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Radiology tuberculosis smear culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#1
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#2
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501491/diagnostic-usefulness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-detection-of-tuberculous-meningitis-using-cerebrospinal-fluid
#3
Syed Beenish Rufai, Amit Singh, Jitendra Singh, Parveen Kumar, Manimuthu Mani Sankar, Sarman Singh
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) due to association of diseases with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis continues to be a clinical challenge as microbiological confirmation is rare and time consuming resulting in delayed treatment. Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid and simple test, which has been endorsed by World Health Organization as an initial diagnostic test for the diagnosis of TBM. However, evidence still lacks for its performance on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the diagnosis of TBM especially from India...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475618/first-time-detection-and-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-samples-in-south-tunisia-by-a-single-tube-tetraplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#4
Mariam Siala, Salma Smaoui, Wafa Taktak, Salma Hachicha, Asma Ghorbel, Chema Marouane, Sana Kammoun, Dhikrayet Gamara, Leila Slim, Radhouane Gdoura, Férièle Messadi-Akrout
INTRODUCTION: Tunisia has one of the highest burdens of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among tuberculosis (TB) cases but the contribution of MTBC-mediated human EPTB is unknown. EPTB diagnosis is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of clinical samples. Therefore, a need of a simplified molecular method for sensitive and specific TB detection and differentiation of MTBC members caused EPTB remains a priority to an early diagnosis, optimize successful anti-TB treatment and minimize transmission...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#5
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399800/tst-positivity-in-household-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-contact-study-in-malawi
#6
Jonas Hector, Suzanne T Anderson, Gertrude Banda, Mercy Kamdolozi, Laura F Jefferys, Doris Shani, Natalie J Garton, Agnes Mwale, Annie Jobe, Geraint R Davies, Derek J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Screening household contacts of active tuberculosis (TB) patients is recommended for TB control. Due to resource constraints this rarely occurs in lower income countries. Demographic and clinical features of index cases may influence the likelihood of onwards TB transmission. It has also been proposed that accumulation of intracellular lipid bodies within M. tuberculosis cells may also enhance bacterial transmissibility. This study explored whether clinical and bacteriological observations recorded at baseline in TB cases in Malawi could help identify those with the highest risk of onwards transmission, to prioritise contact tracing...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391384/the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-spondylodiscitis
#7
Justin Arockiaraj, Joy S Michael, Rohit Amritanand, Kenny Samuel David, Venkatesh Krishnan
PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis and to identify its role in detecting Rifampicin resistance in patients with infective spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A retrospective study including 348 patients suspected to have infective spondylodiscitis was done. Tissue/pus samples obtained were sent for culture, histopathology and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. All patients who were confirmed to have tubercular spondylodiscitis and those patients who were suspected on clinico-radiological basis were also treated with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for a period of 9 months...
April 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229100/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-following-world-health-organization-recommended-criteria-in-severely-malnourished-children-presenting-with-pneumonia
#8
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Tahmeed Ahmed
Evidences on diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are lacking. We sought to evaluate the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of TB in such children. In this prospective study, we enrolled SAM children aged <5 with radiological pneumonia. We collected induced sputum and gastric lavage for smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Using the last 2 methods as the gold standard, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of WHO criteria (n = 388)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151842/xpert-mtb-rif-on-stool-is-useful-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-severe-pulmonary-disease
#9
Elisabetta Walters, Marieke Magrieta van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Anne-Marie Demers, Heather Draper, Pierre Goussard, Hendrik Simon Schaaf, Sven Olaf Friedrich, Andrew Whitelaw, Robin Warren, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to result in high morbidity and mortality in children from resource-limited settings. Diagnostic challenges, including resource-intense sputum collection methods and insensitive diagnostic tests, contribute to diagnostic delay and poor outcomes in children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of stool Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) compared with bacteriologic confirmation (combination of Xpert and culture of respiratory samples). METHODS: In a hospital-based study in Cape Town, South Africa, we enrolled children younger than 13 years of age with suspected pulmonary TB from April 2012- August 2015...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095429/high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#10
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. METHODS: This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#11
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#12
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043529/relation-between-smear-positivity-and-imaging-findings-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Maryam Hassanzad, Mohammad Reza Bolursaz, Payam Mehrian, Farahnaz Aghahosseini, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood and the results of sputum smear. The aim of this study was to identify an alternative indicator of infectivity to prevent disease transmission through special isolation methods in children who have a clinical condition that suggests TB. METHODS: This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under the age of 15years with a diagnosis of TB based on World Health Organization criteria and laboratory data (smear and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832142/predictors-of-prolonged-tb-treatment-in-a-dutch-outpatient-setting
#15
Natasha Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Alper Daskapan, Jos G W Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Susan van den Hof, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
INTRODUCTION: Standard treatment duration for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) treatment is 6 months. Treatment duration is often extended-and for various different reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to assess risk factors associated with extended TB treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data including demographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological information from the Netherlands TB Register (NTR) of 90 patients with smear and culture positive pulmonary TB of the region Haaglanden, The Netherlands, was eligible for analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798774/detection-of-transrenal-dna-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#16
Ines Labugger, Jan Heyckendorf, Stefan Dees, Emilia Häussinger, Christian Herzmann, Thomas A Kohl, Elvira Richter, Eric Rivera-Milla, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Molecular diagnostics of patients with MTB tuberculosis from urine samples. METHODS: We developed a new molecular assay based on the detection of M. tuberculosis-specific transrenal DNA (trDNA) and tested it for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis at the initiation of anti-tuberculosis therapy and during treatment follow-up. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of trDNA was 96 and 100% when smear-microscopy and trDNA was combined. In a subset of TB treatment naïve patients (n = 11) sensitivity and specificity of trDNA was 64 and 100%, respectively...
June 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455907/characteristics-of-infants-exposed-to-maternal-tuberculosis-and-chemoprophylaxis-using-3-months-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin
#17
Khakhu Tshilidzi Mathivha, Sithembiso Velaphi
BACKGROUND: Although the clinical features of infants with congenital tuberculosis (TB) are well established, the features of infants exposed to TB in utero including those who are non-infected, are not well reported. TB-exposed infants are at risk of developing TB post-delivery, and chemoprophylaxis, usually isoniazid, is therefore recommended. Isoniazid/rifampicin combined is an alternative, but little is known about its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical features of infants exposed to TB in utero and the proportion who develop TB infection and disease despite chemoprophylaxis with a 3-month course of isoniazid/rifampicin...
May 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209834/endobronchial-tuberculosis-in-anthracotic-bronchitis
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fariba Rezaeetalab, Donya Farrokh
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is a serious form of pulmonary tuberculosis. In EBTB, mycobacterium tuberculosis involves trachea, large airways and bronchial trees Combustion of biomass fuels causes anthracotic bronchitis that is characterized by black pigmentation in bronchial tissue. The majority of anthracotic bronchitis are in aged patients, particularly rural women, that use biomass fuel for cooking or traditional bakery .The aim of this study was to evaluate the endobronchial tuberculosis in anthracotic bronchitis...
January 2016: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105713/protocol-for-studying-cough-frequency-in-people-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Alvaro Proaño, Marjory A Bravard, Brian H Tracey, José W López, German Comina, Mirko Zimic, Jorge Coronel, Gwenyth O'Neill Lee, Luz Caviedes, Jose Luis Cabrera, Antonio Salas, Eduardo Ticona, Daniela E Kirwan, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans, David A Moore, Robert H Gilman
INTRODUCTION: Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution...
April 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090178/impact-of-fluoroquinolone-exposure-prior-to-tuberculosis-diagnosis-on-clinical-outcomes-in-immunocompromised-patients
#20
Ju Young Lee, Hyun Jung Lee, Yong Kyun Kim, Shinae Yu, Jiwon Jung, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Tae Sun Shim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
There have been concerns about an association of fluoroquinolone (FQ) use prior to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis with adverse outcomes. However, FQ use might prevent clinical deterioration in missed TB patients, especially in those who are immunocompromised, until they receive definitive anti-TB treatment. All adult immunocompromised patients with smear-negative and culture-positive TB at a tertiary care hospital in Korea over a 2-year period were included in this study. Long-term FQ (≥7 days) use was defined as exposure to FQ for at least 7 days prior to TB diagnosis...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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