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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896765/blood-bio-sampling-procedures-for-multiplex-biomarkers-studies
#1
Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune
A major challenge in single or panel of biomarker discovery and validation is the inherent biological complexity underlying disease heterogeneity and inconsistent responses to treatment. Moreover, the lack of standardization in the sampling, processing, and storage of biological fluids such as plasma and serum disrupts the discovery and validation of blood-based biomarker tests in preclinical and clinical settings. This chapter presents a reproducible sample collection and handling procedure that aims to enhance analyte stability and ensure compatibility with the corresponding multiplex biomarker profiling platforms...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890448/vaccines-against-pseudorabies-virus-prv
#2
C M Freuling, T F Müller, T C Mettenleiter
Aujeszkýs disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable herpesvirus infection of pigs causing substantial economic losses to swine producers. AD in pigs is controlled by the use of vaccination with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines. Starting with classically attenuated live vaccines derived from low virulent field isolates, AD vaccination has pioneered novel strategies in animal disease control by the first use of genetically engineered live virus vaccines lacking virulence-determining genes, and the concept of DIVA, i...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889782/molecular-pathology-a-requirement-for-precision-medicine-in-cancer
#3
Manfred Dietel
The increasing importance of targeting drugs and check-point inhibitors in the treatment of several tumor entities (breast, colon, lung, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, etc.) and the necessity of a companion diagnostic (HER2, (pan)RAS, EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ROS1, MET, PD-L1, etc.) is leading to new challenges for surgical pathology. Since almost all the biomarkers to be specifically detected are tissue based, a precise and reliable diagnostic is absolutely crucial. To meet this challenge surgical pathology has adapted a number of molecular methods (semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR and its multiple variants, (pyro/Sanger) sequencing, next generation sequencing (amplicon, whole exome, whole genome), DNA arrays, methylation analyses, etc...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888307/monitoring-doxorubicin-cellular-uptake-and-trafficking-using-in-vitro-raman-microspectroscopy-short-and-long-time-exposure-effects-on-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Zeineb Farhane, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J Byrne
Raman microspectroscopy is a non-invasive, in vitro analytical tool which is being increasingly explored for its potential in clinical applications and monitoring the uptake, mechanism of action and cellular interaction at a molecular level of chemotherapeutic drugs, ultimately as a potential label-free preclinical screening and companion diagnostic tool. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX), a "gold standard" chemotherapeutic drug, is employed as a model in the in vitro lung cancer cell line A549 in order to demonstrate the potential of Raman microspectroscopy to screen and identify spectroscopic markers of its trafficking and mechanism of action...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886248/ultrasensitive-rapid-and-inexpensive-detection-of-dna-using-paper-based-lateral-flow-assay
#5
Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Markéta Svobodová, Teresa Mairal, Calum McNeil, Neil Keegan, Ayman Saeed, Mohammad Nooredeen Abbas, Mohammad S El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O Alyoubi, Ciara K O Sullivan
Sensitive, specific, rapid, inexpensive and easy-to-use nucleic acid tests for use at the point-of-need are critical for the emerging field of personalised medicine for which companion diagnostics are essential, as well as for application in low resource settings. Here we report on the development of a point-of-care nucleic acid lateral flow test for the direct detection of isothermally amplified DNA. The recombinase polymerase amplification method is modified slightly to use tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon with a duplex flanked by two single stranded DNA tails...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849442/to-genotype-or-phenotype-for-personalized-medicine-cyp450-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-genotype-phenotype-concordance-and-discordance-in-the-ecuadorian-population
#6
Fernando De Andrés, Santiago Terán, Francisco Hernández, Enrique Terán, Adrián LLerena
Genetic variations within the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily of drug metabolizing enzymes confer substantial person-to-person and between-population differences in pharmacokinetics, and by extension, highly variable clinical effects of medicines. In this context, "personalized medicine," "precision medicine," and "stratified medicine" are related concepts attributed to what is essentially targeted therapeutics and companion diagnostics, aimed at improving safety and effectiveness of health interventions...
November 16, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843626/tumour-and-cellular-distribution-of-activated-forms-of-pr-in-breast-cancers-a-novel-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-a-large-clinical-cohort
#7
Jacques Bonneterre, Jacques Bosq, Philippe Jamme, Alexander Valent, Erard M Gilles, Alexander A Zukiwski, Suzanne A W Fuqua, Carol A Lange, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND: The progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed by ∼70% of early breast tumours and is implicated in the progression of breast cancer. In cancerous tissues PR may be activated in the absence of a ligand, or when ligand concentrations are very low, resulting in aberrantly activated PR (APR). The presence of APR may indicate that patients with breast cancer are more likely to respond to antiprogestins. The aims of this study were to describe and classify the histological subnuclear morphology of active and inactive PR in archival breast cancer samples...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819856/investigating-the-chemokine-receptor-4-as-potential-theranostic-target-in-adrenocortical-cancer-patients
#8
Christina Bluemel, Stefanie Hahner, Britta Heinze, Martin Fassnacht, Matthias Kroiss, Thorsten A Bley, Hans-Juergen Wester, Saskia Kropf, Constantin Lapa, Andreas Schirbel, Andreas K Buck, Ken Herrmann
PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but aggressive endocrine tumor with limited treatment options. Preclinical studies confirmed overexpression of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in this cancer type. This study aimed to analyze the role of CXCR4 imaging using Ga-pentixafor for ACC staging and selection of patients for CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Thirty patients with histologically proven advanced, metastasized ACC underwent F-FDG PET/CT and Ga-pentixafor PET/CT within a time interval of 3 ± 4 days to evaluate suitability for CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814611/targeted-drugs-and-diagnostic-assays-companions-in-the-race-to-combat-ethnic-disparity
#9
Nikita Wright, Padmashree Rida, Uma Krishnamurti, Xiaoxian Li, Ritu Aneja
African Americans (AAs) are more likely than European Americans to develop aggressive breast cancer subtypes, and have higher recurrence and mortality rates; this results in a stark breast-cancer related ethnic disparity in clinical outcomes. In this era of personalized oncology, companion diagnostics (CDx) are transforming the cancer treatment narrative slowly but steadily, by enabling the use of safety and/or efficacy biomarkers to stratify patient populations, and thus ensuring more effective deployment of targeted therapeutics...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800665/status-and-trends-in-the-development-of-clinical-diagnostic-agents
#10
REVIEW
Tatjana Opacic, Vera Paefgen, Twan Lammers, Fabian Kiessling
Contrast agents (CA) are routinely used in clinical practice to improve the diagnosis of diseases and to monitor therapy response. The majority of CA comprises small molecules accumulating at pathological sites due to vascular abnormalities, such as changes in perfusion and permeability. For many diseases, high diagnostic accuracy can be achieved with contrast-enhanced imaging. This means that new CA will only succeed in translation if they either show superior performance with respect to diagnostic accuracy, safety and cost, support a new imaging modality, or are directly linked to the refinement of therapy, e...
October 31, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789023/the-evolution-of-oncology-companion-diagnostics-from-signal-transduction-to-immuno-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas C Dracopoli, Mark S Boguski
Sixteen oncology drugs have been approved with a companion diagnostic (CDx) test by the FDA. These represent only 9.6% of the 167 oncology drug approvals since 1998, the year the first CDx test for Herceptin was approved. The great majority of CDx tests are for drugs that inhibit signal transduction pathways by either inhibiting the intracellular kinase activity with a small molecule or preventing ligand-induced receptor activation with a monoclonal antibody. In most of these cases, prospective patient selection for the biomarker-positive subpopulation was initiated in or before Phase II...
October 24, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785366/quantitative-imaging-for-development-of-companion-diagnostics-to-drugs-targeting-hgf-met
#12
Fangjin Huang, Zhaoxuan Ma, Sara Pollan, Xiaopu Yuan, Steven Swartwood, Arkadiusz Gertych, Maria Rodriguez, Jayati Mallick, Sanica Bhele, Maha Guindi, Deepti Dhall, Ann E Walts, Shikha Bose, Mariza de Peralta Venturina, Alberto M Marchevsky, Daniel J Luthringer, Stephan M Feller, Benjamin Berman, Michael R Freeman, W Gregory Alvord, George Vande Woude, Mahul B Amin, Beatrice S Knudsen
The limited clinical success of anti-HGF/MET drugs can be attributed to the lack of predictive biomarkers that adequately select patients for treatment. We demonstrate here that quantitative digital imaging of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues stained by immunohistochemistry can be used to measure signals from weakly staining antibodies and provides new opportunities to develop assays for detection of MET receptor activity. To establish a biomarker panel of MET activation, we employed seven antibodies measuring protein expression in the HGF/MET pathway in 20 cases and up to 80 cores from 18 human cancer types...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742013/collagen-fibers-mediate-mri-detected-water-diffusion-and-anisotropy-in-breast-cancers
#13
Samata Kakkad, Jiangyang Zhang, Alireza Akhbardeh, Desmond Jacob, Balaji Krishnamachary, Meiyappan Solaiyappan, Michael A Jacobs, Venu Raman, Dieter Leibfritz, Kristine Glunde, Zaver M Bhujwalla
Collagen 1 (Col1) fibers play an important role in tumor interstitial macromolecular transport and cancer cell dissemination. Our goal was to understand the influence of Col1 fibers on water diffusion, and to examine the potential of using noninvasive diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to indirectly detect Col1 fibers in breast lesions. We previously observed, in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts engineered to fluoresce under hypoxia, relatively low amounts of Col1 fibers in fluorescent hypoxic regions...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737650/the-refract-lyma-cohort-study-a-french-observational-prospective-cohort-study-of-patients-with-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#14
Matthieu Hanf, David Chiron, Sophie de Visme, Cyrille Touzeau, Hervé Maisonneuve, Henry Jardel, Catherine Pellat-Deceunynck, Martine Amiot, Steven le Gouill
BACKGROUND: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) is often associated with progression, temporary response to therapy and a high relapse rate over time resulting in a poor long-term prognosis. Because MCL is classified as an incurable disease, therapeutic resistance is of great interest. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms underlying resistance associated with MCL therapies and about associated predictors remains poor. The REFRACT-LYMA Cohort, a multicenter prospective cohort of patients with MCL, is set up to address this limitation...
October 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737606/profile-of-the-therascreen%C3%A2-egfr-rgq-pcr-kit-as-a-companion-diagnostic-for-gefitinib-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Emily Han-Chung Hsiue, Jih-Hsiang Lee, Chia-Chi Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang
Gefitinib is recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. The therascreen® EGFR RGQ PCR Kit is approved as a companion diagnostic to select patients with EGFR exon 19 deletions and L858R mutation for treatment with gefitinib. Areas covered: This article reviews the methods for detecting EGFR mutations, the technology and indication of the therascreen® kit, and the clinical utility of the assay in phase 3 and phase 4 clinical trials...
October 13, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719641/predictive-biomarkers-for-linking-disease-pathology-and-drug-effect
#16
Bernd Mayer, Andreas Heinzel, Arno Lukas, Paul Perco
BACKGROUND: Productivity in drug R&D continues seeing significant attrition in clinical stage testing. Approval of new molecular entities proceeds with slow pace specifically when it comes to chronic, age-related diseases, calling for new conceptual approaches, methodological implementation and organizational adoption in drug development. METHODS: Detailed phenotyping of disease presentation together with comprehensive representation of drug mechanism of action is considered as a path forward, and a big data spectrum has become available covering behavioral, clinical and molecular characteristics, the latter combining reductionist and explorative strategies...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714446/key-elements-of-metabolomics-in-the-study-of-biomarkers-of-diabetes
#17
Jerzy Adamski
Metabolomics is instrumental in the analysis of disease mechanisms and biomarkers of disease. The human metabolome is influenced by genetics and environmental interactions and reveals characteristic signatures of disease. Population studies with metabolomics require special study designs and care needs to be taken with pre-analytics. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or NMR are popular techniques used for metabolomic analyses in human cohorts...
October 6, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698870/association-of-foxm1-expression-with-tumor-histology-and-prognosis-in-wilms-tumor-potential-for-a-new-prognostic-marker
#18
Nadja Apelt, Jochen Hubertus, Doris Mayr, Norbert Graf, Rhoikos Furtwängler, Dietrich Von Schweinitz, Roland Kappler
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common pediatric renal malignancy. A recent ontogenic model suggests that undifferentiated tumor state, and hence poor prognosis, in WT is determined by stabilization of β-catenin in the nucleus. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a downstream component of the Wnt pathway and promotes nuclear localization of β-catenin. As elevation of FOXM1 gene expression is prognostic in various types of malignancy, we hypothesized that high FOXM1 expression in WT is associated with undifferentiated histology and thus poor prognosis...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682074/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-microrna-in-viral-diseases
#19
Eeva Auvinen
Virology is probably the most rapidly developing field within clinical laboratory medicine. Adequate diagnostic methods exist for the diagnostics of most acute viral infections. However, emergence of pathogenic viruses or virus strains and new disease associations of known viruses require the establishment of new diagnostic methods, sometimes very rapidly. In the field of chronic or persistent viral diseases, particularly those involving potential of malignant or fatal development, there is a constant need for improved differential diagnostics, monitoring, prognosis and risk assessment...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672336/lyme-disease-the-promise-of-big-data-companion-diagnostics-and-precision-medicine
#20
Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine Johnson
Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
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