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Canine behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421298/dog-rivalry-impacts-following-behavior-in-a-decision-making-task-involving-food
#1
Christy L Hoffman, Malini Suchak
Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food...
April 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414470/association-between-lateral-bias-and-personality-traits-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#2
Shanis Barnard, Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan
Behavioral laterality reflects the cerebral functional asymmetry. Measures of laterality have been associated with emotional stress, problem-solving, and personality in some vertebrate species. Thus far, the association between laterality and personality in the domestic dog has been largely overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether lateralized (left or right) and ambilateral dogs differed in their behavioral response to a standardized personality test. The dog's preferred paw to hold a Kong ball filled with food and the first paw used to step-off from a standing position were scored as laterality measures...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392243/persistence-and-resistance-to-extinction-in-the-domestic-dog-basic-research-and-applications-to-canine-training
#3
REVIEW
Nathaniel J Hall
This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364835/canine-tungiasis-high-prevalence-in-a-tourist-region-in-bahia-state-brazil
#4
Tatiani Vitor Harvey, Jorg Heukelbach, Maíra Siles Assunção, Thalna Magalhães Fernandes, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha, Renata Santiago Alberto Carlos
Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease neglected by authorities, health professionals, and the general population. Its occurrence is significantly associated with poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalence of tungiasis, associated clinical signs and risk factors of the canine population at a tourist site in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (northeast Brazil). All village households were visited and dogs inspected after authorization by owners. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357471/mechanical-load-exerted-by-pet-g-aligners-during-mesial-and-distal-derotation-of-a-mandibular-canine-an-in-vitro-study
#5
F Elkholy, B Mikhaiel, F Schmidt, B G Lapatki
INTRODUCTION: The six force-moment (F/M) components exerted by aligners of different thickness during simulated mesiorotation and distorotation of a mandibular canine were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic mandibular model with a separated right canine mounted on a hexapod via a 3D F/M sensor was used. Duran+(®) aligners (Scheu Dental, Germany) of thickness 0.5, 0.625, and 0.75 mm were fabricated on plaster models with the measurement tooth in its neutral position...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352471/genetic-mapping-of-principal-components-of-canine-pelvic-morphology
#6
Mark J Fealey, Joy Li, Rebel J E Todhunter, Ursula Krotscheck, Kei Hayashi, Marina J McConkey, Adam R Boyko, Jessica J Hayward, Rory J Todhunter
BACKGROUND: Concentrated breeding effort to produce various body structures and behaviors of dogs to suit human demand has inadvertently produced unwanted traits and diseases that accompany the morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We explored the relationship between pelvic conformation and canine hip dysplasia (HD) because purebred dogs which are predisposed, or not, to HD share common morphologic features, respectively. Thirteen unique bilateral anatomical features of the pelvis were measured on 392 dogs of 51 breeds and 95 mixed breed dogs...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346050/perception-of-canine-welfare-concerns-among-veterinary-students-practitioners-and-behavior-specialists-in-spain
#7
Isabel Luño, Jorge Palacio, Sylvia García-Belenguer, Ángela González-Martínez, Belén Rosado
Veterinarians are well placed to supervise and ensure canine welfare. However, the perception of animal welfare among veterinarians may vary depending on the level of training and professional practice, including the specialization in animal behavior and welfare. The aim of this study was to survey the perception of canine welfare among veterinarians, including students, practitioners, and behavior specialists. A scale-based questionnaire including 12 issues affecting canine welfare was adapted from Yeates and Main and distributed to first-year (n=50) and fifth-year veterinary students (n=50), as well as veterinary practitioners (n=260) and specialists in behavioral medicine (n=50)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#8
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327262/clinical-performance-of-pedo-jacket-crowns-in-maxillary-anterior-primary-teeth
#9
Aimee Castro, Sherine B Y Badr, Wafa El-Badrawy, Gajanan Kulkarni
PURPOSES: To assess the clinical performance of Pedo Jacket crowns for restoration of carious primary anterior teeth. METHODS: A total of 129 carious primary incisors and canines of 48 children younger than 71 months of age- were restored with Pedo Jacket crowns and resin-modified glass ionomer cementation. They were assessed for: ease of use; presence of recurrent decay; wear; partial or complete loss of the crown; color stability; gingival health; and overall clinical success over a 12-month follow-up...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321510/dna-methylation-patterns-of-behavior-related-gene-promoter-regions-dissect-the-gray-wolf-from-domestic-dog-breeds
#10
Zsofia Banlaki, Giulia Cimarelli, Zsofia Viranyi, Eniko Kubinyi, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Zsolt Ronai
A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318293/yawning-and-social-styles-different-functions-in-tolerant-and-despotic-macaques-macaca-tonkeana-and-macaca-fuscata
#11
Alessandra Zannella, Roscoe Stanyon, Elisabetta Palagi
Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282235/artifacts-during-short-term-interictal-electroencephalographic-recording-in-dogs
#12
Alberto Cauduro, Maurizio Dondi, Paolo Favole, Mauro Opreni, Lucia Antonietta Simonetto, Valentina Lorenzo
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an electrodiagnostic technique widely used in both scientific research and clinical medicine. It makes it possible to study the neurophysiology of brain activity by recording real-time changes in electrical potential produced by cortical activation. The importance of EEG in diagnosing canine epilepsy demonstrates its usefulness when the owner's description of crises is not clear or when the episodes cannot be differentiated from behavioral or cardiac disorders. However, EEG recordings also often record electrical activity from sources other than the brain, which may interfere with the clinical event-related signal...
March 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266316/genomic-copy-number-variation-associated-with-clinical-outcome-in-canine-cutaneous-mast-cell-tumors
#13
Paulo C Jark, Deborah B P Mundin, Marcio de Carvalho, Raquel B Ferioli, Letícia A Anai, Fabio A Marchi, Silvia R Rogatto, Renee Laufer-Amorim, Mirela Tinucci-Costa
Mast cell tumors are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs. Although there are several prognostic factors involved, the clinical and biological behavior of this type of tumor varies greatly, making the best choice of treatment challenging. Molecular techniques can be used to evaluate a large number of genes involved in the neoplastic process and aid in the selection of candidate genes related to prognostic and predicting factors. Identification of the genes associated with tumor development and progression can be performed through the analysis of numerical and structural changes in DNA isolated from tumor cells by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)...
April 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265981/exploring-canine-human-differences-in-product-performance-part-ii-use-of-modeling-and-simulation-to-explore-the-impact-of-formulation-on-ciprofloxacin-in-vivo-absorption-and-dissolution-in-dogs
#14
M N Martinez, B Mistry, V Lukacova, K A Lentz, J E Polli, S W Hoag, T Dowling, R Kona, R M Fahmy
This study explored the in vivo performance of three oral ciprofloxacin formulations (oral solution, fast, or slow dissolving tablets) in beagle dogs. The in vivo absorption and dissolution behaviors, estimated with in silico mechanistic models, were compared to the results previously published in human volunteers. Six normal healthy male beagle dogs (five to completion) received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by tandem mass spectrometry detection...
March 6, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246503/ultrasonographic-evaluation-of-periodontal-changes-during-orthodontic-tooth-movement-work-in-progress
#15
Adela Zimbran, Diana Dudea, Cristina Gasparik, Sorin Dudea
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. METHODS: Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238915/a-simply-prepared-small-diameter-artificial-blood-vessel-that-promotes-in-situ-endothelialization
#16
Hong-Feng Guo, Wei-Wei Dai, De-Hui Qian, Zhe-Xue Qin, Yan Lei, Xiao-Yu Hou, Can Wen
Synthetic grafts are of limited use in small-diameter vessels (Φ<6mm) due to the poor patency rate. The inability of such grafts to achieve early endothelialization together with the compliance mismatch between the grafts and the native vessels promote thrombosis, which eventually leads to graft occlusion. In the current study, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded polyurethane (PU) conduits were simply prepared via electrospinning. The mechanical property, drug release behavior and cytocompatibility of the conduits were investigated...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#17
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168679/doggone-affordances-canine-perception-of-affordances-for-reaching
#18
Jeffrey B Wagman, Matthew D Langley, Valeri Farmer-Dougan
Performing any behavior requires perceiving affordances-whether and how that behavior can be performed. Perception of affordances exhibits action scaling-choices about when to transition between two different modes of behavior reflect the fit between action capabilities and environmental properties. The boundary between distances that are perceived to be reachable with an arm-only reach and those that are perceived to be reachable with an arm-plus-torso reach occurs at farther distances for long-armed than for short-armed people, but at the same ratio of object-distance-to-arm length for both groups...
February 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160587/use-of-self-organizing-maps-for-analyzing-the-behavior-of-canines-displaced-towards-midline-under-interceptive-treatment
#19
V Gandía-Aguiló, R Cibrián, E Soria, A-J Serrano, L Aguiló, V Paredes, J-L Gandía
BACKGROUND: Displaced maxillary permanent canine is one of the more frequent findings in canine eruption process and it's easy to be outlined and early diagnosed by means of x-ray images. Late diagnosis frequently needs surgery to rescue the impacted permanent canine. In many cases, interceptive treatment to redirect canine eruption is needed. However, some patients treated by interceptive means end up requiring fenestration to orthodontically guide the canine to its normal occlusal position...
March 1, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152185/mechanical-properties-of-canine-osteosarcoma-affected-antebrachia
#20
Michele A Steffey, Tanya C Garcia, Leticia Daniel, Allison L Zwingenberger, Susan M Stover
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of neoplasia on the biomechanical properties of canine antebrachia. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo biomechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Osteosarcoma (OSA)-affected canine antebrachia (n = 12) and unaffected canine antebrachia (n = 9). METHODS: Antebrachia were compressed in axial loading until failure. A load-deformation curve was used to acquire the structural mechanical properties of neoplastic and unaffected specimens...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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