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Neurological disorders and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628596/from-disease-to-health-physical-therapy-health-promotion-practices-for-secondary-prevention-in-adult-and-pediatric-neurologic-populations
#2
Lori Quinn, Don Morgan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Over the last decade there has been a substantial increase in efforts to better understand how targeted physical activity and exercise interventions can be used to minimize secondary consequences arising from neurological damage in both adult and pediatric populations. This article offers an overview of contemporary research that addresses mediators of functional and neuroplastic adaptations associated with physical activity and exercise. We emphasize the important role that physical therapists can play to increase participation and improve well-being in adults and children with neurological disorders...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622489/the-role-of-exercise-and-patient-education-in-the-noninvasive-management-of-whiplash-a-clinical-commentary
#3
Trudy Rebbeck
Synopsis The majority of people with whiplash associated disorder (WAD) do not have neurological deficit or fracture and are therefore largely managed with non-surgical interventions such as exercise, patient education, and behavioral based-interventions. To date clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, and the results of high quality randomized controlled trials recommend exercise and patient education as the primary interventions for people in both acute and chronic stages after injury. However, the relatively weak evidence and small effect sizes in individual trials have led authors of some systematic reviews to reach equivocal recommendations for either exercise or patient education and for policy makers and funders to question whether the more expensive intervention (exercise) should be funded at all...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575774/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-manual-based-psychosocial-group-intervention-for-young-people-with-epilepsy-pie
#4
Liam Dorris, Helen Broome, Margaret Wilson, Cathy Grant, David Young, Gus Baker, Selina Balloo, Susan Bruce, Jo Campbell, Bernie Concannon, Nadia Conway, Lisa Cook, Cheryl Davis, Bruce Downey, Jon Evans, Diane Flower, Jack Garlovsky, Shauna Kearney, Susan Lewis, Victoria Stephens, Stuart Turton, Ingram Wright
We conducted an exploratory RCT to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy for a manual-based psychosocial group intervention aimed at improving epilepsy knowledge, self-management skills, and quality of life in young people with epilepsy. METHOD: Eighty-three participants (33:50m/f; age range 12-17years) were randomized to either the treatment or control group in seven tertiary paediatric neuroscience centres in the UK, using a wait-list control design. Participants were excluded if they reported suicidal ideation and/or scored above the cut off on mental health screening measures, or if they had a learning disability or other neurological disorder...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559637/reversible-encephalopathy-due-to-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemia-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-i-disorder-a-cautionary-report
#5
Neel Patel, Katherine B Landry, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Valproic acid (VPA) is an FDA-approved medication widely prescribed for seizures, migraines, and mixed or manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Hyperammonemia is a rare complication of VPA use, which can result in high morbidity and occasionally fatal encephalopathy. The scant literature on Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy (VIHE) is characterized by acute onset of decreasing level of consciousness, drowsiness, lethargy which in rare instances can lead to seizures, stupor, coma, and persistent morbidity and cortical damage...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552054/neurotoxicity-of-insecticides
#6
Julien Cassereau, Marc Ferré, Arnaud Chevrollier, Philippe Codron, Christophe Verny, Chadi Homedan, Guy Lenaers, Vincent Procaccio, Pascale May-Panloup, Pascal Reynier
BACKGROUND: Human exposure to insecticides raises serious public health concerns worldwide. Insecticides constitute a wide-ranging heterogeneous group of chemicals, most of which target the nervous system and disrupt neurometabolism and/or neurotransmission. Although the acute effects of insecticide poisoning in humans are well documented, the chronic and long-term effects remain difficult to investigate. OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: We sought to review the present state-of-knowledge of acute, chronic, neurodevelopmental and neurological consequences of human exposure to insecticides...
May 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504110/neurological-consequences-of-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Brian C Callaghan, Eva L Feldman
The high prevalence of obesity is associated with an enormous medical, social, and economic burden. The metabolic dysfunction, dyslipidaemia, and inflammation caused by obesity contribute to the development of a wide variety of disorders and effects on the nervous system. In the CNS, mild cognitive impairment can be attributed to obesity-induced alterations in hippocampal structure and function in some patients. Likewise, compromised hypothalamic function and subsequent defects in maintaining whole-body energy balance might be early events that contribute to weight gain and obesity development...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496499/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-environmental-triggers-in-patients-with-chronic-daily-headache-a-lifestyle-study
#8
Fakhrudin Faizi, Abbas Tavallaee, Aboulfazl Rahimi, Masoud Saghafinia
Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH) suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014. Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric comorbidities, intensity of CDH, environmental factors, and lifestyle derangement...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484505/effect-of-taichi-softball-on-function-related-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-randomized-control-trial
#9
Lin Lou, Liye Zou, Qun Fang, Huiru Wang, Yang Liu, Zuguo Tian, Yunpeng Han
The purpose of this present study was to examine the effect of Taichi softball (TCSB) on physical function in Chinese older adults. Eighty Chinese older adults were randomly assigned into either an experimental group experiencing four 90-minute TCSB sessions weekly for seven consecutive weeks or a control group. At baseline and 7 weeks later, all participants were asked to perform physical functional tests for both lower and upper limbs. Multiple separate Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were applied to evaluate the effects of TCSB on function-related outcomes between baseline and postintervention in the two groups...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479431/transient-acute-leg-ischemia-in-a-professional-athlete-caused-by-isolated-popliteal-artery-dissection-mimicking-popliteal-entrapment-syndrome
#10
Milos Sladojevic, Marko Dragas, Igor Končar, Oliver Radmili, Miroslav Markovic, Lazar Davidovic
INTRODUCTION: Exertional leg pain includes a broad range of conditions induced by different vascular, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. We report a case with isolated popliteal artery dissection as a cause of a transient acute lower limb ischemia. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with popliteal artery dissection which occurred during squatting exercise. After initial signs of transient acute limb ischemia, physical and ultrasound examination pointed to entrampement syndrome as a likely cause...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446953/neuroprotective-effects-of-exercise-on-brain-edema-and-neurological-movement-disorders-following-the-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-rats
#11
Nabi Shamsaei, Soheila Erfani, Masoud Fereidoni, Ali Shahbazi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion causes physiological and biochemical changes in the neuronal cells that will eventually lead to cell damage. Evidence indicates that exercise reduces the ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain damages in animal models of stroke. In the present study, the effect of exercise preconditioning on brain edema and neurological movement disorders following the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one adult male wistar rats (weighing 260-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups: sham operated, exercise plus ischemia, and ischemia group (7 rats per group)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387557/a-physiological-approach-to-prolonged-recovery-from-sport-related-concussion
#12
REVIEW
John Leddy, John G Baker, Mohammad Nadir Haider, Andrea Hinds, Barry Willer
Management of the athlete with postconcussion syndrome (PCS) is challenging because of the nonspecificity of PCS symptoms. Ongoing symptoms reflect prolonged concussion pathophysiology or conditions such as migraine headaches, depression or anxiety, chronic pain, cervical injury, visual dysfunction, vestibular dysfunction, or some combination of these. In this paper, we focus on the physiological signs of concussion to help narrow the differential diagnosis of PCS in athletes. The physiological effects of exercise on concussion are especially important for athletes...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337132/habituation-training-improves-locomotor-performance-in-a-forced-running-wheel-system-in-rats
#13
Angel Toval, Raúl Baños, Ernesto De la Cruz, Nicanor Morales-Delgado, Jesús G Pallarés, Abdelmalik Ayad, Kuei Y Tseng, Jose L Ferran
Increasing evidence supports that physical activity promotes mental health; and regular exercise may confer positive effects in neurological disorders. There is growing number of reports that requires the analysis of the impact of physical activity in animal models. Exercise in rodents can be performed under voluntary or forced conditions. The former presents the disadvantage that the volume and intensity of exercise varies from subject to subject. On the other hand, a major challenge of the forced training protocol is the low level of performance typically achieved within a given session...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293283/-making-the-mentally-ill-count-lessons-from-a-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-for-people-with-mental-and-neurological-disorders-in-the-kintampo-districts-of-ghana
#14
Kenneth A Ae-Ngibise, Edward Adiibokah, Obed Ernest A Nettey, Solomon Nyame, Victor Christian Korley Doku, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Persons with mental and neurological disorders (PMNDs) are among the most marginalised groups in developing countries, as they are socially excluded and overlooked in most developmental efforts. Due to high levels of stigma and other operational difficulties, PMNDs are often marginalised in routine enumeration exercises. Health and Demographic Surveillance System is an important public health research platform especially in countries that lacks reliable data systems, as it registers and monitor basic demographic and health events such as births, deaths and migration in a geographically defined population...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279569/lifetime-exercise-intolerance-with-lactic-acidosis-as-key-manifestation-of-novel-compound-heterozygous-acad9-mutations-causing-complex-i-deficiency
#15
Bertold Schrank, Benedikt Schoser, Thomas Klopstock, Peter Schneiderat, Rita Horvath, Angela Abicht, Elke Holinski-Feder, Sarunas Augustis
We report a 36-year-old female having lifetime exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis with nausea associated with novel compound heterozygous Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 gene (ACAD9) mutations (p.Ala390Thr and p.Arg518Cys). ACAD9 is an assembly factor for the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. ACAD9 mutations are recognized as frequent causes of complex I deficiency. Our patient presented with exercise intolerance, rapid fatigue, and nausea since early childhood. Mild physical workload provoked the occurrence of nausea and vomiting repeatedly...
May 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256118/treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-the-regulation-of-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-of-nse-ps2m-transgenic-mice-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Jang-Soo Yook, Joon-Yong Cho
Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is classified as a progressive neurological disorder, which not only causes cognitive impairment but also abnormal weight loss, with a reduction of muscle mass related to the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in skeletal muscle. Thus, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on Aβ deposition, and p-AMPK, p-ACC, BDNF, and GLUT4 protein levels the regulation of muscle energy metabolism using an AD mouse. Methods: At 13 months of age, NSE/PS2m mice (Tg) and control mice (non-Tg) were assigned to non-exercise control (Con) and exercise groups (Exe)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215907/spinal-arteriovenous-fistulas-in-adults-management-of-a-series-of-patients-treated-at-a-neurology-department
#17
G Ortega-Suero, J Porta Etessam, M Moreu Gamazo, G Rodríguez-Boto
OBJECTIVE: Spinal arteriovenous fístulas (SAVF), a rare type of vascular malformation, account for 3% of all spinal cord lesions. Without early treatment, the associated morbidity is high; furthermore, SAVF pose a major diagnostic challenge. Our purpose was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of SAVF and review their progress after treatment to determine whether it may be too late for treatment in some cases. METHODS: We present a retrospective series of 10 patients diagnosed with SAVF and treated at a tertiary hospital during a 3-year period...
February 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157094/treadmill-exercise-exerts-neuroprotection-and-regulates-microglial-polarization-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yujiao Lu, Yan Dong, Donovan Tucker, Ruimin Wang, Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Darrell Brann, Quanguang Zhang
Recent work has suggested that exercise may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms of several neurological disorders, although the mechanism is not entirely understood. The current study was designed to examine the potential beneficial effect of treadmill exercise upon cognitive function in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animals underwent treadmill exercise (30 min/day, 5 days/week) for 4 weeks after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular injection (2.4 mg/kg)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138203/reversible-encephalopathy-due-to-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemia-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-i-disorder-a-cautionary-report
#19
Neel Patel, Katherine B Landry, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Valproic acid (VPA) is an FDA-approved medication widely prescribed for seizures, migraines, and mixed or manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Hyperammonemia is a rare complication of VPA use, which can result in high morbidity and occasionally fatal encephalopathy. The scant literature on Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy (VIHE) is characterized by acute onset of decreasing level of consciousness, drowsiness, lethargy which in rare instances can lead to seizures, stupor, coma, and persistent morbidity and cortical damage...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129950/eeg-findings-during-paroxysmal-hemiplegia-in-a-patient-with-glut1-deficiency
#20
S Pellegrin, G Cantalupo, R Opri, B Dalla Bernardina, F Darra
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have disclosed the myriad of features that can suggest the diagnosis of a Glucose-transporter-1 deficiency (GLUT1D). The occurrence of paroxysmal movement disorders such as exercise-induced dystonia and non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, received considerable emphasis, while limited attention has been paid to other paroxysmal phenomena, as transitory neurological disorders. These paroxysmal events are roughly and variably described as limb weakness, hemiparesis or ataxia...
May 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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