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Substance use monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929523/follow-up-protocol-was-useful-for-children-whose-parents-attended-emergency-departments-after-partner-violence-substance-abuse-or-a-suicide-attempt
#1
Eva M M Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Maj Gigengack, Arianne H Teeuw, Tessa Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Sonja N Brilleslijper-Kater, Boudien C Flapper, Ramón J L Lindauer, Johannes B van Goudoever, Johanna H van der Lee
AIM: This was a one-year follow up of families referred to support services after the parents visited the emergency department due to intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt. Its aim was to evaluate the wellbeing of any children. METHODS: Data on families identified a year earlier by the Amsterdam Protocol were gathered from child protective services and parent and child self-reports in two Dutch regions from 2012-2015. RESULTS: We included 399 children (52%) boys with a median age of eight years (range 1-18) in the study using child protective services data...
September 19, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928400/inhibiting-p-fluorescens-biofilms-with-fluoropolymer-embedded-silver-nanoparticles-an-in-situ-spectroscopic-study
#2
M C Sportelli, E Tütüncü, R A Picca, M Valentini, A Valentini, C Kranz, B Mizaikoff, H Barth, N Cioffi
Surface colonization by microorganisms leads to the formation of biofilms, i.e. aggregates of bacteria embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. This promotes adhesion to the surface and protects bacterial community, providing an antimicrobial-resistant environment. The inhibition of biofilm growth is a crucial issue for preventing bacterial infections. Inorganic nanoparticle/Teflon-like (CFx) composites deposited via ion beam sputtering demonstrated very efficient antimicrobial activity...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#3
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922006/process-factors-explaining-psycho-social-outcomes-in-adventure-therapy
#4
Keith C Russell, Harold L Lee Gillis, Dennis M Kivlighan
The development and factor analysis of the Adventure Therapy Experience Scale (ATES) is the first attempt found in the literature to empirically and quantitatively identify therapeutic factors theorized to affect change in the adventure therapy experience (Russell & Gillis, 2017). This study utilizes the ATES to explore how its inherent factors may impact treatment outcome utilizing a routine outcome monitoring process to empirically test how these factors may contribute to treatment outcome over time. The sample of 168 males 21...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918734/the-2016-royal-australian-and-new-zealand-college-of-psychiatrists-guidelines-for-the-management-of-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#5
David J Castle, Cherrie A Galletly, Frances Dark, Verity Humberstone, Vera A Morgan, Eóin Killackey, Jayashri Kulkarni, Patrick McGorry, Olav Nielssen, Nga T Tran, Assen Jablensky
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders provide evidence-based recommendations for optimising treatment and prognosis. This update to the 2005 RANZCP guidelines has a greater emphasis on psychosocial treatments, physical health comorbidities and vocational rehabilitation. Main recommendations: The guidelines advise a clinical staging approach and deliver specific recommendations for:•comprehensive treatment using second generation antipsychotic agents continuously for 2-5 years;•early treatment of comorbid substance use;•community treatment after initial contact, during crises and after discharge from hospital;•physical health monitoring and management of comorbidities, particularly metabolic health;•interventions to optimise recovery of social function and return to study or work; and•management of schizophrenia in specific populations and circumstances...
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906151/photopolymerization-based-synthesis-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-embedded-pnipam-nanogels-for-biomedical-applications
#7
Daniel J Denmark, Robert H Hyde, Charlotte Gladney, Manh-Huong Phan, Kirpal S Bisht, Hariharan Srikanth, Pritish Mukherjee, Sarath Witanachchi
Conventional therapeutic techniques treat patients by delivering biotherapeutics to the entire body. With targeted delivery, biotherapeutics are transported to the afflicted tissue reducing exposure to healthy tissue. Targeted delivery devices are minimally composed of a stimuli responsive polymer allowing triggered release and magnetic nanoparticles enabling targeting as well as alternating magnetic field (AMF) heating. Although more traditional methods, like emulsion polymerization, have been used to realize such devices, the synthesis is problematic...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905438/research-to-support-optimization-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#8
Sheri Doyle, Gillian Leichtling, Christi Hildebran, Cynthia Reilly
PURPOSE: Research is needed to evaluate the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). This paper describes research priorities for PDMPs that were initially discussed at a 2015 meeting of PDMP administrators, researchers, public health officials, and other stakeholders. METHODS: Meeting participants defined the current landscape of PDMP research and identified research gaps. Research priorities were grouped by theme. RESULTS: Prescription drug monitoring program research priorities were identified for 3 key areas: individual patient health outcomes, prescriber use and decision making, and population-level outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905296/potentially-preventable-medical-hospitalizations-and-emergency-department-visits-by-the-behavioral-health-population
#9
Eric M Schmidt, Simone Behar, Alinne Barrera, Matthew Cordova, Leonard Beckum
This study investigated geographic variation in potentially preventable medical outcomes that might be used to monitor access to high-quality medical care in the behavioral health population. Analyzing public and non-public data sources from California on adults admitted between 2009 and 2011 to all non-federal licensed medical inpatient (N = 6,603,146) or emergency department units (N = 21,011,958) revealed that 33.6% of nearly 1 million potentially preventable hospitalizations and 9.8% of 1.5 million potentially preventable emergency department visits were made by people with mental or substance use disorder diagnoses...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902065/relationship-between-unsupervised-time-and-participation-in-an-emotion-regulation-intervention-and-risk-outcomes
#10
Wendy Hadley, David Barker, Sneha Thamotharan, Christopher D Houck
OBJECTIVE: This study is a secondary analysis of outcomes examining risk behavior in the context of the naturalistic occurrence of parental monitoring and participation in an emotion regulation intervention over a 12-month period. METHOD: Early adolescents with mental health symptoms (N=420), ages 12-14 years, were recruited and randomized into either an Emotional Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) condition. Assessments included adolescent self-report of unsupervised time, substance use and sexual behavior at baseline, 6-months, and one year post-intervention...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900353/brain-doping-stimulants-use-and-misuse-among-a-sample-of-italian-college-students
#11
REVIEW
S Majori, D Gazzani, S Pilati, J Paiano, A Sannino, S Ferrari, E Checchin
INTRODUCTION: The non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) has become the subject of great interest for its diffusion among university students, who abuse these substances to cope with the increasing load of academic stress. NMUPS has been widely investigated in the U.S. due to its increasing trend; this behavior, however, has also been reported in Europe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine stimulants misuse in a Northern Italian geographic area, identifying possible developments of the phenomenon in Italy...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898442/bayesian-estimation-of-multivariate-normal-mixtures-with-covariate-dependent-mixing-weights-with-an-application-in-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring
#12
Stijn Jaspers, Arnošt Komárek, Marc Aerts
Bacteria with a reduced susceptibility against antimicrobials pose a major threat to public health. Therefore, large programs have been set up to collect minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values. These values can be used to monitor the distribution of the nonsusceptible isolates in the general population. Data are collected within several countries and over a number of years. In addition, the sampled bacterial isolates were not tested for susceptibility against one antimicrobial, but rather against an entire range of substances...
September 12, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895924/artificial-turf-contested-terrains-for-precautionary-public-health-with-particular-reference-to-europe
#13
Andrew Watterson
Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a) (e) pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886963/current-high-intensity-drinking-among-eighth-and-tenth-grade-students-in-the-u-s
#14
Megan E Patrick, Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Richard A Miech, Patrick M O'Malley, John E Schulenberg, Lloyd D Johnston
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the prevalence of current high-intensity drinking (i.e., having ten or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. eighth and tenth grade students (at modal ages 14 and 16 years, respectively). METHODS: Data on high-intensity drinking were provided by 10,210 students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study in 2016, and analyzed in 2016-2017. Prevalence levels and interactions between grade and key covariates were estimated using procedures that adjusted for the Monitoring the Future study's complex sampling design...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886671/canadian-schizophrenia-guidelines-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-with-coexisting-substance-use-disorders
#15
David Crockford, Donald Addington
OBJECTIVE: Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders frequently have coexisting substance use disorders that require modifications to treatment approaches for best outcomes. The objectives of this review were to identify evidence-based practices best practices that improve outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia and substance used disorders. METHOD: We reviewed guidelines that were published in the last 5 years and that included systematic reviews or meta-analyses...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886395/individual-peer-and-family-factor-modification-of-neighborhood-level-effects-on-adolescent-alcohol-cigarette-e-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#16
Regina A Shih, Layla Parast, Eric R Pedersen, Wendy M Troxel, Joan S Tucker, Jeremy N V Miles, Lisa Kraus, Elizabeth J D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood factors reported subjectively by residents and measured objectively at the census tract are both associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco (cigarette and electronic cigarette), and other drug (marijuana) (ATOD) use. Less clear is how these neighborhood factors are longitudinally associated with each substance. Equivocal findings may be due to lack of consideration of individual, peer, and family effect modifiers, which could help adolescents overcome exposure to stressful neighborhood environments...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880814/investigation-of-full-scale-ozonation-at-a-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant-using-a-toxicity-based-evaluation-concept
#17
Fabian Itzel, Linda Gehrmann, Helena Bielak, Paul Ebersbach, Andrea Boergers, Heinrich Herbst, Christian Maus, Anne Simon, Elke Dopp, Monika Hammers-Wirtz, Torsten C Schmidt, Jochen Tuerk
Effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are known to be point sources of micropollutants for surface waters. The aim of this study was to examine a reconstructed full-scale ozonation equipped with a pump-injector system for ozone (O3) dosage and a fluidized moving-bed reactor as biological posttreatment at a municipal WWTP utilizing an effect-directed approach. This approach consists of chemical analysis in combination with toxicological tests for the assessment of treatment efficiency of the plant...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876693/continuation-of-feeds-in-the-unstable-burns-patient
#18
A L Rooi, A Muganza, E A Ndobe, M Nel
BACKGROUND: Early enteral nutrition (EEN) and the continuation of enteral nutrition (EN) are critical factors in burn patients, who typically have higher nutritional needs due to their post-injury hypercatabolic state and their additional need for nutrients to aid in the healing of wounds and skin grafts. In the critically ill patient, EN is the preferred mode of administration; however, controversy exists regarding the concomitant use of EN and intravenous vasopressor agents in the haemodynamically unstable patient...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876530/social-capital-and-adolescent-substance-use-the-role-of-family-school-and-neighborhood-contexts
#19
Ming Wen
This study assesses the link between social capital factors of norm-setting social arenas including family, school, and neighborhood and adolescent substance use measured by cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use among a sample of adolescents in California. The key messages of this study are that socialization processes at different life domains, in varying degrees, are associated with adolescent substance use behavior. Compared with school and neighborhood contexts, family is the most influential setting that should be primarily targeted for youth substance use prevention...
June 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874171/long-term-treatment-with-low-dose-medicine-in-chronic-childhood-eczema-a-double-blind-two-stage-randomized-control-trial
#20
R Carello, L Ricottini, V Miranda, P Panei, L Rocchi, R Arcieri, E Galli
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of low-dose medicine (LDM) in childhood mild/moderate eczema is not known. We conducted a double-blind, two-stage, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, lasting 23 months, to address this issue. METHOD: Eighty children with chronic mild/moderate eczema were randomly allocated to Group A (placebo) or Group B (treatment group; Galium-Heel®, a low-dose multicomponent medicine based upon natural substances; Guna-Interleukin 12 and Guna-Interferon-γ administered twice a day for six non-consecutive months for each stage)...
September 6, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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