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Radiology tuberculosis smear culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832142/predictors-of-prolonged-tb-treatment-in-a-dutch-outpatient-setting
#2
Natasha Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Alper Daskapan, Jos G W Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Susan van den Hof, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
INTRODUCTION: Standard treatment duration for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) treatment is 6 months. Treatment duration is often extended-and for various different reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to assess risk factors associated with extended TB treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data including demographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological information from the Netherlands TB Register (NTR) of 90 patients with smear and culture positive pulmonary TB of the region Haaglanden, The Netherlands, was eligible for analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798774/detection-of-transrenal-dna-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#3
Ines Labugger, Jan Heyckendorf, Stefan Dees, Emilia Häussinger, Christian Herzmann, Thomas A Kohl, Elvira Richter, Eric Rivera-Milla, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Molecular diagnostics of patients with MTB tuberculosis from urine samples. METHODS: We developed a new molecular assay based on the detection of M. tuberculosis-specific transrenal DNA (trDNA) and tested it for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis at the initiation of anti-tuberculosis therapy and during treatment follow-up. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of trDNA was 96 and 100% when smear-microscopy and trDNA was combined. In a subset of TB treatment naïve patients (n = 11) sensitivity and specificity of trDNA was 64 and 100%, respectively...
October 31, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455907/characteristics-of-infants-exposed-to-maternal-tuberculosis-and-chemoprophylaxis-using-3-months-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin
#4
Khakhu Tshilidzi Mathivha, Sithembiso Velaphi
BACKGROUND: Although the clinical features of infants with congenital tuberculosis (TB) are well established, the features of infants exposed to TB in utero including those who are non-infected, are not well reported. TB-exposed infants are at risk of developing TB post-delivery, and chemoprophylaxis, usually isoniazid, is therefore recommended. Isoniazid/rifampicin combined is an alternative, but little is known about its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical features of infants exposed to TB in utero and the proportion who develop TB infection and disease despite chemoprophylaxis with a 3-month course of isoniazid/rifampicin...
July 26, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209834/endobronchial-tuberculosis-in-anthracotic-bronchitis
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fariba Rezaeetalab, Donya Farrokh
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is a serious form of pulmonary tuberculosis. In EBTB, mycobacterium tuberculosis involves trachea, large airways and bronchial trees Combustion of biomass fuels causes anthracotic bronchitis that is characterized by black pigmentation in bronchial tissue. The majority of anthracotic bronchitis are in aged patients, particularly rural women, that use biomass fuel for cooking or traditional bakery .The aim of this study was to evaluate the endobronchial tuberculosis in anthracotic bronchitis...
January 2016: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105713/protocol-for-studying-cough-frequency-in-people-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
Alvaro Proaño, Marjory A Bravard, Brian H Tracey, José W López, German Comina, Mirko Zimic, Jorge Coronel, Gwenyth O'Neill Lee, Luz Caviedes, Jose Luis Cabrera, Antonio Salas, Eduardo Ticona, Daniela E Kirwan, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans, David A Moore, Robert H Gilman
INTRODUCTION: Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090178/impact-of-fluoroquinolone-exposure-prior-to-tuberculosis-diagnosis-on-clinical-outcomes-in-immunocompromised-patients
#7
Ju Young Lee, Hyun Jung Lee, Yong Kyun Kim, Shinae Yu, Jiwon Jung, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Tae Sun Shim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
There have been concerns about an association of fluoroquinolone (FQ) use prior to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis with adverse outcomes. However, FQ use might prevent clinical deterioration in missed TB patients, especially in those who are immunocompromised, until they receive definitive anti-TB treatment. All adult immunocompromised patients with smear-negative and culture-positive TB at a tertiary care hospital in Korea over a 2-year period were included in this study. Long-term FQ (≥7 days) use was defined as exposure to FQ for at least 7 days prior to TB diagnosis...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082624/pulmonary-paragonimiasis-mimicking-tuberculous-pleuritis-a-case-report
#8
Jian Luo, Mao-Yun Wang, Dan Liu, Hui Zhu, Sai Yang, Bin-Miao Liang, Zong-An Liang
Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis with a wide variety of radiologic findings, which sometimes can be confused with tuberculosis and carcinoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is always warranted. A 43-year-old male farmer, with productive cough, blood-tinged sputum and chest pain, as well as patchy consolidation and pleural effusions in chest computer tomography, was misdiagnosed of community-acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis. Complete blood cell count, sputum smear and culture, chest computer tomography, thoracoscopy, and biopsy...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079844/-adolescent-tuberculosis-a-challenge-and-opportunity-to-prevent-community-transmission
#9
Adriana Margarit, Sílvia Simó, Librada Rozas, Àngela Deyà-Martínez, Irene Barrabeig, Amadéu Gené, Clàudia Fortuny, Antoni Noguera-Julian
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (<18 years) in a paediatric referral centre in Barcelona. Patients aged≤12 and>12 years at diagnosis are compared...
April 11, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020707/utility-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Reena Raveendran, Chand Wattal
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is still a challenge because of its pauci-bacillary nature. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of a multiplex PCR assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and to compare the efficiency of two targets, IS6110 and MPB64 to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: 150 extrapulmonary samples (61 pus/aspirate, 46 tissue, 32 body fluids, and 11 urine) from clinically suspected cases of tuberculosis were included in the study...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006437/mycobacterial-peritonitis-in-capd-patients-in-limpopo-a-6-year-cumulative-report-from-a-single-center-in-south-africa
#11
Ramon A Tamayo-Isla, Mauro Cuba de la Cruz, Ikechi G Okpechi
South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide due to the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. There are, however, no reports on peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Africa. The aim of this study is to discuss our experience of tuberculous peritonitis in CAPD patients from a rural endemic area of South Africa. This is a retrospective descriptive study of CAPD patients diagnosed with mycobacterium peritonitis infection from January 2008 to August 2014 at the Limpopo Kidney and Dialysis Centre (LKDC) in South Africa...
March 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968508/differentiation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-from-non-tubercular-mycobacteria-by-nested-multiplex-pcr-targeting-is6110-mtp40-and-32kd-alpha-antigen-encoding-gene-fragments
#12
Pallavi Sinha, Anamika Gupta, Pradyot Prakash, Shampa Anupurba, Rajneesh Tripathi, G N Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Control of the global burden of tuberculosis is obstructed due to lack of simple, rapid and cost effective diagnostic techniques that can be used in resource poor-settings. To facilitate the early diagnosis of TB directly from clinical specimens, we have standardized and validated the use of nested multiplex PCR, targeting gene fragments IS6110, MTP40 and 32kD α-antigen encoding genes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM), in comparison to smear microscopy, solid culture and single step multiplex PCR...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808299/characteristics-of-patients-with-smear-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis-tb-in-a-region-with-high-tb-and-hiv-prevalence
#13
Leandro Cruz Campos, Marcos Vinícius Vieira Rocha, Denise Maria Cunha Willers, Denise Rossato Silva
INTRODUCTION: Smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) represents 30-60% of all pulmonary TB cases. The mortality of these patients can reach 25% in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection, and 10-20% of TB transmission at the population level are attributable to SNPT cases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with SNPT and to compare these with patients who were diagnosed as having smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710846/efficacy-of-tb-pcr-using-ebus-tbna-samples-in-patients-with-intrathoracic-granulomatous-lymphadenopathy
#14
Jung Seop Eom, Jeong Ha Mok, Min Ki Lee, Kwangha Lee, Min Ji Kim, Sun Mi Jang, Hae Jung Na, Seung Eon Song, Geewon Lee, Eun-Jung Jo, Mi-Hyun Kim, Ki Uk Kim, Hye-Kyung Park
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is widely used to perform mediastinal lymph node sampling. However, little information is available on polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with intrathoracic granulomatous lymphadenopathy (IGL). METHODS: A retrospective study using a prospectively collected database was performed from January 2010 to December 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the TB-PCR test using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with IGL...
2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655198/diagnosis-of-pediatric-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-special-reference-to-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-nucleic-acid-amplification-test
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shreshtha Tiwari, Gita Nataraj, Swapna Kanade, Preeti Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosing pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (PPTB). METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 children less than 14 years of age, with strong clinical suspicion and radiological evidence suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples/gastric lavage were collected. Direct smears and culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media were performed. DNA extraction and amplification was performed using Genei™ Amplification Reagent set for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (by Genei, Bangalore, India)...
March 2015: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655195/utility-of-light-emitting-diode-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Arati Bhadade, Preeti Mehta, Swapna Kanade, Gita Nataraj
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV-infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 400 HIV-infected, clinically or radiologically suspected PTB patients. Two sputum specimens were collected from each patient. Two direct smears were prepared from each sputum specimen. One was stained by ZN method and another by auramine-O method and reported as per the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines...
March 2015: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26591296/evaluating-the-validity-and-reliability-of-chest-radiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-among-smear-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Etenesh Tewolde, Asfaw Atnafu, Tesfaye Kebede, Yared Tedla, Getachew Assefa, Alemayehu Bedane, Fikre Enquselassie
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a mycobacterial infection mainly affecting the lungs. Early and correct diagnosis of sputum smear negative patients by chest radiography (CXR) is challenging since it depends on reader's ability to detect abnormal findings and to interpret it correctly. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity and reliability of CXR the diagnosis of TB among smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at seven selected health facilities from October 2011 to September 2012 on 159 adults aged 18 years and above who were newly diagnosed smear negative for PTB patients diagnosed using Chest X-ray (CXR)...
April 2015: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26545357/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-ntm-in-zambia-prevalence-clinical-radiological-and-microbiological-characteristics
#18
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Lutinala Mulenga, Mathias Tembo, Patrick Katemangwe, Veronica Sunkutu, Peter Mwaba, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is an emerging health problem. We present here the Zambia-specific national level data of prevalence, symptomatic, radiological and microbiological characteristics of NTM, using results from a national Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of NTM among adults aged 15 years and above, who were participants in a national TB prevalence survey. Participants who had either an abnormal chest x-ray or were symptomatic were considered presumptive TB cases and submitted sputum for smear and culture analysis...
November 6, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26467588/evaluation-of-a-radiological-severity-score-to-predict-treatment-outcome-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
M Kriel, J W Lotz, M Kidd, G Walzl
OBJECTIVE: To refine and evaluate a recently published radiological disease severity score for the prediction of month 2 and end of treatment outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Radiological extent of disease has been linked to early and late outcomes of anti-tuberculosis treatment, but no validated tools are available to quantify this parameter. DESIGN: We enrolled 449 adult, human immunodeficiency virus negative participants with smear- or culture-proven TB from three TB biomarker studies in Cape Town, South Africa...
November 2015: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26420261/xpert-mtb-rif-assay-can-be-used-on-archived-gastric-aspirate-and-induced-sputum-samples-for-sensitive-diagnosis-of-paediatric-tuberculosis
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sarman Singh, Amit Singh, Suneel Prajapati, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Aparna Mukherjee, Varinder Singh, Anneke C Hesseling, Harleen M S Grewal
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is neglected, mainly due to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools. Recently Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnostic field, but its usefulness in pediatric TB has not been reported from India and no report is available on its use on long term archived samples. METHODS: We recruited 130 pediatric patients with probable intrathoracic tuberculosis and their gastric aspirate (GA) and induced sputum (IS) samples on 2 consecutive days were collected between January 2009 and December 2012...
2015: BMC Microbiology
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