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Adult cardiac life support

Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Maude St-Onge, Kurt Anseeuw, Frank Lee Cantrell, Ian C Gilchrist, Philippe Hantson, Benoit Bailey, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, William Kerns, Martin Laliberté, Eric J Lavonas, David N Juurlink, John Muscedere, Chen-Chang Yang, Tasnim Sinuff, Michael Rieder, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVE: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D-2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D)...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Cécile Aubron, Joris DePuydt, François Belon, Michael Bailey, Matthieu Schmidt, Jayne Sheldrake, Deirdre Murphy, Carlos Scheinkestel, D Jamie Cooper, Gilles Capellier, Vincent Pellegrino, David Pilcher, Zoe McQuilten
BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most frequent complication associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, risk factors for bleeding have been poorly described especially those associated with coagulation anomalies and anticoagulant therapy during ECMO support. The aim of this study is to describe bleeding complications in critically ill patients undergoing ECMO and to identify risk factors for bleeding events. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed ICU charts of adults who received either veno-venous (VV) or veno-arterial (VA) ECMO support in two participating ICUs between 2010 and 2013...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Sunil J Wimalawansa
The aim of this study is to determine and critically evaluate the plausible relationships of vitamin D with extra-skeletal tissues in humans. Severe vitamin D deficiency results in rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults; these beneficial effects in the musculoskeletal system and certain physiological functions are well understood. Nevertheless, mounting reports support additional beneficial effects of vitamin D, outside the musculoskeletal system. This review explores the recent advances in knowledge about the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Joonghee Kim, Kyuseok Kim, Clifton W Callaway, Kibbeum Doh, Jungho Choi, Jongdae Park, You Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee
PURPOSE: The probability of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and subsequent favourable outcomes changes dynamically during advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). We sought to model these changes using time-to-event analysis in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years old), non-traumatic OHCA patients without prehospital ROSC were included. Utstein variables and initial arterial blood gas measurements were used as predictors...
September 19, 2016: Resuscitation
Julianna Jung
Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm...
October 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
Ruchika Goel, Melissa M Cushing, Aaron A R Tobian
Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices...
October 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Jennifer Andrews, Anne M Winkler
For the past four decades, extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been used to treat critically ill adult and pediatric patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure, and there are increasingly numbers of centers worldwide performing ECLS for numerous indications. Despite the progress with advancing the technology, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications are frequently reported and associated with worse outcomes, but the exact cause is often elusive or multifactorial. As a result of the interaction between blood and an artificial circuit, anticoagulation is necessary and there is resultant activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, as well as, an increased inflammatory response...
October 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Joseph E Tonna, Nicholas J Johnson, John Greenwood, David F Gaieski, Zachary Shinar, Joseph M Bellezo, Lance Becker, Atman P Shah, Scott T Youngquist, Michael P Mallin, James Franklin Fair, Kyle J Gunnerson, Cindy Weng, Stephen McKellar
PURPOSE: To characterize the current scope and practices of centers performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) on the undifferentiated patient with cardiac arrest in the emergency department. METHODS: We contacted all US centers in January 2016 that had submitted adult eCPR cases to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and surveyed them, querying for programs that had performed eCPR in the Emergency Department (ED ECMO)...
October 2016: Resuscitation
Fabio Sangalli, Leonello Avalli, Matteo Laratta, Francesco Formica, Elena Maggioni, Rosa Caruso, Maria Cristina Costa, Marco Guazzi, Roberto Fumagalli
OBJECTIVE: Weaning from veno-arterial extracorporeal life support is challenging. The objective of this trial was to investigate the endothelial and hemodynamic effects of levosimendan in cardiogenic shock patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal life support. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational trial. SETTING: Cardiovascular intensive care unit of a large tertiary care university hospital in Monza, Italy. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery and hemodynamic parameters were assessed in 10 cardiogenic shock patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal life support, before and after the infusion of levosimendan...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Eman Alsaleh, Richard Windle, Holly Blake
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. METHODS: Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71) with usual care (n = 85) was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jignesh K Patel, Elinor Schoenfeld, Puja B Parikh, Sam Parnia
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous advances in the delivery of resuscitative care, in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to study the impact of arterial oxygen tension (Pao 2) on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge in patients with IHCA. METHODS: The study population included 255 consecutive patients who underwent advanced cardiac life support-guided resuscitation from January 2012 to December 2013 for IHCA at an academic tertiary medical center...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Gwynn Ison, Julia A Beaver, W David McGuinn, Todd R Palmby, Jeannette Dinin, Rosane Charlab, Anshu Marathe, Runyan Jin, Qi Liu, Xiao Hong Chen, Xavier Ysern, Olen Stephens, Ge Bai, Yaning Wang, Sarah E Dorff, Joyce Cheng, Shenghui Tang, Rajeshwari Sridhara, William Pierce, Amy E McKee, Amna Ibrahim, Geoffrey Kim, Richard Pazdur
On December 11, 2015, the FDA approved uridine triacetate (VISTOGARD; Wellstat Therapeutics Corporation) for the emergency treatment of adult and pediatric patients following a fluorouracil or capecitabine overdose regardless of the presence of symptoms, and of those who exhibit early-onset, severe, or life-threatening toxicity affecting the cardiac or central nervous system, and/or early onset, unusually severe adverse reactions (e.g., gastrointestinal toxicity and/or neutropenia) within 96 hours following the end of fluorouracil or capecitabine administration...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Lakshmi Raman, Heidi J Dalton
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass. Although early trials were plagued by severe bleeding and high rates of death, subsequent experience with neonates found good survival, and ECMO became an important tool in the care of critically ill infants with respiratory failure. Since the 1980s, expansion to other groups (children, patients with cardiac disease, etc) followed as experience was obtained. Today, there is a rapid growth of ECMO, especially in the adult population...
July 2016: Respiratory Care
Rodney C Sena, Samuel Eldrich, Richard M Pescatore, Anthony Mazzarelli, Richard G Byrne
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the treatment of adult patients in cardiac arrest are supplied by the American Heart Association through basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) provider courses. When treatments defined by the ACLS guidelines are unsuccessful in terminating a lethal dysrhythmia, the use of alternative strategies may prove useful. In this case, two defibrillators were used to deliver a greater than normal energy waveform over an extended time interval to return a patient to a normal sinus rhythm...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Şule Özbilgin, Mert Akan, Volkan Hancı, Ceren Aygün, Bahar Kuvaki
OBJECTIVE: Early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by witnesses increases survival after cardiac arrest. In Turkey, our country, it is rare that basic life support (BLS) is initiated by a layperson. In our study, we aimed to use a survey to research awareness, level of knowledge and attitudes of the public to CPR and BLS. METHODS: A 21-question survey was administered to individuals aged ≥18 years on a busy street in a city of a western region of Turkey...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio Barili, Michele Di Mauro, Sandro Gelsomino, Orlando Parise, Peter T Rycus, Jos Maessen, Thomas Mueller, Raf Muellenbach, Jan Belohlavek, Giles Peek, Alain Combes, Bjorn Frenckner, Antonio Pesenti, Ravi R Thiagarajan
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the epidemiology, complication profiles, hospital outcome, and predisposing factors of CNS complications occurring during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. SETTING: Data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization by 230 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers from 1992 to 2013. PATIENTS: Patients more than 16 years old supported with a single-run of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Adam J Lewandowski, Pablo Lamata, Jane M Francis, Stefan K Piechnik, Vanessa M Ferreira, Henry Boardman, Stefan Neubauer, Atul Singhal, Paul Leeson, Alan Lucas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth relates to long-term alterations in cardiac morphology and function. Understanding whether preterm postnatal life is a tractable period of cardiovascular development that can be positively altered by nutrition is relevant to long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that being fed human breast milk during early postnatal life is beneficial to long-term cardiac structure and function in preterm-born individuals compared with infant formulas. METHODS: A total of 926 preterm-born infants originally took part in a randomized controlled trial of postnatal milk-feeding regimens between 1982 and 1985 across 5 different UK centers...
July 2016: Pediatrics
Nuhad Yazbik Dumit, Samar Nayef Noureddine, Joan Kathy Magilvy
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac self-care practices are essential for managing cardiac illness and improving quality of life. However, these practices may be affected by factors that may hinder or facilitate self-care especially in countries that experience political and economic instabilities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore self-care practices among Lebanese cardiac patients. Another aim was to reveal factors that might influence these self-care practices...
August 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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