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Canine behavior

Akitsugu Konno, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Shinji Yabuta, Akiko Tonoike, Miho Nagasawa, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Drug detection dogs can be trained to locate various prohibited drugs with targeted odors, and they play an important role in the interdiction of drug smuggling in human society. Recent studies provide the interesting hypothesis that the oxytocin system serves as a biological basis for co-evolution between dogs and humans. Here, we offer the new possibility that genetic variation of the canine oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may regulate the success of a dog's training to become a drug detection dog. A total of 340 Labrador Retriever dogs that were trained to be drug detection dogs in Japan were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Parvene Farhoody, Indika Mallawaarachchi, Patrick M Tarwater, James A Serpell, Deborah L Duffy, Chris Zink
Gonadectomy is widely used to treat and prevent behavior problems including the aggressive behavior of dogs. The aim of this study was to determine whether aggressive behavior toward familiar people, strangers, or other dogs was significantly different in dogs gonadectomized at various ages vs. intact dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) with multivariate analysis. Of 15,370 initial surveys, those for dogs reported to have been gonadectomized at less than 6 weeks of age or to correct a behavior problem, and those with incomplete answers to questions regarding independent or dependent variables were excluded, leaving 13,795 for the analysis of aggressive behavior toward familiar people: 13,498 for aggressive behavior toward strangers and 13,237 for aggressive behavior toward dogs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Giuseppina Barutello, Valeria Rolih, Maddalena Arigoni, Lidia Tarone, Laura Conti, Elena Quaglino, Paolo Buracco, Federica Cavallo, Federica Riccardo
Despite several therapeutic advances, malignant melanoma still remains a fatal disease for which novel and long-term curative treatments are needed. The successful development of innovative therapies strongly depends on the availability of appropriate pre-clinical models. For this purpose, several mouse models holding the promise to provide insight into molecular biology and clinical behavior of melanoma have been generated. The most relevant ones and their contribution for the advancement of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of human melanoma patients will be here summarized...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tariku Jibat Beyene, Monique C M Mourits, Abraham Haile Kidane, Henk Hogeveen
In developing countries where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for quantitative data on the public health burden and costs of diseases to support intervention prioritization. This study aimed at estimating the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of canine rabies in Ethiopia by an investigation of exposed human cases. Data on registered animal bite victims during the period of one year were collected from health centers in three districts, i.e...
2018: PloS One
Kate McGrath, Sireen El-Zaatari, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Margaret A Stanton, Donald J Reid, Tara S Stoinski, Michael R Cranfield, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVE: Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is a condition marked by localized reductions in enamel thickness, resulting from growth disruptions during dental development. We use quantitative criteria to characterize the depth of LEH defects and "normal" perikymata in great apes. We test the hypothesis that mountain gorillas have shallow defects compared to other taxa, which may have led to their underestimation in previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous attempts to characterize LEH morphology quantitatively have been limited in sample size and scope...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nicholas H Dodman, Dorothy C Brown, James A Serpell
Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners' personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs' behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners' use of aversive or confrontational training methods...
2018: PloS One
Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M E Faller, Jose T Bras, Rita J Guerreiro, Angela C Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G P Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi
Many of the molecular and pathological features associated with human Alzheimer disease (AD) are mirrored in the naturally occurring age-associated neuropathology in the canine species. In aged dogs with declining learned behavior and memory the severity of cognitive dysfunction parallels the progressive build up and location of Aβ in the brain. The main aim of this work was to study the biological behavior of soluble oligomers isolated from an aged dog with cognitive dysfunction through investigating their interaction with a human cell line and synthetic Aβ peptides...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Amy Pike
Canine aggression occurring in the home can be a dangerous diagnosis with costly consequences to all members of the household. Management is a key modality in the treatment of canine aggression in the home. A thorough history will detail each trigger, target, and context and allow for the veterinary team to put together a comprehensive management plan. Management allows for the avoidance of future aggressive episodes and minimizes the risks associated with living with a patient with these diagnoses. Although risk cannot be mitigated 100%, thorough management can create a safe environment for the implementation of the behavior treatment plan...
February 8, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Marília de Albuquerque Bonelli, Anoli Shah, Vijay Goel, Fabiano Séllos Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa
Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments...
January 29, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Heather Mohan-Gibbons, Emily D Dolan, Pamela Reid, Margaret R Slater, Hugh Mulligan, Emily Weiss
Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment...
February 8, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida Leal, Mariângela Carneiro, Aimara da Costa Pinheiro, Luana Araújo Marques, Henrique Gama Ker, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Wendel Coura-Vital
Until the 1980s, visceral leishmaniasis was concentrated in poor rural areas of Brazil. The Vale do Rio Doce, located in the Southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, was an endemic area with high numbers of human and canine cases. Prophylactic measures adopted since the 1960s reduced the number of cases and the region became a 'controlled endemic' area. In the early 1990s, however, the program was interrupted, and the human disease reemerged in 2008. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and the risk profile of infection of dogs with Leishmania spp in this reemergence area of visceral leishmaniasis...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maryam Pourkazemi, Leila Erfanparast, Sanaz Sheykhgermchi, Milad Ghanizadeh
Introduction: Pain control is one of the most important aspects of behavior management in children. The most common way to achieve pain control is by using local anesthetics (LA). Many studies describe that the buccal nerve innervates the buccal gingiva and mucosa of the mandible for a variable extent from the vicinity of the lower third molar to the lower canine. Regarding the importance of appropriate and complete LA in child-behavior control, in this study, we examined the frequency of buccal gingiva anesthesia of primary mandibular molars and canine after inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 4- to 6-year-old children...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Izabella Dolka, Michał Czopowicz, Anna Gruk-Jurka, Agata Wojtkowska, Rafał Sapierzyński, Piotr Jurka
Cytology is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method used for pre-operative diagnosis of canine mammary tumors (CMTs) in veterinary practice. Studies related to human breast cancer showed the Robinson's grading system-established for invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, NOS) and used on cytological material-to not only closely correspond to the histopathological grading but also be helpful in assessing prognosis and selecting most suitable treatments before surgery. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the accuracy of cytological diagnosis and cytological Robinson's grading system compared to the histopathological examination of CMTs; to compare of cytological features and cytomorphometric parameters with tumor behavior, as well as cytological and histological grading; and to determine an association of the Robinson's grading system and cytological background details with metastases, and patients' survival...
2018: PloS One
Mary Ann Raghanti, Melissa K Edler, Alexa R Stephenson, Emily L Munger, Bob Jacobs, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Ralph L Holloway, C Owen Lovejoy
It has always been difficult to account for the evolution of certain human characters such as language, empathy, and altruism via individual reproductive success. However, the striatum, a subcortical region originally thought to be exclusively motor, is now known to contribute to social behaviors and "personality styles" that may link such complexities with natural selection. We here report that the human striatum exhibits a unique neurochemical profile that differs dramatically from those of other primates...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lucrecia Agnetti, Chiara Fondello, Marcela S Villaverde, Gerardo C Glikin, Liliana M E Finocchiaro
We originated and characterized melanoma cell lines derived from tumors of two feline and two canine veterinary patients. These lines reestablished the morphology, physiology and cell heterogeneity of their respective parental tumors. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of bleomycin (BLM) alone, or combined with interferon-β (IFN-β) or HSVtk/GCV suicide gene (SG) lipofection on these cells. Although the four animals presented stage III disease (WHO system), SG treated feline tumors displayed stable disease in vivo, while the canine ones exhibited partial response...
November 2017: Oncoscience
Byung-Joon Seung, Ha-Young Lim, Jong-Il Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Seung-Hee Cho, Soo-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Hyang Sur
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are an important component of leukocyte infiltration in tumors. TAMs can be classified into M1 and M2 phenotypes. In the present study, the expression of CD204, an M2-polarized macrophage receptor, was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the area surrounding TAMs in 101 cases of canine mammary gland tumor (CMT). We examined the relationship between M2-polarized TAMs and malignancy, histological subtype, histological grade, molecular subtype, hormone receptor (HR) status, and clinical obesity indices...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sabrina Ferreira, Leonardo Perez Faverani, Gabriel Mulinari Dos Santos, Everton Pontes Martins, Idelmo Rangel Garcia Júnior
Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare odontogenic tumor of the jaws, histologically characterized by the presence of agglomerates of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. The patient, a 62-year-old Caucasian woman, presented an intraosseous lesion in the mandibular symphysis. A clinical examination revealed a discrete volumetric increase with a hard consistency, palpable to extraoral and intraoral examinations. Imaging studies revealed an extensive radiolucent area, without defined limits, extending from the region of the right second premolar to the left canine...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Rodrigo S Horta, Gleidice E Lavalle, Lidianne N Monteiro, Mayara C C Souza, Geovanni D Cassali, Roberto B Araújo
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is a frequent cutaneous neoplasm in dogs that is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and biological behavior, with a variable potential for recurrence and metastasis. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes has been challenging. The study objective was to develop a system for classification of canine MCT according to the mortality risk based on individual assessment of clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. The study included 149 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of cutaneous or subcutaneous MCT...
March 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Susan M Wernimont, Robin J Thompson, Scott L Mickelsen, Spencer C Smith, Isabella C Alvarenga, Kathy L Gross
Veterinarians and pet owners have limited ability to assess pruritic behaviors in dogs. This pilot study assessed the capacity of the Vetrax® triaxial accelerometer to measure these behaviors in six dogs with pruritus likely due to environmental allergens. Dogs wore the activity monitor for two weeks while consuming their usual pet food (baseline), then for eight weeks while consuming a veterinary-exclusive pet food for dogs with suspected non-food-related skin conditions (Hill's Prescription Diet® Derm DefenseTM Canine dry food)...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
Wendy K Jo, Albert Dme Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Transmission of morbilliviruses within and among marine mammal species has been documented in a variety of marine habitats. Cetacean morbillivirus spreads between cetacean species in the aquatic environment whereas both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus have been associated with transmission within and between pinniped and terrestrial carnivore species in their natural habitat and at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Periodically these viruses have caused large epizootics involving thousands of animals, due to sustained intra-species virus transmission...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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