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Streptococcus equi

Christian Spoerry, Pontus Hessle, Melanie J Lewis, Lois Paton, Jenny M Woof, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen
Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors...
2016: PloS One
Jie Peng, Zhe Ma, Chengwei Hua, Huixing Lin, Hui Zhang, Chengping Lu, Hongjie Fan
Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Alison Harvey, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Barbara A Byrne, Jorge Nieto
OBJECTIVE: To compare synovial concentrations of amikacin following intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) with two different doses, and to compare their ability to reach target concentrations for bacterial isolates from common orthopedic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover experiment. ANIMALS: Six adult horses. METHODS: Horses received IVRLP with 2 and 3 g of amikacin in the cephalic vein of alternate limbs (20 minutes tourniquet application and ≥14 days washout period)...
September 29, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Kelly Yarnell, Melanie Le Bon, Nicholas Turton, Marina Savova, Abigail McGlennon, Stephen Forsythe
AIMS: Compare the rate of growth of four microbial strains that cause disease in the equine, on four commonly used types of bedding. The moisture holding capacity of each bedding type was also tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial strains included, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Dichelobacter nodosus and Dermatophilus congolensis. The bedding types tested were Pinus syvestrus (Scots pine shavings), Pinus nigra (Corsican pine shavings), Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce shavings), Cannabis sativa (hemp) and chopped wheat straw...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S Tirosh-Levy, S E Blum, K F Steward, A S Waller, A Steinman
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
R Javed, A K Taku, Rakhi Gangil, R K Sharma
AIM: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Ahmed N F Neamat-Allah, Hend M El Damaty
AIM: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Nicola Decaro, Viviana Mari, Vittorio Larocca, Michele Losurdo, Gianvito Lanave, Maria Stella Lucente, Marialaura Corrente, Cristiana Catella, Stefano Bo, Gabriella Elia, Giorgio Torre, Erika Grandolfo, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia
A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV)...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Vance Kawakami, Krista Rietberg, Beth Lipton, Kaye Eckmann, Maryann Watkins, Hanna Oltean, Meagan Kay, Chantal Rothschild, Miwako Kobayashi, Chris Van Beneden, Jeff Duchin
On March 17, 2016, Public Health-Seattle & King County in Washington was notified of two persons who received a diagnosis of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) infections. S. zooepidemicus is a zoonotic pathogen that rarely causes human illness and is usually associated with consuming unpasteurized dairy products or with direct horse contact (1). In horses, S. zooepidemicus is a commensal bacterium that can cause respiratory, wound, and uterine infections (2). The health department investigated to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, identify risk factors, and offer recommendations...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
A Kendall, I G Mayhew, K Petrovski
BACKGROUND: Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. METHODS: We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin...
August 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Annie Malo, Caroline Cluzel, Olivia Labrecque, Guy Beauchamp, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, Mathilde Leclere
This study identified antimicrobial resistance patterns of commonly isolated bacteria at the Equine Hospital of the Université de Montréal between 2007 and 2013, and compared the results with the resistance patterns observed in tests performed in previous decades in the same hospital. A total of 396 antimicrobial susceptibility tests were analyzed by the Kirby-Bauer method during the period 2007 to 2013 and compared to 233 and 255 tests completed in 1986 to 1988 and 1996 to 1998, respectively. The most common bacteria were Streptococcus equi subsp...
July 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Bin Xu, Xiaomeng Pei, Yiqi Su, Zhe Ma, Hongjie Fan
Direct interaction between pathogens and host cells often is a prerequisite for colonization, infection and dissemination. Regulated production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which is made of hyaluronic acid, is essential for the pathogenicity of Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus (SEZ). Here, we constructed a CPS-deleted mutant and analyzed it along with the parental wild-type strain in attachment and invasion of mammalian epithelial and endothelial cell lines. The CPS-deleted mutant exhibited significant increase in adherence and invasion by several orders of magnitude compared with the wild-type strain through quantitative analysis and electron microscopy observation...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Julia L Livengood, Saraswathi Lanka, Carol Maddox, Deepanker Tewari
Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles, is an important equine pathogen. Strangles is a highly contagious disease and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is used for protection, which although effective, may also result in clinical signs of the disease. A rapid means to differentiate between the MLV and wild-type infection is crucial for quarantine release and limiting the disease spread. This study describes the use of a pyrosequencing assay targeting a single nucleotide deletion upstream of the SzPSe gene to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains...
July 25, 2016: Vaccine
Rui Liu, Ping Zhang, Yiqi Su, Huixing Lin, Hui Zhang, Lei Yu, Zhe Ma, Hongjie Fan
The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ma Zhe, Peng Jie, Zhang Hui, Xu Bin, Pei Xiaomeng, Lin Huixing, Lu Chengping, Fan Hongjie
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) causes meningitis in both humans and animals. Some dissociative proteins of SEZ are cytotoxic to mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (mBMECs) and may contribute to the penetration of SEZ across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, the ability of SEZ to penetrate across an in vitro BBB model was confirmed. We used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to label SEZ proteins with heavy or light isotope-tagged amino acids, along with LC-MS/MS to determine which SEZ proteins were involved in interactions with mBMECs...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Li Yi, Yang Wang, Zhe Ma, Hui-Xing Lin, Bin Xu, Daniel Grenier, Hong-Jie Fan, Cheng-Ping Lu
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. equi spp. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major economic losses in the swine industry in China and is also a threat for human health. Biofilm formation by this bacterium has been previously reported. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. equi spp. zooepidemicus. Seventeen immunoreactive proteins were found, of which nine common immunoreactive proteins were identified in planktonic and biofilm-grown bacteria...
2016: Veterinary Research
Bin Xu, Xinyi Yang, Ping Zhang, Zhe Ma, Huixing Lin, Hongjie Fan
The arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a secondary metabolic system found in many different bacterial pathogens and it is often associated with virulence. Here, a systematic study of ADS functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was performed. Transcriptional levels of ADS operon genes were observed to be significantly increased when SEZ was grown under acidic conditions. We constructed arcA and arcD deletion mutants (SEZ ΔarcA and SEZ ΔarcD, respectively) and found that SEZ ΔarcA was unable to metabolize arginine and synthesize ammonia; however, arcD deletion resulted in an initial decrease in arginine consumption and ammonia production, followed by recovery to the levels of wild-type SEZ after 24 h of cultivation...
June 2016: Research in Microbiology
Giampaolo Colavita, Carmela Amadoro, Franca Rossi, Francesco Fantuz, Elisabetta Salimei
Today the interest toward horse (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) milk for human consumption is receiving a renewed attention because of its particular composition, hypoallergenicity, and nutraceutical properties. The realistic perspective of global use of this aliment in balanced diets, especially for infancy and geriatrics, poses the need for a more in depth knowledge on milk hygiene and on the health status of dairy animals, as a prerequisite of consumers' safety. The aim of this paper was to review the available literature on the health and hygiene parameters as well as on the potential microbiological hazards in horse and donkey milk and the risks related to their consumption...
January 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Chandrani Das, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information is required to obtain a global view of diverse characteristics and pathogenicity-related aspects of this machinery. The present study suggests that differences in structural components (of T7SS) between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, observed earlier in a few organisms, is indeed a global trend...
March 2016: Journal of Biosciences
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