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Substance use monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336719/bidirectional-relationships-between-alcohol-specific-parental-socialization-behaviors-and-adolescent-alcohol-misuse
#1
Melissa J Cox, Susan T Ennett, Vangie Foshee, Andrea Hussong, Melissa Lippold, H Luz McNaughton-Reyes
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have examined parental influence on adolescent alcohol misuse, few have examined how adolescents impact parental behavior or the reciprocal nature of parent-adolescent behavior relative to alcohol misuse. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed bidirectional relationships between adolescent alcohol misuse and three alcohol-specific parenting behaviors (substance-specific monitoring, permissive communication messages about alcohol, and cautionary communication messages about alcohol)...
January 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334019/chemical-stabilization-of-polymers-implications-for-dermal-exposure-to-additives
#2
N Bartsch, M Girard, L Schneider, V Van De Weijgert, A Wilde, O Kappenstein, B Vieth, C Hutzler, A Luch
Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333692/measuring-spatial-and-temporal-trends-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-consumption-in-australia-using-wastewater-based-epidemiology
#3
Foon Yin Lai, Coral Gartner, Wayne Hall, Steve Carter, Jake O'Brien, Benjamin J Tscharke, Frederic Been, Cobus Gerber, Jason White, Phong Thai, Raimondo Bruno, Jeremy Prichard, K Paul Kirkbride, Jochen F Mueller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues worldwide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely on survey participation. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns in nicotine (a proxy for tobacco) and alcohol consumption in the Australian population via WBE...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332575/protective-role-of-italian-juglans-regia-l-nut-ethanolic-extract-in-human-keratinocytes-under-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress
#4
Cinzia Calcabrini, Umberto Mancini, Roberta De Bellis, Alessandra Frati, Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo, Giosue Annibalini, Piero Sestili, Luigi Cucchiarini, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
OBJECTIVE: In this research, fatty acid profile and polyphenolic content of an ethanolic extract of walnut from Juglans regia L. collected in Central Italy, were performed. The potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract were investigated in the human keratinocytes cell line. METHODS: Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for determination of total flavonoids...
January 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330240/structured-management-of-chronic-nonmalignant-pain-with-opioids-in-a-rural-primary-care-office
#5
Kevin S McCann, Shawndra Barker, Raymond Cousins, Adam Franks, Clinton McDaniel, Stephen Petrany, Eric Riley
INTRODUCTION: The use of opioid medication for nonmalignant chronic pain (NMCP) increased dramatically during the last 20 years. There have been regulatory changes implemented to reduce the risk of harm to both patients and society. Much of the burden of monitoring these patients is falling on primary care physicians (PCPs), who do not have the time or resources to handle what is entailed in a best-practice approach to NMCP. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with all patients on opioid medication for NMCP who were enrolled onto an individual PCP's practice...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324792/critical-evaluation-of-colon-submucosal-microdialysis-in-awake-mobile-rats
#6
Norbert Cibicek, Jiri Ehrmann, Jitka Proskova, Rostislav Vecera
Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324726/hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-behaviors-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-20-cities-united-states-2015
#7
Janet C Burnett, Dita Broz, Michael W Spiller, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321101/bioremediation-and-detoxification-of-industrial-wastes-by-earthworms-vermicompost-as-powerful-crop-nutrient-in-sustainable-agriculture
#8
REVIEW
Sartaj Ahmad Bhat, Sharanpreet Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar, Bhawana, Adarsh Pal Vig
Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314761/keratinous-matrices-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#9
Delphine Cappelle, Steven De Keukeleire, Hugo Neels, Frederic Been, Mireille De Doncker, Geert Dom, Cleo L Crunelle, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Keratinous matrices - hair and nails - accumulate substances over time and allow retrospective investigation of past consumption. Analysis of these matrices can provide information complementary to blood and urine analysis or can be used as standalone. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of substances in hair, while studies in nails are scarce. In this study, we assessed concentrations of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in hair, finger- and toenails collected from the same individuals to evaluate differences and correlations between matrices...
January 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313280/the-in-vitro-assessment-of-dipyridophenazine-complexes-in-h-ras-oncogene-transformed-rat-embryo-fibroblast-5rp7-cell-line
#10
Ayse Kaplan, Kadriye Benkli, Ayse Tansu Koparal
Purpose The aim of this study is to detect apoptotic and cytotoxic/antiproliferative effects of a ligand substance and its metal derivatives. The substances were investigated by using an h-ras oncogene transformed rat embryo fibroblast cell line (5RP7). Methods The cytotoxic influences of dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'c]phenazine ligand, dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'c] phenazine-platinum(II) complex ([Pt(dppz)Cl2]) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'c] phenazine-gold(III) complex ([Au(dppz)Cl2]Cl) were determined with MTT (3[4,5-dimetiltiyazol2-yl]-2,5-difeniltetrazolyum bromid) assay on 5RP7 cells...
January 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306200/mass-balance-of-emerging-contaminants-in-the-water-cycle-of-a-highly-urbanized-and-industrialized-area-of-italy
#11
Sara Castiglioni, Enrico Davoli, Francesco Riva, Marinella Palmiotto, Paolo Camporini, Angela Manenti, Ettore Zuccato
The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM)...
December 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#12
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305948/determination-of-developmental-toxicity-of-zebrafish-exposed-to-propyl-gallate-dosed-lower-than-adi-acceptable-daily-intake
#13
Alper Baran, Mine Köktürk, Muhammed Atamanalp, Saltuk Buğrahan Ceyhun
Propyl gallate (PG) is an antioxidant substance widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effect of PG injected to zebrafish embryos. To this end, zebrafish embryos were exposed to PG with 0, 1, 10 and 50 ppm concentrations which are lower than ADI and were monitored at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hpf. Survival rate, hatching rate and malformations were evaluated during this period. Moreover, it has been detected the accumulation of fluorescence signal of ROS and apoptotic cell in whole body at the end of 96 hpf...
January 3, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305727/using-population-based-hospitalization-data-to-monitor-increases-in-conditions-causing-morbidity-among-persons-who-inject-drugs
#14
Melissa G Collier, Mona Doshani, Alice Asher
Epidemics of opioid use and injection drug use (IDU) are associated with an increase in HIV and viral hepatitis infections and overdose deaths in the United States. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are also at risk for serious infections caused by skin organisms introduced via IDU. We examined National Inpatient Sample hospital discharge data to determine trends in three serious infectious disease-associated conditions that primarily affect PWID in addition to HIV and viral hepatitis: infective endocarditis (IE), central nervous system (CNS) abscesses, and osteomyelitis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300404/detecting-environmental-change-how-many-samples-are-required
#15
M J Gardner, S D W Comber
One of the most important functions of environmental monitoring is the detection of change. This can be the delineation of deteriorating circumstances or the identification of the success of remedial measures. The design of effective monitoring of change (and hence the optimisation of resources devoted to monitoring) relies on appropriate replication - knowing how many samples are required. Lack of information on the variance of the measured parameter is often a barrier to determining the optimum sampling strategy...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300096/influence-of-parent-youth-relationship-parental-monitoring-and-parent-substance-use-on-adolescent-substance-use-onset
#16
Julie C Rusby, John M Light, Ryann Crowley, Erika Westling
The quality of parent-child relationships likely influences many decisions and behaviors made by early adolescents, including their alcohol and marijuana use. We examined how parent-youth relationship quality, parental monitoring, and parent substance use were associated with initiation of alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use by 400 adolescents by the spring of 8th grade (ages 13-14), and changes in initiation through 9th grade (assessed 3 times; fall, winter, and spring). We measured both parent and adolescent report of parent-youth relationship quality and parental monitoring, expecting that both perspectives would uniquely contribute...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298186/evaluation-of-the-relative-abuse-of-an-oros%C3%A2-extended-release-hydromorphone-hci-product-results-from-three-post-market-surveillance-studies
#17
Stephen F Butler, Emily C McNaughton, Ryan A Black, Theresa A Cassidy
OBJECTIVE: Formulating prescription opioids to limit abuse remains a priority. OROS® extended-release (ER) hydromorphone HCl (EXALGO®) may have low abuse potential. Three post-marketing studies of the relative abuse liability of OROS hydromorphone ER were conducted. METHODS: Estimates of abuse, unadjusted and adjusted for prescription volume, were generated for OROS hydromorphone ER and comparators from Q2 2010 through Q2 2014 for a high-risk, substance abuse treatment population and the general population using poison control center data...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297734/is-technology-mediated-parental-monitoring-related-to-adolescent-substance-use
#18
Jessie Rudi, Jodi Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Prevention researchers have identified parental monitoring leading to parental knowledge to be a protective factor against adolescent substance use. In today's digital society, parental monitoring can occur using technology-mediated communication methods, such as text messaging, email, and social networking sites. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to identify patterns, or clusters, of in-person and technology-mediated monitoring behaviors, and examine differences between the patterns (clusters) in adolescent substance use...
January 3, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297725/prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-and-pharmacist-orientation-toward-dispensing-controlled-substances
#19
Michael Fendrich, Janelle K Bryan, Katinka Hooyer
OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how pharmacists viewed and used a newly implemented prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). We also sought to understand pharmacist orientation toward dispensing of controlled substances and the people who obtain them. METHODS: We conducted three mini focus groups. The focus group findings were used to inform the design of a structured survey. We emailed a survey to 160 pharmacists who were employed in one statewide community chain store; we obtained 48 survey responses...
January 3, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295021/risk-and-protective-factors-of-child-to-parent-violence-a-comparison-between-physical-and-verbal-aggression
#20
Laura Beckmann, Marie Christine Bergmann, Franziska Fischer, Thomas Mößle
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is a social problem that remains vastly understudied compared with other forms of family violence. The aim of this study is to identify family and child risk and protective factors of CPV, and to investigate whether they differentially predict physical and verbal parent-directed violence among boys and girls. Predictors include parenting behavior during childhood (physical and verbal violence, warmth, monitoring) and respondents' individual characteristics (suicidal ideation, self-control, problematic substance use)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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