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Substance use monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442267/shell-alterations-in-limpets-as-putative-biomarkers-for-multi-impacted-coastal-areas
#1
Felipe Nincao Begliomini, Daniele Claudino Maciel, Sérgio Mendonça de Almeida, Denis Moledo Abessa, Luciane Alves Maranho, Camilo Seabra Pereira, Gilvan Takeshi Yogui, Eliete Zanardi-Lamardo, Ítalo Braga Castro
During the last years, shell alterations in gastropods have been proposed as tools to be used in monitoring programs. However, no studies were so far performed investigating the relationships among shell parameters and classical biomarkers of damage. The relationship between shell alterations (biometrics, shape and elemental composition) and biomarkers (LPO and DNA strand break) was evaluated in the limpet L. subrugosa sampled along a contamination gradient in a multi-impacted coastal zone from southeastern Brazil...
April 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434182/recent-trends-in-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-police-detainees-in-new-zealand-2010-2015
#2
Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert, Helen Moewaka Barnes
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. AIMS: This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. METHOD: The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i...
April 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431268/assessment-of-mutagenicity-of-water-from-lake-sevan-armenia-with-application-of-tradescantia-clone-02
#3
R E Avalyan, E A Aghajanyan, A Khosrovyan, A L Atoyants, A E Simonyan, R M Aroutiounian
For many decades water resources in Armenia have been affected by anthropogenic activity, therefore, a regular bioindication of genotoxic effects of the water bodies is desirable. The genotoxicity of water samples collected from different parts of Lake Sevan were assessed by means of Trad-SHM (stamen hair mutation) assay using Tradescantia (clone 02). Here we report a significant increase in the frequency of somatic mutations and morphological changes in the Tradescantia inflorescences exposed to the water samples compared to the control...
March 31, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429634/migration-of-oligomers-from-pet-determination-of-diffusion-coefficients-and-comparison-of-experimental-versus-modelled-migration
#4
Maria Hoppe, Roberta Fornari, Pim de Voogt, Roland Franz
Polyethylene terephthalate is increasingly used as food contact material for example in containers for beverage such as bottles for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. Mass transport of substances present in packaging materials into the packed food and beverages is monitored to verify the food law compliance of the materials. PET is known to contain or give rise to migrants that are oligomers derived from the polymeric material. Until now their actual migration potential has been investigated only poorly...
April 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426362/predicting-change-in-an-integrated-dual-diagnosis-substance-abuse-intensive-outpatient-program
#5
Edward A Wise, David L Streiner, Robert J Gallop
Research on routine outcome monitoring in psychotherapy settings is plentiful but not without implementation obstacles. In fact, there is a relative dearth of real-time outcome monitoring in substance use treatment settings. Numerous barriers to the development and implementation of clinical decision support tools and outcome monitoring of substance use patients, including the need to establish expected trajectories of change and use of reliable change indices have been identified (Goodman, McKay, & DePhilippis, 2013 )...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425543/in-situ-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-microimaging-of-live-biofilms-in-a-microchannel
#6
R S Renslow, M J Marshall, A E Tucker, W B Chrisler, X-Y Yu
Biofilms are comprised of microbial cells and an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix that supports interactions between community members and with the local environment. The highly hydrated EPS matrix makes the application of many biofilm visualization techniques difficult. Hence, to better visualize how biofilms interact with their environment, there is a need for imaging techniques to monitor hydrated state biofilm dynamics. We employed an in situ dynamic approach to construct label-free images of biofilms...
April 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424107/early-maturation-and-substance-use-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-of-finnish-twins
#7
Jeanne E Savage, Richard J Rose, Lea Pulkkinen, Karri Silventoinen, Tellervo Korhonen, Jaakko Kaprio, Nathan Gillespie, Danielle M Dick
Early maturation, indexed by pubertal development (PD), has been associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of adolescent substance use, but this relationship may be biased by confounding factors and effects that change across development. Using a population-based Finnish twin sample (N = 3,632 individuals), we conducted twin modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling of the relationship between PD and substance use at ages 12-22. Shared environmental factors contributed to early PD and heavier substance use for females...
April 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422294/antiviral-activity-of-exopolysaccharides-from-arthrospira-platensis-against-koi-herpesvirus
#8
M Reichert, S M Bergmann, J Hwang, R Buchholz, C Lindenberger
Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421563/the-current-utilization-and-perceptions-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-among-emergency-medicine-providers-in-florida
#9
Henry W Young, Joseph A Tyndall, Linda B Cottler
BACKGROUND: Pain is among the most commonly treated symptoms in the emergency department, and opioids are commonly prescribed from the emergency department to treat moderate to severe pain. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) can be used to assist physicians identify individuals at increased risk to misuse or abuse opioids. While the use of the PDMP has been shown useful among clinicians, in the past, utilization of the PDMP has been less than optimal. The objective of this study was to assess the current utilization and perceptions of the prescription drug monitoring program among emergency medicine providers in Florida...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417252/effects-of-parental-monitoring-and-knowledge-on-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-results-from-three-studies
#10
Brian Mustanski, Gregory Swann, Michael E Newcomb, Nikhil Prachand
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS and have elevated rates of substance use. Parenting practices, such as knowledge of child whereabouts and monitoring of behavioral rules, protect against these outcomes among heterosexual youth. This article examined the relationship between these parenting practices and substance use and HIV risk behaviors among YMSM. Data are reported from three similar studies of YMSM: ChiGuys (ages 14-18), Crew 450 (ages 16-22), and RADAR (ages 16-29)...
April 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416644/evaluation-of-different-estimation-methods-for-accuracy-and-precision-in-biological-assay-validation
#11
Binbing Yu, Harry Yang
Biological assays (bioassays) are procedures to estimate the potency of a substance by studying its effects on living organisms, tissues, and cells. Bioassays are essential tools for gaining insight into biologic systems and processes including, for example, the development of new drugs and monitoring environmental pollutants. Two of the most important parameters of bioassay performance are relative accuracy (bias) and precision. Although general strategies and formulas are provided in USP 〈1033〉, a comprehensive understanding of the definitions of bias and precision remain elusive...
April 17, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414474/abstinence-based-incentives-plus-parent-training-for-adolescent-alcohol-and-other-substance-misuse
#12
Catherine Stanger, Emily A Scherer, Steven F Babbin, Stacy R Ryan, Alan J Budney
The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized test of clinic- and home-based incentives plus parent training for adolescent problem alcohol use. Adolescents (N = 75) with alcohol misuse, with or without other substance misuse, were enrolled. All youth received individual Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy and weekly urine drug testing. The experimental condition (EXP) included Abstinence Incentives (clinic-based incentives for abstinence from all substances) plus weekly behavioral parent training that included a parent-delivered, abstinence-based, substance monitoring contract...
April 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413169/respiratory-effects-of-simultaneous-exposure-to-respirable-crystalline-silica-dust-formaldehyde-and-triethylamine-of-a-group-of-foundry-workers
#13
Fatemeh Zarei, Mansour Rezazadeh Azari, Sousan Salehpour, Soheila Khodakarim, Leila Omidi, Elahe Tavakol
BACKGROUND: Foundry workers are occupationally exposed to hazardous substances such as silica dusts and toxic gases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of simultaneous exposure to complex mixtures of silica dust, formaldehyde, and triethylamine on lung function parameters. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted on 55 male workers of core making unit of a foundry plant (the case group) and 55 workers in a food industry were enrolled as a control group in 2015...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410978/performance-monitoring-in-nicotine-dependence-considering-integration-of-recent-reinforcement-history
#14
Kevin Butler, Jennifer Rusted, Paul Gard, Anne Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Impaired monitoring of errors and conflict (performance monitoring; PM) is well documented in substance dependence (SD) including nicotine dependence and may contribute to continued drug use. Contemporary models of PM and complementary behavioural evidence suggest that PM works by integrating recent reinforcement history rather than evaluating individual behaviours. Despite this, studies of PM in SD have typically used indices derived from reaction to task error or conflict on individual trials...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408172/opioid-dispensing-and-overlap-in-veterans-with-non-cancer-pain-eligible-for-medicare-part-d
#15
Katie J Suda, Bridget M Smith, Lauren Bailey, Walid F Gellad, Zhiping Huo, Muriel Burk, Francesca Cunningham, Kevin T Stroupe
OBJECTIVES: Pain is the most prevalent problem among veterans, who receive pain diagnoses 5 times more frequently than the general population. Opioids are commonly prescribed for pain, but they have potential for misuse and serious adverse events. The study objective was to evaluate opioid dispensing patterns and predictors for overlap in veterans who are eligible for Medicare Part D benefits. METHODS: A sample of male and all female veterans aged 66 years and older without cancer in 2005-2009 was included...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395245/validation-of-a-dried-blood-spot-method-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-citalopram-mirtazapine-and-risperidone-and-its-active-metabolite-9-hydroxyrisperidone-using-hplc-ms
#16
Johanna Weber, Stefanie Oberfeld, Andrea Bonse, Klaus Telger, Rainer Lingg, Georg Hempel
Citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone are frequently prescribed for psychiatric illnesses such as depression and psychosis or for aggressive behavior in elderly patients with dementia. The plasma concentrations vary greatly between patients, especially in elderly patients. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) increases the safety of antipsychotic treatment and a more rapid response to treatment may be achieved. To facilitate TDM, the objectives of this study were to develop and validate a reliable dried blood spot method to simultaneously quantify citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone including its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391086/adolescent-smoking-experimentation-as-a-predictor-of-daily-cigarette-smoking
#17
James D Sargent, Joy Gabrielli, Alan Budney, Samir Soneji, Thomas A Wills
OBJECTIVE: The utility of studying substance use during early adolescence depends on how well indicies of lower-level experimentation predict the development of substance use problems. We examined associations between experimental cigarette use at T1, recanting of use 8 months later (T2), and daily smoking at 2 years (T4). METHODS: Longitudinal telephone survey of 6522 US youth aged 10-14, examining lifetime cigarette smoking (none, just puffing, 1-19, 20-100, >100) and recanting (i...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386512/study-of-chemical-intermediates-by-means-of-atr-ir-spectroscopy-and-hybrid-hard-and-soft-modelling-multivariate-curve-resolution-alternating-least-squares
#18
Junxiu Ma, Juan Qi, Xinyu Gao, Chunhua Yan, Tianlong Zhang, Hongsheng Tang, Hua Li
3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379504/low-risk-of-producing-an-opioid-use-disorder-in-primary-care-by-prescribing-opioids-to-prescreened-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#19
Martin D Cheatle, Rollin M Gallagher, Charles P O'Brien
Objective. : To examine the risk of developing aberrant behaviors that might lead to a substance use disorder (addiction) when prescribing opioids for the relief of chronic noncancer pain in primary care settings. Design. : Longitudinal, prospective, descriptive design with repeated measures. Setting. : Private community-based internal medicine and family medicine clinics. Subjects. : Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376227/simple-and-highly-sensitive-uplc-esi-ms-ms-assay-for-rapid-determination-of-suvorexant-in-plasma
#20
Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Nasr Y Khalil, Sara T A Al-Rashood, Khalid A Al-Rashood
Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently approved by USFDA for the treatment of insomnia. It is drug-of-abuse and listed in Schedule IV drug of the Controlled Substances Act. In this study, a simple and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and fully validated for the determination of suvorexant in rat plasma. Both suvorexant and internal standard (rivaroxaban; IS) were separated on Aquity BEHTM C18 column after the extraction form plasma using diethyl ether as extracting agent. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium acetate in composition ratio of 85:15 was eluted at flow rate of 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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