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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428408/evaluating-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-on-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-a-retrospective-study
#1
Yanjun Lu, Yaowu Zhu, Na Shen, Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun
OBJECTIVE: Limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have been reported in China. Therefore, we designed a retrospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and microbiological characteristics of 238 PTB-suspected patients were retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of active PTB were calculated for the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using TB culture or final diagnosis based on clinical and radiological evaluation as a reference standard...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412377/tuberculosis-and-latent-infection-in-employees-of-different-prison-unit-types
#2
Péricles Alves Nogueira, Regina Maura Cabral de Melo Abrahão, Vera Maria Neder Galesi, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection among the staff that is in contact and the staff that is not in contact with prisoners, and investigate factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in this population. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study, conducted from 2012 to 2015, in employees of different prison units in the municipality of Franco da Rocha, SP. It consisted of the application of a questionnaire, application and reading of the tuberculin test, sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture, and radiological examination...
February 5, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410366/performance-of-the-tb-lamp-diagnostic-assay-in-reference-laboratories-results-from-a-multicentre-study
#3
Thu Hang Pham, Jonathan Peter, Fernanda C Q Mello, Tommy Parraga, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Pamela Nabeta, Eloise Valli, Tatiana Caceres, Keertan Dheda, Susan E Dorman, Doris Hillemann, Christen M Gray, Mark D Perkins
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of TB-LAMP, a manual molecular tuberculosis (TB) detection method, and provide comparison to the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. METHODS: In a large multicentre study, two sputum samples were collected from participants with TB symptoms in reference laboratories in Peru, South Africa, Brazil, and Vietnam. Each sample was tested with TB-LAMP. The reference standard consisted of four direct smears, four cultures, and clinical and radiological findings...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353901/tuberculosis-in-staff-and-students-of-patan-hospital
#4
Poojan Shrestha, Mila Shakya, Maxine Caws, Surendra Shrestha, Bibek Karki, Shreejana Shrestha, Dan Bahadur Karki, Bhagwan Maharjan, Bhawana Shrestha, Amit Arjyal, Abhilasha Karkey, Krishna G Prajapati, Buddha Basnyat
BACKGROUND: There is a high risk of occupational exposure to tuberculosis among healthcare workers in endemic countries. Regular screening for tuberculosis among healthcare workers is not carried out in Nepal. Infection control measures are also not routinely implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active tuberculosis among staff/students at Patan Hospital. METHODS: Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire and invited to undergo chest radiography...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348383/improving-diagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-patients-by-bronchoscopy-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Prayudi Santoso, Arto Y Soeroto, Rianita Juniati, Yovita Hartantri, Rudi Wisaksana, Bachti Alisjabana, Heda M Nataprawira, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: diagnostic of pulmonary TB in HIV patients is a problem due to non specific clinical features, or radiological appearance. HIV patients with CD4≤200 cells/mL infected with M. tuberculosis have less capacity in containing M. tuberculosis, developing granulomas, casseous necrosis, or cavities. This condition is caused by weakend inflammatory which later reduced sputum production and may cause false negative result. This study aimed to assess differences in the positivity level of acid fast bacilli (AFB) and cultures of M...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173450/outcomes-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-discordant-phenotypic-isoniazid-resistance-testing
#6
Sukyeon Kim, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, Hee Jae Huh, Nam Yong Lee, Byeong-Ho Jeong
INTRODUCTION: The discrepancy rates of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results between solid and liquid media have been reported to range from 2.4 to 7.4% for isoniazid. Most isolate with isoniazid DST discrepancies between solid and liquid media test as susceptible on solid medium and resistant in liquid medium, however, the optimal management of patients with discordant testing is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment regimen on treatment outcomes when patients with rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis have isoniazid resistance (INH-R) in liquid medium but isoniazid susceptibility (INH-S) on solid medium...
December 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064140/incidence-and-clinical-profile-of-tuberculosis-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Narendra Agrawal, Mukul Aggarwal, Jyotsna Kapoor, Rayaz Ahmed, Anjan Shrestha, Meena Kaushik, Dinesh Bhurani
BACKGROUND: Patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) are expected to be at high risk of tuberculosis (TB) owing to underlying immunosuppression. We conducted a retrospective study in patients post alloSCT for clinical features and factors associated with TB. METHODS: Records of all patients transplanted from January 1, 2012 until December 31, 2015 were reviewed. Diagnosis of TB was considered if Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from clinical samples or acid-fast bacilli (AFB) demonstrated on histopathology/smears...
October 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990538/recent-complications-and-issues-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#8
Mohamad Taleuzzaman, Vinay K Patel
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a one of the major communicable disease which can be preventable and curable. Even though the prevalence of tuberculosis infection is more even though this disease causes major morbidity and mortality. [3] To determine association between tuberculosis (TB) related stigma and delay in seeking a treatment after the onset of symptoms associated with tuberculosis. METHODS: Physicians conducted the interviews using a structured questionnaire...
October 6, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#9
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#10
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501491/diagnostic-usefulness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-detection-of-tuberculous-meningitis-using-cerebrospinal-fluid
#11
Syed Beenish Rufai, Amit Singh, Jitendra Singh, Parveen Kumar, Manimuthu Mani Sankar, Sarman Singh
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) due to association of diseases with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Diagnosis continues to be a clinical challenge as microbiological confirmation is rare and time consuming resulting in delayed treatment. Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid and simple test, which has been endorsed by World Health Organization as an initial diagnostic test for the diagnosis of TBM. However, evidence still lacks for its performance on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the diagnosis of TBM especially from India...
August 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475618/first-time-detection-and-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-samples-in-south-tunisia-by-a-single-tube-tetraplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#12
Mariam Siala, Salma Smaoui, Wafa Taktak, Salma Hachicha, Asma Ghorbel, Chema Marouane, Sana Kammoun, Dhikrayet Gamara, Leila Slim, Radhouane Gdoura, Férièle Messadi-Akrout
INTRODUCTION: Tunisia has one of the highest burdens of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among tuberculosis (TB) cases but the contribution of MTBC-mediated human EPTB is unknown. EPTB diagnosis is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of clinical samples. Therefore, a need of a simplified molecular method for sensitive and specific TB detection and differentiation of MTBC members caused EPTB remains a priority to an early diagnosis, optimize successful anti-TB treatment and minimize transmission...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#13
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399800/tst-positivity-in-household-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-contact-study-in-malawi
#14
Jonas Hector, Suzanne T Anderson, Gertrude Banda, Mercy Kamdolozi, Laura F Jefferys, Doris Shani, Natalie J Garton, Agnes Mwale, Annie Jobe, Geraint R Davies, Derek J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Screening household contacts of active tuberculosis (TB) patients is recommended for TB control. Due to resource constraints this rarely occurs in lower income countries. Demographic and clinical features of index cases may influence the likelihood of onwards TB transmission. It has also been proposed that accumulation of intracellular lipid bodies within M. tuberculosis cells may also enhance bacterial transmissibility. This study explored whether clinical and bacteriological observations recorded at baseline in TB cases in Malawi could help identify those with the highest risk of onwards transmission, to prioritise contact tracing...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391384/the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-spondylodiscitis
#15
Justin Arockiaraj, Joy S Michael, Rohit Amritanand, Kenny Samuel David, Venkatesh Krishnan
PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis and to identify its role in detecting Rifampicin resistance in patients with infective spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A retrospective study including 348 patients suspected to have infective spondylodiscitis was done. Tissue/pus samples obtained were sent for culture, histopathology and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. All patients who were confirmed to have tubercular spondylodiscitis and those patients who were suspected on clinico-radiological basis were also treated with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for a period of 9 months...
December 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229100/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-following-world-health-organization-recommended-criteria-in-severely-malnourished-children-presenting-with-pneumonia
#16
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Tahmeed Ahmed
Evidences on diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are lacking. We sought to evaluate the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of TB in such children. In this prospective study, we enrolled SAM children aged <5 with radiological pneumonia. We collected induced sputum and gastric lavage for smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Using the last 2 methods as the gold standard, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of WHO criteria (n = 388)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151842/xpert-mtb-rif-on-stool-is-useful-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-severe-pulmonary-disease
#17
Elisabetta Walters, Marieke Magrieta van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Anne-Marie Demers, Heather Draper, Pierre Goussard, Hendrik Simon Schaaf, Sven Olaf Friedrich, Andrew Whitelaw, Robin Warren, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to result in high morbidity and mortality in children from resource-limited settings. Diagnostic challenges, including resource-intense sputum collection methods and insensitive diagnostic tests, contribute to diagnostic delay and poor outcomes in children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of stool Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) compared with bacteriologic confirmation (combination of Xpert and culture of respiratory samples). METHODS: In a hospital-based study in Cape Town, South Africa, we enrolled children younger than 13 years of age with suspected pulmonary TB from April 2012 to August 2015...
September 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095429/high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#18
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. METHODS: This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#20
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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