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Canine behavior

Akitsugu Konno, Teresa Romero, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Atsuko Saito, Toshikazu Hasegawa
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'...
2016: PloS One
Mia E Persson, Dominic Wright, Lina S V Roth, Petros Batakis, Per Jensen
Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog's human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gary Landsberg, Bill Milgram, Isabelle Mougeot, Stephanie Kelly, Christina de Rivera
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the anxiolytic effectiveness of a test diet (Royal Canin Feline Calm diet) supplemented with L-tryptophan and alpha-casozepine. METHODS: Subjects were 24 cats that were classified as mildly or markedly fearful based on the presence of a person in their home room. Three different protocols were used to assess anxiety: (1) evaluation of the response to a human in the cat's home room (home room test); (2) analysis of the response to placement in an empty test room (open-field test) and; (3) analysis of the response to an unfamiliar human (human interaction test)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Luca Aresu
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common canine aggressive B-cell lymphoma worldwide, and new recent molecular approaches have shown that DLBCL constitutes a heterogeneous tumor that cannot be unraveled by morphology and immunophenotype. DLBCL behaves aggressively, typically progressing over a short period of time, and the therapy response may be difficult to be predicted. Recently, the rate of bone marrow infiltration by flow cytometry has been demonstrated to be prognostic, but more sensible markers are needed...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paul L Walsh, Joyce Stellabott, Rebecca Nofsinger, Wei Xu, Dorothy Levorse, Kendra Galipeau, Filippos Kesisoglou
Despite many documented differences in gut physiology compared to humans, the beagle dog has been successfully used as a preclinical model for assessing the relative bioavailability of dosage forms during formulation development. However, differences in pH and bile salt concentration and micellar structure between dog and human intestinal fluids may influence the solubility and dissolution behavior of especially BCS II/IV compounds. Recently, a canine fasted simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIFc) mimicking the composition in the lumen of the beagle dog under the fasted state has been proposed...
September 6, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alicia Phillips Buttner
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been suggested as a natural model for human social cognition, possessing social skills that are in many ways functionally analogous to those of young humans. Researchers have debated the origins of dogs' human-like social competence and the underlying cognitive mechanisms, but only recently have researchers begun to explore their neurobiological underpinnings. In this review, findings from behavioral studies are integrated with what is known about the biological basis of dogs' human-directed social competence, with an emphasis on how stress-mediating systems, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interact with oxytocin and underlying neural systems to facilitate dogs' interspecific social-cognitive abilities...
September 1, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Justin A Ledogar, Paul C Dechow, Qian Wang, Poorva H Gharpure, Adam D Gordon, Karen L Baab, Amanda L Smith, Gerhard W Weber, Ian R Grosse, Callum F Ross, Brian G Richmond, Barth W Wright, Craig Byron, Stephen Wroe, David S Strait
The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak...
2016: PeerJ
Isain Zapata, James A Serpell, Carlos E Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. RESULTS: We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds...
2016: BMC Genomics
Haisheng Yang, Nicolaas E Lambrechts, Michael Lehner, Gremah M Adam, Rebecca A Packer, Trevor W Moore, Russell P Main
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs. SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jean Aishwarya Henry, Murugan Satta Muthu, Ankita Saikia, Balamurugan Asaithambi, Kavitha Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) continues to be the most common public health issue in developing countries. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC in 0- to 3-year-old children from rural areas of South India, using the ICDAS. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1486 children aged 0-3 years in South India. Two calibrated examiners performed the oral examinations using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria...
July 20, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Maren Cam, Heather L Gardner, Ryan D Roberts, Joelle M Fenger, Denis C Guttridge, Cheryl A London, Hakan Cam
p63 is a structural homolog within the 53 family encoding two isoforms, ΔNp63 and TAp63. The oncogenic activity of ΔNp63 has been demonstrated in multiple cancers, however the underlying mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis are poorly characterized. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs, exhibiting clinical behavior and molecular biology essentially identical to its human counterpart. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of ΔNp63 to the biology of canine OSA...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiaolin Ding, Jin Hu, Hanying Zhang, Yinxue Xu
Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a neuronal growth-associated protein that is involved in microtubule dynamics and plays an important role in synaptic outgrowth and plasticity. Given that STMN1 affects fear behavior, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the STMN1 transcriptional regulatory region affect gene transcription activity and control fear behavior. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g. -327 A>G and g. -125 C>T, were identified in 317 English Springer Spaniels. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that both were loci located in the canine STMN1 putative promoter region and affected transcription factor binding...
2016: PloS One
Dodd G Sledge, Joshua Webster, Matti Kiupel
In view of the varied biologic behavior and the costs of treatment for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors, development of appropriate treatment plans for individual affected dogs can be difficult, but decisions regarding treatment should be made using a systematic, evidence-based approach. This manuscript reviews the current state of diagnostics and prognostication of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors, and suggests a combined approach based on clinical and pathologic assessment for decision making regarding treatment choices...
September 2016: Veterinary Journal
Beth Hamper
The domestication and urbanization of dogs and cats has dramatically altered their environment and behavior. Human and pet obesity is a global concern, particularly in developed countries. An increased incidence of chronic disease is associated with obesity secondary to low-grade systemic inflammation. This article reviews current research into the genetic, dietary, and physiologic factors associated with obesity, along with use of "omics" technology to better understand and characterize this disease.
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Petar Eftimov, Norihiko Yokoi, Vesselin Tonchev, Yana Nencheva, Georgi As Georgiev
The surface properties of meibomian secretion (MGS), the major constituent of the tear film (TF) lipid layer, are of key importance for TF stability. The interfacial properties of canine, cMGS, and feline, fMGS, meibum films were studied using a Langmuir surface balance. These species were selected because they have blinking frequency and TF stability similar to those of humans. The sample's performance during dynamic area changes was evaluated by surface pressure (π)-area (A) isocycles and the layer structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy...
June 21, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Justin Eastman, Julian Sass, Johnny M Gomes, Rodrigo Weber Dos Santos, Elizabeth M Cherry
Cardiac electrical alternans is a period-2 dynamical behavior with alternating long and short action potential durations (APD) that often precedes dangerous arrhythmias associated with cardiac arrest. Despite the importance of alternans, many current ordinary differential equations models of cardiac electrophysiology do not produce alternans, thereby limiting the use of these models for studying the mechanisms that underlie this condition. Because delay differential equations (DDEs) commonly induce complex dynamics in other biological systems, we investigate whether incorporating DDEs can lead to alternans development in cardiac models by studying the Fox et al...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Xuan Wang, Nhung Le, Annina Denoth-Lippuner, Yves Barral, Ruth Kroschewski
Foreign DNA molecules and chromosomal fragments are generally eliminated from proliferating cells, but we know little about how mammalian cells prevent their propagation. Here, we show that dividing human and canine cells partition transfected plasmid DNA asymmetrically, preferentially into the daughter cell harboring the young centrosome. Independently of how they entered the cell, most plasmids clustered in the cytoplasm. Unlike polystyrene beads of similar size, these clusters remained relatively immobile and physically associated to endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes, as revealed by live cell and electron microscopy imaging...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alexandra Szczupakowski, Susanne Reimann, Cornelius Dirk, Ludger Keilig, Anna Weber, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
OBJECTIVES: Self-ligating brackets are widely believed to offer better clinical efficiency and, in particular, less friction. Thus, the goal of this in vitro investigation was to assess the friction behavior of different bracket/archwire/ligature combinations during simulated canine retraction. An important aspect of this work was to determine whether conventional bracket systems behave differently in passive or active self-ligating brackets used with a Slide™ ligature, an elastic ligature, or a steel ligature...
July 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
F Özdal-Kurt, I Tuğlu, H S Vatansever, S Tong, B H Şen, S I Deliloğlu-Gürhan
We investigated the effects of different implant biomaterials on cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) undergoing differentiation into osteoblasts (dBMSC). BMSC were isolated from canine humerus by marrow aspiration, cultured and differentiated on calcium phosphate scaffold (CPS), hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite in gel form and titanium mesh. We used the MTT method to determine the effects of osteogenic media on proliferation. The characteristics of dBMSC were assessed using alizarin red (AR), immunocytochemistry and osteoblastic markers including alkaline phosphatase/von Kossa (ALP/VK), osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON), and ELISA...
August 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Burak Erem, Ramon Martinez Orellana, Damon E Hyde, Jurriaan M Peters, Frank H Duffy, Petr Stovicek, Simon K Warfield, Rob S MacLeod, Gilead Tadmor, Dana H Brooks
This paper addresses the challenge of extracting meaningful information from measured bioelectric signals generated by complex, large scale physiological systems such as the brain or the heart. We focus on a combination of the well-known Laplacian eigenmaps machine learning approach with dynamical systems ideas to analyze emergent dynamic behaviors. The method reconstructs the abstract dynamical system phase-space geometry of the embedded measurements and tracks changes in physiological conditions or activities through changes in that geometry...
April 2016: Physical Review. E
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