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Substance use monitoring

Rebecca J Evans-Polce, Megan S Schuler, John E Schulenberg, Megan E Patrick
INTRODUCTION: Sensation seeking is associated with elevated risk for substance use among adolescents and young adults. However, whether these associations vary across age for young men and women is not well characterized. METHODS: Using data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) panel study, we examine the age-varying associations of sensation seeking and three types of substance use behavior (binge drinking, cigarette use, and marijuana use) across ages 18 to 30 using time-varying effect modeling...
May 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Helen T D'Couto, Gregory K Robbins, Kevin L Ard, Sarah E Wakeman, Justin Alves, Sandra B Nelson
Background: Opioid use disorder poses a significant public health risk. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) suffer from high mortality and morbidity secondary to serious infectious diseases, often requiring prolonged courses of outpatient parenteral antibiotics. The goal of this study was to determine the outcomes of PWID discharged to home or to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility (SNF/rehab) with parenteral antibiotic treatment under an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) program...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Junhui Lee, Jiwon Park, Ahra Go, Heesung Moon, Sujin Kim, Sohee Jung, Wonjoon Jeong, Heesun Chung
To intoxicated patients in the emergency room, toxicological analysis can be considerably helpful for identifying the involved toxicants. In order to develop a urine multi-drug screening (UmDS) method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used to determine targeted and unknown toxicants in urine. A GC-MS method in scan mode was validated for selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and recovery. An LC-MS-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was validated for lower LOD, recovery and matrix effect...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Heath Christianson, Elizabeth Driscoll, Aicha Hull
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have begun to demonstrate themselves as useful tools in enhancing safe and responsible prescription of controlled substances. The purpose of this project was to describe current practice, beliefs, and barriers of Alaska nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the Alaska PDMP. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 635 Alaskan NPs with a 33% return rate. The data depicted prescribing habits, barriers to use, barriers to registering, and opinions on how to make the PDMP more clinically useful...
January 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Mehmet Hamdi Orum, Mahmut Zabit Kara, Oguzhan Bekir Egilmez, Aysun Kalenderoglu
This study was designed to compare the complete blood count values of opioid users (N = 61) and healthy subjects (N = 61), particularly monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). PLR, MLR, and percentage of monocyte (MONO%) were significantly lower in opioid use disorder (OUD) group (P = 0.012, P = 0.005, P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve of MLR and PLR levels for OUD was 0.349 and 0.368. MONO% correlated with substance use duration. Measurements like lymphocyte-related ratios and MONO% in opioid use can be important in substance monitoring, detection, and differentiation of acute and chronic conditions...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Nirenkumar Pathak, Luca Fortunato, Sheng Li, Laura Chekli, Sherub Phuntsho, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
This study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor for real sewage employing baffles in the reactor. To study the biofouling development on forward osmosis membranes optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique was employed. On-line monitoring of biofilm growth on a flat sheet cellulose triacetate forward osmosis (CTA-FO) membrane was conducted for 21 days. Further, the process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, organic and nutrient removal, microbial activity in terms of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and floc size...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
D M Coviello, R Lovato, K Apostol, M M Eisenberg, D S Metzger, R Szucs-Reed, N Kiryankova-Dalseth, D Kelly, A Jackson, M Plano, M B Blank
A consistently suppressed viral load enables HIV (+) patients to live longer, healthier lives and reduces the probability of transmitting the virus. Since the prevalence of HIV is four times higher among those with psychiatric disorders than in the general population, it is likely that this group would also have greater difficulty remaining in care and achieving viral suppression. A secondary data analysis utilizing screening data from the Preventing AIDS Through Health (PATH) for Triples (PFT) Study were examined to assess HIV load suppression among 254 psychiatric inpatients with comorbid substance use disorders in Philadelphia...
May 11, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
André Soffiatti, Yuri Max, Sandro G Silva, Laércio M de Mendonça
This article proposed to build a system founded on metamaterial sensor antennas, which can be used to evaluate impurities in aqueous substances according to the quality of transmission between the sensor antennas. In order to do this, a dedicated setup with tests in several frequencies was deployed so as to monitor the behavior of transmission variation between sensors. These sensors are microstrip antennas with a ground plane of resonant cleaved metallic rings; the substrate functions as a metamaterial for the irradiating element...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Dejan Krčmar, Slaven Tenodi, Nenad Grba, Djurdja Kerkez, Malcolm Watson, Srdjan Rončević, Božo Dalmacija
Most regional municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia are operated without control of landfill leachate and gas or with no regard for implementation of national and European legislation. For the first time in Serbia, groundwater and soil at a landfill were subject to systematic annual monitoring according to national, European legislation and adopted methodologies. Characterisation of the groundwater and soil samples from the landfill included ten metals (Fe, Mn, As, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Hg), 16 EPA PAHs, nutrients and certain physicochemical parameters, in order to assess the risks such poorly controlled landfills pose to the environment...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simone Pettigrew, Isla Henriques, Kaela Farrier
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study examined references to alcohol and other drugs in top 20 songs over the last quarter of a century to explore the potential for popular music to constitute a barometer for changes occurring in youth consumption of alcohol and other substances. DESIGN AND METHODS: The online Australian Recording Industry Association charts resource was accessed to identify the top 20 songs for the period 1990 to 2015 inclusive. The lyrics of the identified songs were imported into NVivo11 for coding and analysis...
April 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
C H W Wijers, M C Visser, R T H van Litsenburg, R J M Niesink, R B Willemse, Esther A Croes
INTRODUCTION: The use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and the number of 4-FA-related intoxications substantially increased in The Netherlands in recent years. We describe two patients with severe 4-FA-related complications and the characteristics of a large sample of 4-FA-intoxicated patients. METHODS: Information on patients with 4-FA-related intoxications between January 2009 and June 2017 was available from the Monitor Drug-related Incidents...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Whyara Karoline Almeida da Costa, Geany Targino de Souza, Larissa Ramalho Brandão, Rafael Cardoso de Lima, Estefânia Fernandes Garcia, Marcos Dos Santos Lima, Evandro Leite de Souza, Maria Saarela, Marciane Magnani
This study assessed the antagonistic activity of fruit-derived lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains against food-related bacteria and the effects of the highest organic acids LAB producers on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 in cheese and chicken meat, respectively. The production of organic acids by the Lactobacillus strains in the tested food matrices was also monitored. All tested LAB strains showed antagonistic activity in vitro on the growth of pathogenic or spoiling food-related bacteria, particularly on L...
June 2018: Food Research International
Christian Salerno, Paola Marciani, Aniello Esposito, Lucio Antonio Palin
INTRODUCTION: Aim this study is to assess anomalous mortality rates from 2002 to 2012, in the municipalities of Ghemme and Cavaglio d'Agogna where a landfill has been active. Before the opening of the landfill (1988), studies highlighted the presence of noxious substances, in the ground layers, and not in the groundwater. Goal of our research is to monitor the health levels of the population in an area, with attention to long/midterm effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the analysis on data of the National Institute of Statistics death records, and produced indirect standardized rates (SMR) using the rates of Local Healthcare Agencies (ASL) of Novara and Vercelli as reference population...
January 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Megan E Patrick, Phil Veliz, Ashley Linden-Carmichael, Yvonne M Terry-McElrath
AIMS: Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) use is associated with negative consequences including hazardous alcohol use and driving under the influence. While many studies have focused on correlates of AmED use among college samples, very few have examined patterns of AmED use during adolescence and young adulthood within the general population. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to assess age differences in AmED use among a national sample of respondents aged 18 to 30. METHODS: The data for this study come from the Monitoring the Future panel study from 2012 to 2015...
March 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Hayley E Jones, Neil Goulding, Matthew Hickman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Addiction
Jiao Wang
This study reports the leaching and transport behaviors of sixteen elements in fly ash taken from coal-fired power plant stations. A total of 480 water samples were collected from 20 simulative monitoring wells at three different times. Concentrations of elements in water samples were detected to know the spatial variability of substance, contamination level and quality of groundwater around stackable fly ash. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that the water around a stackable fly ash is unsuitable for drinking...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Baninia Habchi, Amine Kassouf, Yann Padellec, Estelle Rathahao-Paris, Sandra Alves, Douglas N Rutledge, Jacqueline Maalouly, Violette Ducruet
Food contact materials (FCMs), especially plastics, are known to be a potential source of contaminants in food. In fact, various groups of additives are used to protect the integrity of the material during processing and life time. However, these intentionally added substances (IAS) could also lead to degradation products called non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), due to reactions occurring in the polymeric material. Complex mixtures of components may therefore be generated within the material, creating a source of potential migrating substances towards food in contact...
August 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Liping Du, Jian Wang, Wei Chen, Luhang Zhao, Chunsheng Wu, Ping Wang
This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode...
August 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Dylan B Jackson, Wanda E Leal
BACKGROUND: Energy drinks have become quite popular in recent years among adolescents, prompting a wealth of recent research examining the potential deleterious consequences of energy drink consumption among youth. The present study adds to this body of work by exploring perceptions of risk and disapproval of soft and hard drugs among adolescents and whether such attitudes are predicted by patterns of energy drink/shot consumption. METHODS: Data were derived from the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) of the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, a nationally representative survey of U...
April 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Qingce Zang, Yang Gao, Luojiao Huang, Jiuming He, Sheng Lin, Hongtao Jin, Ruiping Zhang, Zeper Abliz
With the rapid development and wide application of traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI), a number of adverse events of some TCMIs have incessantly been reported and have drawn broad attention in recent years. Establishing effective and practical analytical methods for safety evaluation and quality control of TCMI can help to improve the safety of TCMIs in clinical applications. In this study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of potentially harmful substance 5,5'-oxydimethylenebis (2-furfural, OMBF) in TCMI samples...
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
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