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Substance use evaluation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324827/anaerobic-treatment-of-hydrothermally-solubilised-sugarcane-bagasse-and-its-kinetic-modelling
#1
Bing Liu, Van Anh Ngo, Mitsuharu Terashima, Hidenari Yasui
The aim of this study was the evaluation of anaerobic treatment for the soluble organics generated from a steam-explosion pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse. The batch analysis revealed that about 50% of the organics was possible to be degraded into methane whilst the rest was biologically inert and composed of mostly lignin. Based on the experiment a kinetic model composed of 14 kinds of soluble substances and 5 kinds of anaerobic microorganisms was developed. The model was used to simulate the process performance of a continuous anaerobic bioreactor with MLSS concentration at 2500-15,000mg/L...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323502/head-injury-and-substance-use-in-young-adults
#2
Lisa A Kort-Butler
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest a link between head injuries and substance use but do not routinely capture mechanisms connecting the two. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to explore whether past head injuries predicted current substance use among young adults, taking factors such as stress, self-esteem, temper, and risk-taking into consideration. METHODS: Data were drawn from a web-based survey conducted in 2014 and 2015 at a public university in the United States (n = 897)...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318897/efficacy-of-off-label-augmentation-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Julia Kleeblatt, Felix Betzler, Laura L Kilarski, Tom Bschor, Stephan Köhler
Treatment of unipolar depression with currently available antidepressants is still unsatisfactory. Augmentation with lithium or second generation antipsychotics is an established practice in non-responders to antidepressant monotherapy, but is also associated with a substantial non-response rate and with non-tolerance. Based on a systematic review of the literature, including meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized comparative studies and case studies, off-label augmentation agents (administered in addition to an antidepressant, without FDA approval for treatment of MDD) were identified and evaluated regarding their efficacy using levels of evidence...
March 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318104/integrated-evaluation-of-hplc-and-uv-fingerprints-for-the-quality-control-of-danshen-tablet-by-systematic-quantified-fingerprint-method-combined-with-antioxidant-activity
#4
Min Shi, Guoxiang Sun
Danshen tablet, which consists of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Borneolum syntheticum, has been widely used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive evaluation methods for the quality control of Danshen tablet. First, five-wavelength fusion fingerprint was established to avoid one-sidedness of a single wavelength. Then, the ultraviolet spectrum fingerprint was applied to reflect the information of unsaturated bond and conjugated system of chemical substances in Danshen tablet...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317514/perceived-importance-of-marijuana-to-the-college-experience-scale-pimces-initial-development-and-validation
#5
Matthew R Pearson, Tatyana Kholodkov, Matt J Gray
OBJECTIVE: Internalization of college substance use culture refers to the degree to which an individual perceives the use of that substance to be an integral part of the college experience. Although there is a growing literature characterizing this construct for alcohol, the present study describes the development and validation of a new measure to assess the internalization of the college marijuana use culture, the Perceived Importance of Marijuana to the College Experience Scale (PIMCES)...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317465/anti-cryptococcal-activity-of-ethanol-crude-extract-and-hexane-fraction-from-ocimum-basilicum-var-maria-bonita-mechanisms-of-action-and-synergism-with-amphotericin-b-and-ocimum-basilicum-essential-oil
#6
Nathalia N R Cardoso, Celuta S Alviano, Arie F Blank, Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Maria Teresa V Romanos, Marcel M L Cunha, Antonio Jorge R da Silva, Daniela S Alviano
CONTEXT: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. basilicum var. Maria Bonita leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MIC values for Cryptococcus sp. were obtained according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315809/identifying-attendance-patterns-in-a-smoking-cessation-treatment-and-their-relationships-with-quit-success
#7
Jolene Jacquart, Santiago Papini, Michelle L Davis, David Rosenfield, Mark B Powers, Georita M Frierson, Lindsey B Hopkins, Scarlett O Baird, Bess H Marcus, Timothy S Church, Michael W Otto, Michael J Zvolensky, Jasper A J Smits
BACKGROUND: While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial. METHODS: In addition to standard smoking cessation treatment, participants were randomized to 15 weeks of an exercise intervention (n=72) or an education control condition (n=64)...
March 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315690/prediction-of-human-pharmacokinetic-profile-after-transdermal-drug-application-using-excised-human-skin
#8
Syunsuke Yamamoto, Masatoshi Karashima, Yuta Arai, Kimio Tohyama, Nobuyuki Amano
Although several mathematical models have been reported for the estimation of human plasma concentration profiles of drug substances after dermal application, the successful cases that can predict human pharmacokinetic profiles are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prediction of human plasma concentrations after dermal application using in vitro permeation parameters obtained from excised human skin. The in vitro skin permeability of seven marketed drug products was evaluated...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314961/ecotoxicity-of-boric-acid-in-standard-laboratory-tests-with-plants-and-soil-organisms
#9
REVIEW
Juliska Princz, Leonie Becker, Adam Scheffczyk, Gladys Stephenson, Rick Scroggins, Thomas Moser, Jörg Römbke
To verify the continuous sensitivity of ecotoxicological tests (mainly the test organisms), reference substances with known toxicity are regularly tested. Ideally, this substance(s) would lack specificity in its mode action, be bioavailable and readily attainable with cost-effective means of chemical characterization. Boric acid has satisfied these criteria, but has most recently been characterized as a substance of very high concern, due to reproductive effects in humans, thus limiting its recommendation as an ideal reference toxicant...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314553/is-alexithymia-related-to-cannabis-use-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-outpatient-adolescent-cannabis-abusers
#10
Géraldine Dorard, Catherine Bungener, Olivier Phan, Yves Edel, Maurice Corcos, Sylvie Berthoz
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. METHODS: 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314195/treatment-of-contaminated-greywater-using-pelletised-mine-water-sludge
#11
Suhail N Abed, Suhad A Almuktar, Miklas Scholz
Precipitated sludge (ochre) obtained from a mine water treatment plant was considered as an adsorbent substance for pollutants, since ochre is relatively free from problematic levels of toxic elements, which could impair on the quality of water to be treated. Artificially created ochre pellets from mixing Portland cement with raw ochre sludge were utilised to remediate either high (HC) or low (LC) contaminated synthetic greywater (SGW) in mesocosm-scale stabilisation ponds at 2-day and 7-day contact times under real weather conditions in Salford...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#12
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306206/phytochemical-profile-and-biological-activities-of-helianthemum-canum-from-turkey
#13
Ayşe Baldemir, Neslihan Gökşen, Nilay Ildız, Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Müberra Koşar
In the current study, antioxidant, antibacterial activities, and the phenolic compositions of extracts from Helianthemum canum L. Baumg (Apiaceae) aerial parts were investigated for the first time. The H. canum was extracted with 70% methanol (HCMeOH) and water (HCW). Both extracts were determined by total phenolic contents (3 mg/mL), flavonoids (1.5 mg/mL), flavonols (1.5 mg/mL), qualitative-quantitative compositions, iron (II) chelation activities (0.1-5 mg/mL), free radical scavenging activities (DPPH(●) : 0...
March 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304357/clinical-prediction-of-suicide-and-undetermined-death-a-pseudo-prospective-clinical-and-medico-legal-study-of-substance-abusers
#14
Louise Brådvik, Mats Berglund, Arne Frank, Peter Löwenhielm
This study examines aspects of prediction of suicide and death of undetermined intent. We investigated all consecutive, autopsied patients between 1993 and 1997 who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö from 1968 onwards. The staff was asked, shortly after autopsy but before they knew of the manner of death, if they thought the patient had committed suicide. The case records were blindly evaluated, and toxicological autopsy findings for alcohol in blood samples investigated. The specificity of prediction was 83% and significantly more often correct than the sensitivity, which was only 45% for suicide and for suicide/death of undetermined intent (93% versus 39%)...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303807/efficacy-and-safety-of-newly-developed-cross-linked-dextran-gel-injection-for-glans-penis-augmentation-with-a-novel-technique
#15
Dae Yul Yang, Kyungtae Ko, Seong Ho Lee, Du Geon Moon, Jong Wook Kim, Won Ki Lee
There is no safe and effective standard method for glans penis augmentation. Furthermore, there has been scant research on glans penis augmentation due to a poor understanding of glans anatomy, technical difficulty, and a lack of suitable substances for augmentation. Cross-linked dextran gel is a newly developed filler for soft-tissue augmentation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of using a novel technique to inject cross-linked dextran gel for glans penis augmentation during a 24-week follow-up study...
March 10, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303422/efficacy-of-the-fun-for-wellness-online-intervention-to-promote-multidimensional-well-being-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Nicholas D Myers, Isaac Prilleltensky, Ora Prilleltensky, Adam McMahon, Samantha Dietz, Carolyn L Rubenstein
Subjective well-being refers to people's level of satisfaction with life as a whole and with multiple dimensions within it. Interventions that promote subjective well-being are important because there is evidence that physical health, mental health, substance use, and health care costs may be related to subjective well-being. Fun For Wellness (FFW) is a new online universal intervention designed to promote growth in multiple dimensions of subjective well-being. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial evaluation of the efficacy of FFW to increase subjective well-being in multiple dimensions in a universal sample...
March 16, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301219/management-of-comorbid-bipolar-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders
#17
Ihsan M Salloum, Edson Sherwood Brown
BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of substance use disorders (SUDs) in bipolar disorder is among the highest in psychiatric disorders. Evidence-based controlled psychosocial or pharmacological interventions trials, which may guide treatment decisions, have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To present a narrative review of the public health and clinical significance of this condition, including diagnostic and treatment implications, and to evaluate controlled trials conducted to date...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293778/evaluating-the-quality-of-rural-intensive-case-management-services-using-administrative-data-an-exploratory-study
#18
Somaia Mohamed
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) for people with severe mental illness is an effective approach that is increasingly implemented in rural areas. Low-cost methods of evaluating fidelity to program models are needed to assure services are delivered as intended. In 2007, the Veterans Health Administration implemented an ACT-like Mental Health Intensive Case Management (ACT/ICM) program for SMI veterans in rural areas. This study demonstrates the use of administrative data, reflecting patient characteristics and intensity of service delivery, to characterize services delivered by these programs, to compare them to general mental health programs at the same VA medical centers, and to each other...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293748/assessing-trace-metal-contamination-and-organic-matter-in-the-brackish-lakes-as-the-major-source-of-potable-water
#19
Vlado Cuculić, Neven Cukrov, Željko Kwokal, Slađana Strmečki, Marta Plavšić
On small and medium karstic coastal islands in the Adriatic Sea, brackish lakes are often the only source of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to adequately evaluate the biogeochemical processes occurring in these complex water systems, as well as to determine the origin of contaminants present. In this study, the distribution and origin of trace metals (Tl, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co) and organic matter in the water column, sediment, and surrounding soil of the brackish lakes on Mljet Island, South Adriatic Sea, Croatia, were evaluated...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292674/the-anti-oxidant-effects-of-melatonin-derivatives-on-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#20
Chawapon Phiphatwatcharaded, Ploenthip Puthongking, Ponlatham Chaiyarit, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit Johns, Sumon Sakolchai, Pramote Mahakunakorn
OBJECTIVES: Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. METHODS: Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)...
March 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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