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Substance use monitoring

Manuel Wohde, Silvia Berkner, Thomas Junker, Sabine Konradi, Lisa Schwarz, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The spread of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) and biocides via manure onto agriculturally used areas represents a very important emission into the environment for these product groups. Within this literature study, publicly available transformation studies with liquid manure are summarized. Transformation studies were evaluated regarding the transformation fate of tested substances, the origin and characteristics of used manure, the experimental setup, and the measured parameters. As main topics within the 42 evaluated transformation studies, the high dependency of transformation on temperature, redox potential, dry matter content, and other parameters is reported...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
David R Hodge, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: The homeschool population continues to grow in size and now accounts for 3.4% of all students in the United States. OBJECTIVE: Given the heterogeneous nature of the population, this study examines the relationship between different types of homeschoolers and a number of substance use related outcomes. METHODS: To conduct this study, we used pooled data (2002-2013) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Respondents aged 12-17 who reported they had been homeschooled at any time during the previous 12 months were classified as homeschoolers (N = 1,321)...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Julian A Michely, Sascha K Manier, Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Jason Wallach, Hans H Maurer
3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) and 3-methoxyrolicyclidine (3-MeO-PCPy) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS). The aims of the present study were the elucidation of their metabolic fate in rat and pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), the identification of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved, and the detectability using standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) after intake of common users' doses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn), and liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS)...
October 18, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Jamie Suki Chang, Margot Kushel, Christine Miaskowski, Rachel Ceasar, Kara Zamora, Emily Hurstak, Kelly R Knight
BACKGROUND: In the United States and internationally, providers have adopted guidelines on the management of prescription opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). For "high-risk" patients with co-occurring CNCP and a history of substance use, guidelines advise that providers monitor patients using urine toxicology screening tests, develop opioid management plans, and refer patients to substance use treatment. OBJECTIVE: We report primary care provider experiences in the safety net interpreting and implementing prescription opioid guideline recommendations for patients with CNCP and substance use...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Xindi C Hu, David Q Andrews, Andrew B Lindstrom, Thomas A Bruton, Laurel A Schaider, Philippe Grandjean, Rainer Lohmann, Courtney C Carignan, Arlene Blum, Simona A Balan, Christopher P Higgins, Elsie M Sunderland
Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013-2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
Katja Knauer
BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005-2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the authorization procedure...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Caterina Faggio, Maria Pagano, Roberto Alampi, Irene Vazzana, Maria Rosa Felice
The presence of a xenobiotic in the environment can often represent a risk for living organisms. Quaternium-15, a preservative, is one of the most used substances and is added to several cosmetics and other industrial products. For this reason,kwowing the bio-indicator of the marine environment, the toxicological effects potentially elicited by this preservative on the marine invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis were studied. The results of this work confirm that quaternium-15, used at 0.1 and 1mg/l concentrations, while metabolized in M...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Erin A Ferries, Aaron M Gilson, Rajendar R Aparasu, Hua Chen, Michael L Johnson, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVE:  Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic levels, leading to overdose-related morbidity and mortality. Patient and regional-level factors are believed to contribute to higher rates of prescription drug abuse. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multiple provider episodes (MPEs) in Texas. METHODS:  This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the Texas Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) database, linked with Texas county census data...
October 15, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Lilong Yan, Xiaolei Zhang, Guoxin Hao, Yihan Guo, Yuan Ren, Liangbin Yu, Xuefei Bao, Ying Zhang
To explicitly understand the function of extracellular polymeric substances in the treatment of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge, the three forms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen) contained in tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances were analyzed. The three forms of nitrogen were monitored in the tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances in aerobic granular sludge after adsorption. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the extracellular polymeric substances was distributed in both the tightly and loosely bound forms and decreased gradually as the aeration time increased...
October 7, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Oliver G Weingart, Martin J Loessner
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known, and their neurotoxic properties and paralysing effects are exploited for medical treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders. To accurately quantify the potency of a pharmaceutical BoNT preparation, its physiological key activities (binding to membrane receptor, translocation, and proteolytic degradation of SNARE proteins) need to be determined. To date, this was only possible using animal models, or, to a limited extent, cell-based assays. We here report a novel in vitro system for BoNT/B analysis, based on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes presenting motoneuronal membrane receptors required for BoNT binding...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Alexandre Tahar, Brendan McHugh, Neil J Rowan
Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Megan E Patrick, Deborah D Kloska, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza
Perceived social norms of substance use are commonly identified as a risk factor for use. How the strength of association between perceived friends' use and substance use may change across development has not yet been documented. The current analysis considers how the associations between perceived friends' marijuana use and participants' own use of any marijuana in the past year changes from ages 18 to 30 using longitudinal data from the United States national Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2014 (N = 30,794 people)...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Rebecca Ling, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Infodemiology can offer practical and feasible health research applications through the practice of studying information available on the Web. Google Trends provides publicly accessible information regarding search behaviors in a population, which may be studied and used for health campaign evaluation and disease monitoring. Additional studies examining the use and effectiveness of Google Trends for these purposes remain warranted. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to explore the use of infodemiology in the context of health campaign evaluation and chronic disease monitoring...
October 12, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Susanna Ahola, Otto Mankinen, Ville-Veikko Telkki
Standard diffusion NMR measurements require the repetition of the experiment multiple times with varying gradient strength or diffusion delay. This makes the experiment time-consuming and restricts the use of hyperpolarized substances to boost sensitivity. We propose a novel single-scan diffusion experiment, which is based on spatial encoding of two-dimensional data, employing the spin-echoes created by two successive adiabatic frequency-swept chirp π pulses. The experiment is called ultrafast pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (UF-PGSE)...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Hazrulrizawati Abd Hamid, Roziasyahira Mutazah, Mashitah M Yusoff, Nurul Ashikin Abd Karim, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner...
October 7, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Donat-P Häder, Gilmar S Erzinger
The microcrustacean Daphnia is sensitive to many toxic substances and can be cultured easily. The Daphniatox instrument is based on computerized image analysis tracking swimming organisms in real time. The software evaluates 14 endpoints including motility, swimming velocity, orientation with respect to light and gravity as well as cell form and size. The system determines movement vectors of a large number of organisms to warrant high statistical significance and calculates mean values as well as standard deviation...
October 7, 2016: Chemosphere
Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Stefania Salvatore, Emma Gracia-Lor, Richard Bade, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Felix Hernandez, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Malcolm Reid, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Pim de Voogt, Jorgen Bramness, Kevin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information...
October 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
Thomas Pineau, Adrien Schopfer, Lionel Grossrieder, Julian Broséus, Pierre Esseiva, Quentin Rossy
Despite the predominant role played by Internet in the distribution of doping substances, little is currently known about the online offer of doping products. Therefore, the study focuses on the detection of doping substances and suppliers discussed in Internet forums. It aims at having a comprehensive understanding of products and sellers to lead an operational monitoring of the online doping market. Thirteen community forums on the Internet were investigated and one million topics were extracted with source code scrappers...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
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