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Substance use evaluation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783142/assessment-of-microbial-products-in-the-biosorption-process-of-cu-ii-onto-aerobic-granular-sludge-extracellular-polymeric-substances-contribution-and-soluble-microbial-products-release
#1
Linxian Huang, Meilin Li, Guangchao Si, Jinglin Wei, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Weiying Xu, Bin Du, Qin Wei, Dong Wei
In the present study, the responses of microbial products in the biosorption process of Cu(II) onto aerobic granular sludge were evaluated by using batch and spectroscopic approaches. Batch experimental data showed that extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) contributed to Cu(II) removal from an aqueous solution, especially when treating low metal concentrations, whereas soluble microbial products (SMPs) were released under the metal stress during biosorption process. A three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) identified four main fluorescence peaks in the EPS, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782822/simultaneous-determination-of-intestinal-permeability-and-potential-drug-interactions-of-complex-mixtures-using-caco-2-cells-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-studies-with-rauwolfia-serpentina-extract
#2
Thomas J Flynn, Sanah N Vohra
Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components...
May 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782497/exploration-of-alternative-test-methods-to-evaluate-phototoxicity-of-ophthalmic-agents-by-using-statens-seruminstitut-rabbit-cornea-cell-lines-and-3d-human-reconstituted-cornea-models
#3
Soyoung Kim, Ki Hwan Choi, Jaesuk Yun
Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV). However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782180/current-evidence-on-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-as-a-complementary-anticraving-intervention
#4
Nour Alayan, Lucille Eller, Marsha E Bates, Dennis P Carmody
BACKGROUND: The limited success of conventional anticraving interventions encourages research into new treatment strategies. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), which is based on slowed breathing, was shown to improve symptom severity in various disorders. HRVB, and certain rates of controlled breathing (CB), may offer therapeutic potential as a complementary drug-free treatment option to help control substance craving. METHODS: This review evaluated current evidence on the effectiveness of HRVB and CB training as a complementary anticraving intervention, based on guidelines from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780680/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-construction-products-on-the-environment-by-leaching-of-possibly-hazardous-substances
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Bandow, Stefan Gartiser, Outi Ilvonen, Ute Schoknecht
Construction products are in contact with water (e.g., rain, seepage water) during their service lifetime and may release potentially harmful compounds by leaching processes. Monitoring studies showed that compounds attributed to construction products are found in storm water and the receiving bodies of water and that the release of biocides in urban areas can be comparable to the input of pesticides from agricultural uses. Therefore, a prospective risk assessment of such products is necessary. Laboratory leaching tests have been developed by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 351 and are ready to use...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780204/the-short-term-dynamics-of-peers-and-delinquent-behavior-an-analysis-of-bi-weekly-changes-within-a-high-school-student-network
#6
Frank M Weerman, Pamela Wilcox, Christopher J Sullivan
Objectives: To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. Methods: The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was conducted among a cohort of students from one mid-sized high school in Kentucky, as part of the larger Rural Substance Abuse and Violence Project. The study sample consists of one complete network of 155 ninth graders who completed surveys about their peer affiliations, routine activities and offending behaviors over the course of five waves of data collection during the beginning of the school year...
2018: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778909/n-acetylcysteine-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-through-control-of-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-by-recovery-of-nitric-oxide-in-rats
#7
Guilherme B Nogueira, Giovana R Punaro, Clemerson S Oliveira, Fabiane R Maciel, Thamires O Fernandes, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Margaret G Mouro, Sergio R R Araujo, Elisa M S Higa
The diabetes mellitus (DM) induces several changes, with substantial increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS cause damage to systemic and renal microvasculature, which could be one of the mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ROS modulate other substances like the nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator with important role in the renal function. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that acts replenishing intracellular cysteine levels, which is essential for glutathione formation...
May 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778098/hydrochlorothiazide-and-risk-of-hearing-disorder-a-case-series
#8
Natnael Belai, Selamawit Gebrehiwet, Yodit Fitsum, Mulugeta Russom
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide is not known to cause hearing disorder. The Eritrean Pharmacovigilance Centre, however, has received cases of hearing disorder, including irreversible deafness, associated with hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the causal relationship between hydrochlorothiazide and hearing disorder. METHODS: Data was retrieved from the WHO global adverse drug reaction database, VigiBase™. A search on VigiBase™ was made on August 6, 2017 using "hydrochlorothiazide" as drug substance, and "ototoxicity", "decreased hearing", and "vestibular disorder" as reaction terms...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#9
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776547/on-the-potential-of-ion-mobility-spectrometry-coupled-to-gc-pre-separation-a-tutorial
#10
REVIEW
Wolfgang Vautz, Joachim Franzke, Stefano Zampolli, Ivan Elmi, Sascha Liedtke
In this tutorial, we want to demonstrate the significant potential of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), an analytical technique for identification and quantification of gas-phase compounds, in particular combined to other useful analytical tools. Coupled to gas-chromatographic pre-separation (GC-IMS), selectivity can be improved significantly, thus enabling the analysis of complex, humid mixtures. In-line pre-concentration can improve sensitivity down to the ppqV range. Furthermore, the use of non-radioactive ionisation sources in the near future could gain acceptance and will avoid legal restrictions...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775958/a-systematic-review-of-community-based-interventions-to-improve-oral-chronic-disease-medication-regimen-adherence-among-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Karen M Clements, Tasmina Hydery, Mark A Tesell, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Angelini
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence has been shown to cause medical complications, death, and increased healthcare costs and may be of particular importance in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Concerns regarding adherence in this population may influence a healthcare provider's decision to prescribe a medication requiring high adherence. Guidance defining best practices that promote adherence among individuals with SUD is lacking. METHODS: A review of English articles in Medline and PsycINFO databases, published between October 1, 1994 and October 31, 2017, was conducted in order to identify studies of interventions intended to improve adherence to oral chronic disease medication regimens among patients with SUD...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#12
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#13
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773008/antimicrobial-cytotoxic-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activity-of-culinary-processed-shiitake-medicinal-mushroom-lentinus-edodes-agaricomycetes-and-its-major-sulfur-sensory-active-compound-lenthionine
#14
Kristyna Kupcova, Iveta Stefanova, Zuzana Plavcova, Jan Hosek, Pavel Hrouzek, Roman Kubec
The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of raw and culinary processed shiitake mushrooms were evaluated and compared with those of lenthionine (1,2,3,5,6-penta-thiepane), the principal aroma-bearing substance of the shiitake medicinal mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Antimicrobial activity was tested using a panel of 4 strains of bacteria, 2 yeasts, and 2 fungi. Cytotoxic properties were evaluated against 3 cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, PaTu), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of tested samples was assayed based on their ability to attenuate the secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772829/overview-of-cadmium-thyroid-disrupting-effects-and-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Aleksandra Buha, Vesna Matovic, Biljana Antonijevic, Zorica Bulat, Marijana Curcic, Elisavet A Renieri, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Amie Schweitzer, David Wallace
Humans are exposed to a significant number of chemicals that are suspected to produce disturbances in hormone homeostasis. Hence, in recent decades, there has been a growing interest in endocrine disruptive chemicals. One of the alleged thyroid disrupting substances is cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous toxic metal shown to act as a thyroid disruptor and carcinogen in both animals and humans. Multiple PubMed searches with core keywords were performed to identify and evaluate appropriate studies which revealed literature suggesting evidence for the link between exposure to Cd and histological and metabolic changes in the thyroid gland...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772772/multiplicative-effects-of-social-and-psychological-risk-factors-on-college-students-suicidal-behaviors
#16
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#17
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771504/revisiting-the-contributions-of-far-and-near-field-routes-to-aggregate-human-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs
#18
Li Li, Jon Arnot, Frank Wania
The general population is exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both consuming food from far-field contaminated agricultural and aquatic environments, and inhalation and non-dietary ingestion in near-field indoor or residential environments. Here, we seek to evaluate the relative importance of far- and near-field routes by simulating the time-variant aggregate exposure of Swedish females to PCB congeners from 1930 to 2030. We rely on a mechanistic model, which integrates a food-chain bioaccumulation module and a human toxicokinetic module with dynamic substance flow analysis and nested indoor-urban-rural environmental fate modeling...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771135/electromembrane-extraction-of-substances-with-weakly-basic-properties-a-fundamental-study-with-benzodiazepines
#19
Linda Vårdal, Elisabeth L Øiestad, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
AIM: Electromembrane extraction (EME) of weakly basic benzodiazepines was investigated (-1.47 < pKa < 5.01). MATERIALS & METHODS: 96-well EME was performed with strongly acidic conditions in the acceptor solution using 250-mM trifluoroacetic acid to maximize ionization. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Recoveries more than 80% were obtained for analytes with pKa > 2, whereas EME was less efficient for substances with pKa < 2...
May 17, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770836/characterization-of-bonded-stationary-phase-performance-as-a-function-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-chromatographic-factors-in-chaotropic-chromatography-with-risperidone-and-its-impurities-as-model-substances
#20
Jelena Čolović, Milena Rmandić, Anđelija Malenović
Numerous stationary phases have been developed with the aim to provide desired performances during chromatographic analysis of the basic solutes in their protonated form. In this work, the procedure for the characterization of bonded stationary phase performance, when both qualitative and quantitative chromatographic factors were varied in chaotropic chromatography, was proposed. Risperidone and its three impurities were selected as model substances, while acetonitrile content in the mobile phase (20-30%), the pH of the aqueous phase (3...
May 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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