-in-diverse-plants
#15
Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T Lerdau, Chengcai Chu, Lei Li
The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330848/cultured-allogeneic-fibroblast-injection-versus-fibroblasts-cultured-on-amniotic-membrane-scaffold-for-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-treatment
#16
H Moravvej, F Abdollahimajd, M-H Naseh, Z Piravar, E Abolhasani, N Mozafari, H Niknejad
BACKGROUND: Different methods of fibroblast application have been examined to treat recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of intradermal injection of cultured allogeneic fibroblasts in healing RDEB wounds with that of fibroblasts seeded on amniotic membrane scaffolds (FAMS) or standard wound care (SWC) with Vaseline gauze as controls. MATERIALS &METHODS: Seven patients were recruited, and seven wounds were assessed in each patient: three wounds were treated with injection of intradermal fibroblasts, three were treated with FAMS, and one was dressed with SWC...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330300/real-time-imaging-of-yeast-cells-reveals-several-distinct-mechanisms-of-curing-of-the-ure3-prion
#17
Xiaohong Zhao, Jenna Lanz, Danielle Steinberg, Tyler Pease, Joseph M Ahearn, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Elena Staguhn, Evan Eisenberg, Daniel C Masison, Lois E Greene
The [URE3] yeast prion is the self-propagating amyloid form of the Ure2 protein. [URE3] is cured by overexpression of several yeast proteins, including Ydj1, Btn2, Cur1, Hsp42, and human DnaJB6. To better understand [URE3] curing, we used real-time imaging with a yeast strain expressing a GFP-labeled full-length Ure2 construct to monitor the curing of [URE3] over time. [URE3] yeast cells exhibited numerous fluorescent foci, and expression of the GFP-labeled Ure2 affected neither mitotic stability of [URE3] nor the rate of [URE3] curing by the curing proteins...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329415/establishment-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-study-human-uterine-angiogenesis
#18
Camille L Duran, Colette A Abbey, Kayla J Bayless
STUDY QUESTION: Can primary human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) be used as a model to study uterine angiogenic responses in vitro that are relevant in pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: UtMVECs demonstrated angiogenic responses when stimulated with proangiogenic factors, including sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), physiological levels of wall shear stress (WSS), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and various combinations of estrogen and progesterone...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327956/the-incidence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-macrorhabdus-ornithogaster-infection-in-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus-in-a-veterinary-clinic
#19
Ronja Püstow, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, avian gastric yeast, is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). To better understand the clinical disease in budgerigars presented in a practice population, we reviewed the occurrence, clinical signs, and treatment success of M ornithogaster disease in budgerigars during a 2.5-year period at the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, University of Leipzig (Leipzig, Germany). The yeast was diagnosed by microscopic examination of fresh fecal samples...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327677/autologous-smooth-muscle-progenitor-cells-enhance-regeneration-of-tissue-engineered-bladder
#20
Liuhua Zhou, Jiadong Xia, Pengji Wang, Ruipeng Jia, Jun Hua Zheng, Xudong Yao, Yun Chen, Yutian Dai, Bin Yang
Tissue engineering techniques provide a great potential to de novo construct a histological bladder. Smooth muscle regeneration is extremely important for the functional recovery of engineered neo-bladder. However, many challenges remain for the use of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as the cell sources. Recent evidences showed that smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) in the peripheral blood have the capacity of differentiating into SMCs, while their use for bladder regeneration hasn't yet been reported...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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