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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316276/levosimendan-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-dysfunction-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#1
Rajendra H Mehta, Jeffrey D Leimberger, Sean van Diepen, James Meza, Alice Wang, Rachael Jankowich, Robert W Harrison, Douglas Hay, Stephen Fremes, Andra Duncan, Edward G Soltesz, John Luber, Soon Park, Michael Argenziano, Edward Murphy, Randy Marcel, Dimitri Kalavrouziotis, Dave Nagpal, John Bozinovski, Wolfgang Toller, Matthias Heringlake, Shaun G Goodman, Jerrold H Levy, Robert A Harrington, Kevin J Anstrom, John H Alexander
Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0...
March 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316087/influence-of-abcc2-cyp2c8-and-cyp2j2-polymorphisms-on-tacrolimus-and-mycophenolate-sodium-based-treatment-in-brazilian-kidney-transplant-recipients
#2
Fabiana D V Genvigir, Alvaro M Nishikawa, Claudia R Felipe, Helio Tedesco-Silva, Nagilla Oliveira, Antony B C Salazar, Jose O Medina-Pestana, Sonia Q Doi, Mario H Hirata, Rosario D C Hirata
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C8, CYP2J2, and UGT2B7) and transporters (ABCC2 and ABCG2) on dose and/or dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio), clinical outcomes, and occurrence of adverse events of tacrolimus and mycophenolate sodium in Brazilian kidney transplant recipients. DESIGN: Pharmacogenetic analysis of patients enrolled in a previously published study...
March 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306589/older-adult-kidney-function-assessment-and-rounding-creatinine-led-to-medication-dosing-error
#3
Timothy Nguyen, Yanique Foster, Shpres Cekaj
BACKGROUND/AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Kidney function assessment in older adults can be unreliable because of many factors, and inaccurate assessment can lead to medication dosing error. Practitioners may have adopted the method of rounding creatinine to an arbitrary number 1.0 because of change in muscle mass and age-related change. This has in fact proven to cause more harm than good, potentially leading to underdosing of many medications. DATA SOURCES: A literature search performed using PubMed with the following key words (rounding serum creatinine, rounding serum creatinine AND pharmacist or pharmacy, rounding serum creatinine AND doctor or physician or healthcare, rounding serum creatinine AND kidney function) with no restrictions (dates or any other requirement)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302131/a-survey-of-resistance-to-colchicine-treatment-for-french-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever
#4
REVIEW
Alice Corsia, Sophie Georgin-Lavialle, Véronique Hentgen, Eric Hachulla, Gilles Grateau, Albert Faye, Pierre Quartier, Linda Rossi-Semerano, Isabelle Koné-Paut
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is the standard treatment for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), preventing attacks and inflammatory complications. True resistance is rare and yet not clearly defined. We evaluated physicians' definition of colchicine resistance and report how they manage it. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited patients with a clinical diagnosis of FMF, one exon-10 Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutation and considered resistant to colchicine, via networks of expert physicians...
March 16, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296163/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-deferasirox-in-young-pediatric-patients-with-transfusional-hemosiderosis-results-from-a-5-year-observational-study-entrust
#5
Elliott Vichinsky, Amal El-Beshlawy, Azzam Al Zoebie, Annie Kamdem, Suzanne Koussa, Thirachit Chotsampancharoen, Andreas Bruederle, Geralyn Gilotti, Jackie Han, Mohsen Elalfy
BACKGROUND: Children with red blood cell disorders may receive regular transfusions from an early age and consequently accumulate iron. Adequate iron chelation therapy can prevent organ damage and delayed growth/development. Deferasirox is indicated for treatment of pediatric patients with chronic iron overload due to transfusional hemosiderosis; however, fewer than 10% of patients in the registration studies were aged 2 to less than 6 years. PROCEDURE: Deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, was evaluated in young pediatric patients with transfusional hemosiderosis during the observational 5-year ENTRUST study...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292989/-renal-disorders-and-drug-therapy
#6
Satoru Muto
In recent years, among patients treated with anticancer chemotherapy, the rate of chronic kidney disease has been increasing. Nephropathy is a major potential adverse event in cancer drug therapy. Anticancer chemotherapy, particularly in patients with comorbid chronic kidney disease, requires sufficient examination of the balance between the potential therapeutic benefit and the risk of decreased renal function. The overwhelming diversity of drugs used to treat cancer involves equally diverse nephropathy pathologies and dose adjustments...
March 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292575/the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-what-to-expect-from-new-oral-hypoglycemic-agents
#7
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Michela Mangano, Claudio Ronco, Vincenzo Barbera, Antonio De Pascalis, Antonio Bellasi, Domenico Russo, Biagio Di Iorio, Mario Cozzolino
Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose most common causes include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. About 40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD and intensive blood glucose control through pharmacological intervention can delay CKD progression. Standard therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus include metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. While these drugs have an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes, only the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone can be used across the spectrum of CKD (stages 2-5) and without dose adjustment...
March 6, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290121/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-ixazomib-an-oral-proteasome-inhibitor-including-data-from-the-phase-iii-tourmaline-mm1-study-to-inform-labelling
#8
Neeraj Gupta, Paul M Diderichsen, Michael J Hanley, Deborah Berg, Helgi van de Velde, R Donald Harvey, Karthik Venkatakrishnan
Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor, approved in USA, Canada, Australia and Europe in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. We report a population pharmacokinetic model-based analysis for ixazomib that was pivotal in describing the clinical pharmacokinetics of ixazomib, to inform product labelling. Plasma concentration-time data were collected from 755 patients who received oral or intravenous ixazomib in once- or twice-weekly schedules in ten trials, including the global phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 study...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284562/the-vkorc1-and-cyp2c9-genotypes-significantly-effect-vitamin-k-antagonist-dosing-only-in-patients-over-the-age-of-20years
#9
U Nowak-Göttl, K Dietrich, A Kruempel, C Geisen, L G Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: Given the qualitative differences in the role of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) dosing variation between adults and children, we were interested in determining at what age these polymorphism begin to play a more significant role. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 190 patients aged 1-86years receiving VKA for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Blood samples were collected beyond the acute thrombotic event when patients were on stable targeted INR (2-3) for plasma testing and VKORC1/CYP2C9 genotyping...
December 30, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280692/influence-of-tacrolimus-metabolism-rate-on-renal-function-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Gerold Thölking, Hans Ulrich Gerth, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Stefan Reuter
The calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) tacrolimus (TAC) is an integral part of the immunosuppressive regimen after solid organ transplantation. Although TAC is very effective in prevention of acute rejection episodes, its highly variable pharmacokinetic and narrow therapeutic window require frequent monitoring of drug levels and dose adjustments. TAC can cause CNI nephrotoxicity even at low blood trough levels (4-6 ng/mL). Thus, other factors besides the TAC trough level might contribute to CNI-related kidney injury...
February 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275227/halogenated-volatile-anesthetics-in-the-intensive-care-unit-current-knowledge-on-an-upcoming-practice
#11
Pascal L Langlois, Frederick D'Aragon, William Manzanares
The aim of this narrative review was to highlight key points of volatile anesthetics administration in the intensive care unit (ICU), including AnaConDa® and Mirus® devices characteristics and the reported findings on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Intravenous sedation in the ICU is associated with issues, such as over- and under-sedation. Halogenated compounds, which can be safely administered by inserting a device in any ICU ventilation circuit, have interesting pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles for patients with multi-organ failure...
March 8, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273997/teneligliptin-in-management-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-a-review-of-place-in-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Mohammed Abubaker, Preetesh Mishra, Onkar C Swami
Diabetes is a global health emergency of this century. Diabetic nephropathy is the most common microvascular complication associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has been reported as a major etiological factor in almost 45% of patients undergoing dialysis due to kidney failure. Lifestyle modifications; cessation of smoking, optimum control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids are required to reduce the progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Presently, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are preferred in the management of T2DM due to their established efficacy; favorable tolerability including, low risk of hypoglycaemia; weight neutrality and convenient once-a-day dosage...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273373/acute-care-management-of-the-hiv-infected-patient-a-report-from-the-hiv-practice-and-research-network-of-the-american-college-of-clinical-pharmacy
#13
Spencer H Durham, Melissa E Badowski, Michelle D Liedtke, R Chris Rathbun, Patricia Pecora Fulco
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected patients admitted to the hospital have complex antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens with an increased medication error rate upon admission. This report is intended to provide a resource for clinicians managing HIV-infected patients and ART in the inpatient setting. METHODS: A survey of the authors was conducted to evaluate common issues that arise during an acute hospitalization for HIV-infected patients. After a group consensus, a review of the medical literature was performed to determine the supporting evidence for the following HIV associated hospital queries: admission/discharge orders, antiretroviral hospital formularies, laboratory monitoring, altered hepatic/renal function, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), enteral administration, and therapeutic drug monitoring...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271256/impact-of-the-cyp3a5-genotype-on-the-distributions-of-dose-adjusted-trough-concentrations-and-incidence-of-rejection-in-japanese-renal-transplant-recipients-receiving-different-tacrolimus-formulations
#14
Takenori Niioka, Hideaki Kagaya, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Kazuyuki Numakura, Ryohei Yamamoto, Tomonori Habuchi, Shigeru Satoh, Masatomo Miura
BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the CYP3A5 genotype on the distributions of dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C 0h/D) and the incidence of rejection in Japanese recipients taking twice-daily (Tac-BID, n = 140) or modified-release once-daily (Tac-QD, n = 80) tacrolimus formulations for 1 year after renal transplantation. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the distinction rate of CYP3A5 genotypes based on the C 0h/D of Tac-BID or Tac-QD...
March 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271239/phase-i-trial-to-investigate-the-effect-of-renal-impairment-on-isavuconazole-pharmacokinetics
#15
Robert W Townsend, Shahzad Akhtar, Harry Alcorn, Jolene K Berg, Donna L Kowalski, Salim Mujais, Amit V Desai
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of renal impairment (RI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isavuconazole and the inactive cleavage product, BAL8728. METHODS: A single intravenous dose of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate (372 mg, equivalent to 200 mg isavuconazole and 75 mg of BAL8728 cleavage product) was administered to healthy controls (parts 1 and 2) and participants with mild, moderate, or severe RI (part 2) or ESRD (part 1); ESRD participants received two doses of 200 mg isavuconazole, 1 h post-dialysis (day 1) and prior to dialysis (day 15)...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270062/antidiabetic-drugs-and-the-kidney
#16
Moses Elisaf, Eleftheria Tzavela, Nikolaos Karanatsis, Vasilis Tsimichodimos
OBJECTIVE: Nephropathy is among the most common and most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that there is a multifaceted interaction between the kidney and antidiabetic drugs. Thus, the deterioration of renal function may result in important changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of glucose-lowering compounds. Additionally, drugs that exert their antidiabetic properties through the inhibition of proximal glucose reabsorption are now available whereas accumulating evidence suggests that some of these drugs may exert renoprotective properties that are independent of their effect on carbohydrate metabolism...
March 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264440/anticancer-dose-adjustment-for-patients-with-renal-and-hepatic-dysfunction-from-scientific-evidence-to-clinical-application
#17
Tomi Hendrayana, André Wilmer, Verena Kurth, Ingo Gh Schmidt-Wolf, Ulrich Jaehde
Most anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic index, i.e., a small change in plasma concentrations can lead to a less efficacious treatment or an unacceptable degree of toxicity. This study aimed at providing health professionals with a feasible and time-saving tool to adapt the dose of anticancer agents for patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction. A guideline for anticancer agents was developed based on a literature search. An algorithm was generated to enhance the efficiency of the dose adaptation process...
February 27, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255850/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-vemurafenib
#18
REVIEW
Weijiang Zhang, Dominik Heinzmann, Joseph F Grippo
Vemurafenib is an orally administered small-molecule inhibitor of the oncogenic BRAF kinase that is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma harbouring BRAF (V600) mutations. Vemurafenib is absorbed rapidly after a single oral dose of 960 mg, reaching maximum drug concentration approximately 4 h after administration. Extensive accumulation occurs after multiple dosing at 960 mg twice daily. Steady state is achieved after approximately 15-21 days and exposure at steady state is relatively constant...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255339/use-of-febuxostat-in-the-management-of-gout-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
REVIEW
Arabella Waller, Kelsey M Jordan
Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide. Despite clinical cure being achievable and multiple evidence-based guidelines having been published, the incidence and prevalence continues to increase and the condition remains undertreated. Concerns regarding allopurinol have limited its use in those with renal impairment. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor requiring no dose adjustment in mild-moderate renal impairment was launched in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2010. We review published data on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of febuxostat and provide an opinion on its place in the management of gout in the UK in the context of other published guidelines...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250677/assessment-of-changes-in-insulin-requirement-in-patients-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#20
M J Sudha, Halma S Salam, S Viveka, A L Udupa
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis improves insulin sensitivity. Currently, there is no recommendation for the adjustment of insulin dose on dialysis day and nondialysis day in diabetic patients. This study was undertaken to determine the variations in insulin requirement based on blood glucose levels on dialysis days and nondialysis days in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-eight diabetic patients on hemodialysis were recruited into the study after obtaining written informed consent and approval from Azeezia Ethics Committee...
January 2017: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
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