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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545227/potential-use-of-chemoprotectants-against-the-toxic-effects-of-cyanotoxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, María Puerto, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Ana I Prieto, Silvia Pichardo, Ángeles Jos, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN...
May 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#2
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544958/impact-of-triblock-copolymers-on-the-biophysical-function-of-naturally-derived-lung-surfactant
#3
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Christian A Ruge, Adam Bohr
The current study aimed at investigating the general applicability of triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) (Pluronic(®)) as excipients for lung delivery. After thorough physicochemical characterization of the diverse polymers, their cytotoxicity was evaluated using alveolar epithelial cells. Next, a naturally-derived lung surfactant was challenged with the distinct triblock copolymers with respect to changes in microstructure, adsorption to the air/liquid interface and dynamic surface tension behavior under bubble pulsation...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544885/overcoming-interference-with-the-detection-of-a-stable-isotopically-labeled-microtracer-in-the-evaluation-of-beclabuvir-absolute-bioavailability-using-a-concomitant-microtracer-approach
#4
Hao Jiang, Craig Titsch, Jianing Zeng, Barry Jones, Philip Joyce, Yash Gandhi, Wesley Turley, Richard Burrell, Anne F Aubry, Mark E Arnold
The oral absolute bioavailability of beclabuvir in healthy subjects was determined using a microdose (100μg) of the stable isotopically labeled tracer via intravenous (IV) infusion started after oral dosing of beclabuvir (150mg). To simultaneously analyze the concentrations of the IV microtracer ([(13)C6]beclabuvir) and beclabuvir in plasma samples, a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was initially developed. Surprisingly beclabuvir significantly interfered with the IV microtracer detection when using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the assay...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544619/design-and-synthesis-of-some-acridine-piperazine-hybrids-for-the-improvement-of-cognitive-dysfunction
#5
Anuradha Sharma, Poonam Piplani
A novel series of hybrid molecules (5a-5m) was designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors against cognitive dysfunction. Heterocyclic moieties acridine and piperazine were conjugated with suitable linkers in a single scaffold and the structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR and LC-MS analysis. The pharmacological activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated using behavioral models of amnesia viz. step down passive avoidance and elevated plus maze at a dose 0...
May 25, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544585/effects-of-ophthalmologic-solutions-on-sinonasal-ciliated-epithelium
#6
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Off-label use of topical ophthalmologic formulations for treatment of rhinologic disease is cited in recent literature and is anecdotally prevalent among practicing otolaryngologists. Steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs designed for ocular use have subjective clinical efficacy in the nose and sinuses, but their specific effects on the ciliated epithelium are less well defined. This study examines 9 commercially available ophthalmologic drug formulations for effects on ciliary motility in sinonasal cultures, in an effort to characterize their utility as topical therapies for sinonasal diseases...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#7
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540764/japan-flavour-and-fragrance-materials-association-s-safety-assessment-of-food-flavouring-substances-uniquely-used-in-japan-that-belong-to-the-class-of-aliphatic-primary-alcohols-aldehydes-carboxylic-acids-acetals-and-esters-containing-additional-oxygenated
#8
Kenji Saito, Yasuko Hasegawa-Baba, Fumiko Sekiya, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Yoshiharu Mirokuji, Hiroyuki Okamura, Shinpei Maruyama, Atsushi Ono, Madoka Nakajima, Masakuni Degawa, Shogo Ozawa, Makoto Shibutani, Tamio Maitani
We performed a safety evaluation using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives of the following four flavouring substances that belong to the class of 'aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals, and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups' and are uniquely used in Japan: butyl butyrylacetate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and methyl hydroxyacetate. Although no genotoxicity study data were found in the published literature, none of the four substances had chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity...
May 25, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540408/-contaminants-from-food-packaging-new-developments-in-risk-assessment
#9
REVIEW
Karla Pfaff, Detlef Wölfle, Andreas Luch
Diverse materials intended for contact with food are important sources of food contamination. Harmonised European regulations including whitelists (so-called "positive lists") of substances along with migration limits and restrictions exist for plastics and regenerated cellulose films only. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for the risk assessment of substances prior to their authorization and inclusion into the positive lists. In 2016 the EFSA issued an opinion on recent developments in the risk assessment of substances migrating into food for public consideration...
May 24, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539740/evaluation-of-antioxidant-hypolipidemic-and-antiatherogenic-property-of-lycopene-and-astaxanthin-in-atherosclerosis-induced-rats
#10
Rajesh Kumar, Kartik Janardan Salwe, Manimekalai Kumarappan
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Antioxidants play a major role in prophylaxis and prevention of progression and complications of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we are evaluating the antiatherosclerotic effect of two antioxidants such as astaxanthin and lycopene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acclimatization, 24 male SD rats, 8-10 weeks old, 150 ± 10 g, maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines were divided into four groups of six rats each...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539097/removal-of-organic-matter-from-stabilized-landfill-leachate-using-coagulation-flocculation-fenton-coupled-with-activated-charcoal-adsorption
#11
Ahmad Razali Ishak, Fauziah Shahul Hamid, Sharifah Mohamad, Kheng Soo Tay
The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538204/non-volatile-extractable-analysis-of-prefilled-syringes-for-parenteral-administration-of-drug-products
#12
Noemí Dorival-García, Iben Larsson, Jonathan Bones
The determination of extractable profiles for single-use technologies represents an important aspect of pharmaceutical production to minimize any possible compromise in drug product quality or potential risk to patients by identifying substances that may potentially leach from such devices. An approach for the extractable assessment of prefilled syringes, a promising alternative for parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products, is described herein. Four extraction solvents were selected: a mixture 2-propanol:water (1:1), was intended to represent aggressive conditions to extract a broad spectrum of extractables, including organic additives and substances which are poorly water-soluble...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537124/family-group-interventions-in-an-early-psychosis-program-a-re-evaluation-of-practice-after-10%C3%A2-years-of-service-delivery
#13
Kate Day, Rachael Starbuck, Melissa Petrakis
INTRODUCTION: The role of family in supporting service users in coping with illness and engaging in relapse prevention in early psychosis is important. Taking on this caring though is stressful and challenging, and it has been found that support and information for carers assists in their coping and reduces isolation. AIMS: To evaluate the current utility of a psychoeducation group program in a public adult mental health service, for the families of people experiencing early psychosis...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536655/supporting-looked-after-children-and-care-leavers-in-decreasing-drugs-and-alcohol-solid-protocol-for-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-interventions-to-decrease-risky-substance-use-drugs-and-alcohol-and-improve-mental-health-of-looked-after
#14
Hayley Alderson, Ruth McGovern, Rebecca Brown, Denise Howel, Frauke Becker, Louise Carr, Alex Copello, Tony Fouweather, Eileen Kaner, Paul McArdle, Elaine McColl, Janet Shucksmith, Alison Steele, Luke Vale, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children (LAC) and care leavers are young people who have been placed under the legal care of local authorities, in many instances due to a history of abuse and/or neglect. These young people have a significantly increased risk of substance use and mental disorder compared to their peers. The aim of the SOLID study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive three-arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effectiveness of two interventions that aim to reduce risky drug and alcohol use and improve mental health among LAC aged 12 to 20 years with usual care...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536552/the-effectiveness-of-a-new-school-based-media-literacy-intervention-on-adolescents-doping-attitudes-and-supplements-use
#15
Fabio Lucidi, Luca Mallia, Fabio Alivernini, Andrea Chirico, Sara Manganelli, Federica Galli, Valeria Biasi, Arnaldo Zelli
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a media literacy intervention targeting, for the first time, the specific topic of Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAESs) use in high-school students. Overall, 389 students (52% male) aged between 13 and 19 years (mean = 16.56 year; SD = 1.26) participated to a media literacy intervention (i.e., "intervention group") while 103 students aged between 14 and 19 year (mean = 16.10 year; SD = 1.38) were considered as the control group (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535597/variation-and-accumulation-patterns-of-poly-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-in-european-perch-perca-fluviatilis-across-a-gradient-of-pristine-swedish-lakes
#16
Staffan Åkerblom, Nesrin Negm, Pianpian Wu, Kevin Bishop, Lutz Ahrens
This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n=80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534298/formulation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-bioactive-mesoporous-silica-with-doxorubicin-and-metronidazole-intended-for-bone-treatment-and-regeneration
#17
Katarzyna Czarnobaj, Magdalena Prokopowicz, Wiesław Sawicki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface mineralization activity and in vitro drug behavior potential of two forms of mesoporous silica: powder and granulate. Ordered mesoporous SiO2 powder was synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the structure-directing agent. The granulate was prepared using silica powder and ethyl cellulose as a binding agent. Metronidazole (MT)-an anti-inflammatory substance and doxorubicin hydrochloride (ChD)-an anti-cancer drug were chosen as drug models for delivery studies...
May 22, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534056/carbon-nanomaterials-enhance-survival-of-agapanthus-praecox-callus-after-cryopreservation-by-vitrification
#18
S M Chen, L Ren, D Zhang, Y F Zhang, X H Shen
BACKGROUND: Adding exogenous compounds is an effective way to improve cell survival after cryopreservation. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) are novel exogenous substances with small particle size and good biocompatibility. OBJECTIVE: In this work, four types of CNMs were used for the cryopreservation of Agapanthus praecox callus and their possible effects and mechanism of action were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The thermal properties of the vitrification solutions tested were detected by differential scanning calorimetry...
March 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533902/the-influence-of-in-ovo-injection-with-the-prebiotic-dinovo%C3%A2-on-the-development-of-histomorphological-parameters-of-the-duodenum-body-mass-and-productivity-in-large-scale-poultry-production-conditions
#19
Adrianna Sobolewska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Joanna Bogucka, Agata Dankowiakowska, Anna Kułakowska, Agata Szczerba, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Michał Szpinda, Marek Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Among various feed additives currently used in poultry nutrition, an important role is played by bioactive substances, including prebiotics. The beneficial effect of these bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and immune system give rise to improvements in broiler health and performance nutrition, thus increasing the productivity of these birds. An innovative method for introducing bioactive substances into chickens is the in ovo injection into eggs intended for hatching...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532510/gender-differences-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-register-study
#20
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström
BACKGROUND: Gender differences regarding psychiatric ill-health are well known in the general population. However, not much research is done on people with intellectual disability, and especially not among older people with intellectual disability. METHODS: People with intellectual disability aged 55+ years in 2012 in Sweden were identified through a register containing information on those receiving support and service for this type of disability. The cohort comprised 3609 women and 4327 men with mean age 65 and 64 years, respectively...
May 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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