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Streptococcus equi

Andrew Waller
Andrew Waller , head of bacteriology at the AHT, describes Streptococcus equi, the causative agent of strangles in horses, and discusses progress with the latest research aimed at improving vaccines against this global disease.
March 17, 2018: Veterinary Record
A G Boyle, J F Timoney, J R Newton, M T Hines, A S Waller, B R Buchanan
This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles. This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. The statement redefines the "gold standard" for detection of possible infection and reviews the new technologies available in polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and serology and their use in outbreak control and prevention...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Carl Robinson, Lars Frykberg, Margareta Flock, Bengt Guss, Andrew S Waller, Jan-Ingmar Flock
The host-restricted pathogen Streptococcus equi causes strangles in the horse, which is characterised by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck. The disease is endemic throughout the world causing considerable welfare and economic cost to the horse industry. Here we report the results of three studies where ponies were vaccinated with combinations of recombinant fusion proteins to optimise vaccine production and the level of protection conferred. Optimal protection was conferred by a prototype multicomponent subunit vaccine, Strangvac 4, which contained eight proteins CNE, SclC, SclF, SclI, EAG (fused as CCE), SEQ_402, SEQ_0256 (fused as Eq85) and IdeE...
February 1, 2018: Vaccine
L Tscheschlok, M Venner, K Steward, R Böse, M Riihimäki, J Pringle
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi ssp. equi causes characteristic clinical signs that are most severe in young horses, including fever, purulent nasal discharge, and lymph node abscessation in the head region. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Clinical, serologic, and microbiologic factors related to unexpectedly mild disease severity in a natural outbreak of strangles in immunologically naïve weanlings were investigated. ANIMALS: One-hundred and twelve warmblood weanlings...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
N Pusterla, C M Leutenegger, S M Barnum, B A Byrne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, molecular approaches have been able to characterise the viability of equine upper respiratory tract pathogens using absolute molecular quantitation as well as detection of transcripts for virulence genes. OBJECTIVES: The objective this study was to investigate molecular surrogates for S. equi subspecies equi (S. equi) viability in biological samples from horses with strangles. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Huihuang Liang, Bin Tang, Pengpeng Zhao, Mingyong Deng, Lili Yan, Pan Zhai, Zigong Wei
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
Carla P Bustos, María J Marfil, Natalia S Lanza, Nora Guida
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the etiologic agent of strangles, an infectious disease affecting the upper respiratory tract and head and neck lymph nodes of equines. Routine antimicrobial therapy includes penicillin (PEN) as antibiotic of first choice. Streptococci are usually susceptible to PEN and only a few antimicrobial studies had been performed. The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. equi from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ninety-two isolates were studied by the single disk method to PEN, cefotaxime, erythromycin (ERY), tetracycline, enrofloxacin (ENR), trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMS), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin (CLI), streptomycin (STR) and florfenicol...
November 30, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Bolette Skive, Manfred Rohde, Gabriella Molinari, Thomas Hartig Braunstein, Anders M Bojesen
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus ( S. zooepidemicus ) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside in the endometrium for prolonged periods of time. Thus, we hypothesized that an intracellular phase may be part of the S. zooepidemicus pathogenesis and investigated if S. zooepidemicus was able to invade and survive inside epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mu'uz Gebru, Genene Tefera, Fufa Dawo, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema
A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial species from the respiratory tract of apparently healthy and pneumonic camels in Asayita and Dubti woredas in the Afar Region, Ethiopia. From a total of 74 lung tissue and 74 tracheal swab samples Staphylococcus aureus, 16.3%, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 13.0%, and Pasteurella multocida, 10.9%, were dominant isolates from pneumonic lungs; Escherichia coli, 12.7%, Proteus species, 10.9%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9.1%, were the majority in the normal lungs...
November 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Bin Tang, Huihuang Liang, Pengpeng Zhao, Zigong Wei
MicroRNAs are increasingly reported implicated in the host cell response to bacterial pathogens. In order to investigate whether miR-194b-3p regulates the adherence of Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus (SeZ) to porcine kidney cell line PK15, the miR-194b-3p agomir and antagomir were transfected into PK15 cells respectively and the adherence rate of SeZ to each was determined. Adherence rate of SeZ C55138 was significantly decreased when miR-194b-3p agomir was transfected in PK15, while that of miR-194b-3p antagomir evaluated...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Najma Boudebouch, M'hammed Sarih, Abdelfattah Chakib, Salma Fadili, Drissi Boumzebra, Zahira Zouizra, Badie Azamane Mahadji, Hamid Amarouch, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
We investigated the microorganisms causing blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) in Morocco. We tested 19 patients with BCNE by serologic methods, molecular methods, or both and identified Bartonella quintana, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi, and Streptococcus oralis in 4 patients. These results highlight the role of these zoonotic agents in BCNE in Morocco.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mark R Davies
Despite tight biosecurity measures, an outbreak of respiratory disease rapidly spread across the Icelandic equine population in 2010. Horse transportation was brought to a halt in order to contain the spread of the infectious agent. In a recent article, Björnsdóttir and colleagues (S. Björnsdóttir et al., mBio 8:e00826-17, 2017, employ the power and resolution of "genomic epidemiology," the combination of whole genomic sequencing and epidemiological approaches, to examine the source and spread of the outbreak...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Ann P Britton, Shlomo E Blum, Carolyn Legge, Ken Sojonky, Erin N Zabek
Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus ( S. zooepidemicus) causes outbreaks of fatal respiratory disease in dog shelters and fatal respiratory and neurologic disease in cat shelters. We conducted multi-locus sequence typing analysis on S. zooepidemicus isolates from 5 Canadian and 3 Israeli cats with severe respiratory and neurologic disease, plus 1 isolate from a clinically normal shelter cat. Our aim was to determine if feline outbreaks are clonal and whether there is commonality between feline and canine strains...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Barbora Šafránková, Martina Hermannová, Kristina Nešporová, Vladimír Velebný, Lukáš Kubala
Hyaluronan (HA) effects on immune response are suggested to be dependent on HA molecular weight (MW), as low MW HA should activate immune cells in contrast to high MW HA. However, some current studies do not support this conception and emphasize the importance of the form of preparation of HA, particularly with respect to its purity and origin. We compared the activation of mouse immune cells by HA samples (100kDa, 500kDa, and 997kDa) prepared from HA originating from rooster comb, and HA samples (71kDa, 500kDa, and 1000kDa) prepared from pharmacological grade HA originating from Streptococcus equi...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sigríður Björnsdóttir, Simon R Harris, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Eggert Gunnarsson, Ólöf G Sigurðardóttir, Kristina Gammeljord, Karen F Steward, J Richard Newton, Carl Robinson, Amelia R L Charbonneau, Julian Parkhill, Matthew T G Holden, Andrew S Waller
Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country's native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S...
August 1, 2017: MBio
Karen F Steward, Carl Robinson, Matthew T G Holden, Simon R Harris, Ana Fernández Ros, Gema Chacón Pérez, Rafael Baselga, Andrew S Waller
The zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a diverse, opportunistic pathogen that can cause mastitis in dairy sheep and goats. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to define the genetic diversity of 60 isolates of S. zooepidemicus, which were recovered from sheep and goats in Spain between 2003 and 2010. We identify a novel clonal complex based on sequence type (ST), ST-236, which accounted for 39 of the 60 isolates. A representative ST-236 strain, S. zooepidemicus strain C7 (SzC7), was sequenced and interrogated for the presence of novel nutritional uptake or utilisation systems, the acquisition of which have previously been shown to be important for environmental adaptation in other streptococcal pathogens...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Bruna R Curcio, Igor F Canisso, Fernanda M Pazinato, Luciana A Borba, Lorena S Feijó, Vitoria Muller, Ilusca S Finger, Ramiro E Toribio, Carlos E W Nogueira
The overall goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic combinations of estradiol cypionate (ECP, a long-acting estrogen) and altrenogest (ALT, a long-acting progestin) in addition to basic treatment for placentitis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS) and flunixin meglumine (FM). Specific outcomes measured in this experiment were (i) time from induction of bacterial placentitis to delivery, and foal parameters (high-risk, survival, and birth weight); and (ii) serum steroid concentrations (progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-estradiol, and cortisol) in response to treatment...
October 15, 2017: Theriogenology
Karen Frances Steward, Carl Robinson, Duncan J Maskell, Chiara Nenci, Andrew Stephen Waller
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, among the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Genome analysis of S. equi strain 4047 (Se4047) identified a putative operon, Fim1, with similarity to the pilus loci of other Gram-positive bacteria. The Fim1 locus was present in all strains of S. equi and its close relative S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) that have been studied to date. In this study we provide evidence that the putative structural pilus proteins, SEQ_0936 and CNE, are produced on the cell surface during in vitro growth and in vivo infection...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology
Lukas Bajer, Miloslav Kverka, Martin Kostovcik, Peter Macinga, Jiri Dvorak, Zuzana Stehlikova, Jan Brezina, Pavel Wohl, Julius Spicak, Pavel Drastich
AIM: To characterize the gut bacterial microbiota of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Stool samples were collected and relevant clinical data obtained from 106 study participants, 43 PSC patients with (n = 32) or without (n = 11) concomitant inflammatory bowel disease, 32 UC patients, and 31 healthy controls. The V3 and V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform to cover low taxonomic levels...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Francisco R Carvallo, Francisco A Uzal, Santiago S Diab, Ashley E Hill, Rick M Arthur
Respiratory diseases have a major impact on racehorses in training and are often cited as the second most common reason of horses failing to perform. Cases were submitted by the California Horse Racing Board to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory for postmortem examination between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014. We determined the demographics of racehorses with fatal pneumonia, characterized the pathologic findings in animals with a postmortem diagnosis of respiratory infection, and determined the most significant pathogens associated with lower respiratory tract disease...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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