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Substance use monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#1
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900672/the-identification-and-management-of-substance-use-disorders-in-anesthesiologists
#2
Lisa G Lefebvre, I Michael Kaufmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review current evidence for the identification and management of substance use disorders in anesthesiologists and to describe an approach to return to practice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists experience substance use disorders at a rate reported to be 2.7 times that of other physicians. Effective evidence-based treatment is available for physicians with substance use disorders, including anesthesiologists. Significant barriers preventing access to such treatment still exist, some of which are specific to the physician cohort...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894694/the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-in-human-populations-exposed-to-styrene-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Solange Costa, Marcello Ceppi, Carla Costa, Susana Silva, Cristiana Pereira, Blanca Laffon, Stefano Bonassi, João Paulo Teixeira
Styrene is a building-block of several compounds used in a wide array of materials and products. The most important human exposure to this substance occurs in industrial settings, especially among reinforced-plastics industry workers. The effect of occupational exposure to styrene on cytogenetics biomarkers has been previously reviewed with positive association observed for chromosomal aberrations, and inconclusive data for the micronucleus assay. Some limitations were noted in those studies, including inadequate exposure assessment and poor epidemiological design...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894687/reprint-of-biomonitoring-of-genotoxic-effects-for-human-exposure-to-nanomaterials-the-challenge-ahead
#4
REVIEW
Laetitia Gonzalez, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891352/herbal-fixed-dose-combinations-in-nepal-growing-concerns-in-a-developing-country
#5
Arjun Poudel, Kadir Alam, Subish Palaian, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim
Herbal medicines are mostly prepared as a combination therapy that has been used since therapeutic was first practiced. Combination products, also known as Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) of herbal remedies are in widespread use in Nepal. Herbal FDCs are in common practice because it is believed to have better adherence, less side effects and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, combination products possess greater risk of adverse effects, increases costs associated with treatments and leads to an ineffective dosages...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891209/feasibility-of-connecting-a-substance-abuse-prevention-program-for-foster-teens-and-their-caregivers
#6
Kevin P Haggerty, Susan E Barkan, Martie Skinner, W Ben Packard, Janice J Cole
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility, usability, and proximal outcomes of Connecting, an adaptation of a low-cost, self-directed, family-based substance use prevention program, Staying Connected with Your Teen, with foster families in a randomized, waitlist control pilot study. METHOD: Families (n = 60) fostering teens between 11 and 15 years of age were recruited into the study and randomly assigned into the self-administered program with telephone support from a family consultant (n = 32) or a waitlist control condition (n = 28)...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#7
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888311/sampling-and-simultaneous-determination-of-volatile-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-air-and-water
#8
Ian Ken Dimzon, Joke Westerveld, Christoph Gremmel, Tobias Frömel, Thomas P Knepper, Pim de Voogt
Volatile per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used as precursors in the synthesis of nonvolatile PFASs. The volatile PFASs, which include the perfluoroalkyl iodides (PFAIs), fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer olefins (FTOs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), and fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), are often produced starting from the telomerization process. These volatile compounds can be present in the air and water environment and can be transformed into highly persistent perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887849/inhibition-of-heat-shock-protein-hsp-90-potentiates-the-antiproliferative-and-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-2-4-fluoro-phenylamino-4h-1-3-thiazine-6-5-b-indole-in-a2780cis-cells
#9
Zuzana Solárová, Martin Kello, Lenka Varinská, Mariana Budovská, Peter Solár
Ovarian carcinoma is initially sensitive to platinum-based therapy, but become resistant over time. The study of cancer sensitizing substance is therefore the major challenge for a number of scientific groups. Our experiments were carried out on human ovarian adenocarcinoma A2780cis cells resistant to cisplatin and their response to 2-(4'fluoro-phenylamino)-4H-1,3-thiazine[6,5-b]indole (thiazine[6,5-b]indole) and/or heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) using proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis and monitoring of apoptosis were examined...
November 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881620/catching-fakes-new-markers-of-urine-sample-validity-and-invalidity
#10
Melissa M Goggin, Cheng-Min Tann, Anna Miller, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872502/the-communities-that-care-brief-depression-scale-psychometric-properties-and-criterion-validity
#11
Isaac C Rhew, Kathryn C Monahan, Sabrina Oesterle, J David Hawkins
For community-level approaches to preventing depression, measures of depression that are brief as well as valid are needed, particularly given competing demands in surveys for assessment of other outcomes including substance use, delinquency, and their associated risk factors. This study examined the validity of a four-item adolescent depression measure, the Communities That Care Brief Depression Scale (CTC-BDS). Data were from a survey of adolescents (N = 3,939) participating in the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a community-randomized trial involving 24 U...
April 2016: Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871180/prescription-opioid-prescribing-use-misuse-harms-and-treatment-among-aboriginal-people-in-canada-a-narrative-review-of-available-data-and-indicators
#12
Cayley Russell, Michelle Firestone, Len Kelly, Christopher Mushquash, Benedikt Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid (PO) misuse and related harms are high in Canada, and a major public health challenge. In Canada, 1.4 million individuals (4.3% of the total population) self-identify as Aboriginal, among whom substance use and related harms are elevated. While there are reports of PO use and associated problems among Aboriginal groups, no comprehensive data review currently exists. METHODS: A review of available data sources (ie journal publications, public reports and 'grey' literature) was conducted following principles of a scoping review...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871045/electronic-cigarette-and-marijuana-use-among-youth-in-the-united-states
#13
Hongying Dai, Jianqiang Hao
BACKGROUND: There are growing concerns over the high rate of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and decreases in perceived harm of marijuana use among youth. We seek to identify risk factors associated with e-cigarette and marijuana use among U.S. middle and high school students. METHODS: Estimates of e-cigarette use only, marijuana use only, dual use of both substances as well as frequency of substance use were calculated for 8th, 10th and 12th grades with the typical age of 13, 15, 17 years old respectively by using the 2014 Monitoring the Future survey (n=16,184)...
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865333/substance-abuse-prevention-assessment-and-treatment-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-youth
#14
REVIEW
Romulo Alcalde Aromin
Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care...
December 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858959/progression-from-unipolar-depression-to-schizophrenia
#15
Katherine L Musliner, Trine Munk-Olsen, Ole Mors, Søren D Østergaard
OBJECTIVE: To examine progression from unipolar depression (UD) to schizophrenia and to identify groups of UD patients at elevated risk for progression. METHOD: Historical prospective cohort study using data from Danish national registers. The sample included 71 932 individuals who received a diagnosis of UD in Denmark between January 1, 1995, and May 31, 2013. Analyses were conducted using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regressions. RESULTS: The 18...
November 4, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858015/a-competitive-immunoassay-system-for-microfluidic-paper-based-analytical-detection-of-small-size-molecules
#16
Lori Shayne Alamo Busa, Saeed Mohammadi, Masatoshi Maeki, Akihiko Ishida, Hirofumi Tani, Manabu Tokeshi
The development of a competitive immunoassay system for colorimetric detection on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) is reported. The μPADs were fabricated via photolithography to define hydrophilic flow channels and consisted of three main elements: the control and test zones, where target detection was performed, the sample introduction zone, and the competitive capture zone located between the sample introduction zone and the test zone. The chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was deposited at the control and test zones...
November 18, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855972/transformation-products-in-the-water-cycle-and-the-unsolved-problem-of-their-proactive-assessment-a-combined-in-vitro-in-silico-approach
#17
Jakob Menz, Anju Priya Toolaram, Tushar Rastogi, Christoph Leder, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer, Mandy Schneider
Transformation products (TPs) emerging from incomplete degradation of micropollutants in aquatic systems can retain the biological activity of the parent compound, or may even possess new unexpected toxic properties. The chemical identities of these substances remain largely unknown, and consequently, the risks caused by their presence in the water cycle cannot be assessed thoroughly. In this study, a combined approach for the proactive identification of hazardous elements in the chemical structures of TPs, comprising analytical, bioanalytical and computational methods, was assessed by the example of the pharmaceutically active micropollutant propranolol (PPL)...
November 15, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855237/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-postprandial-hypoglycemia
#18
Pooja Sahni, Nitin Trivedi, Abdulkadir Omer
: A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853041/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-in-the-katkari-tribe-of-coastal-maharashtra
#19
M G Deo, P V Pawar, S R Kanetkar, S V Kakade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban and rural India are both going through health epidemiological transition and will soon face huge burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Information on the status of NCDs in tribals is limited. Although the prevalence of hypertension in scheduled tribes (STs) has been studied in several states by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, tribe-specific data are very scanty. The objective of this study was to generate data on the status of hypertension and diabetes, the two objectively measurable NCDs in Katkaris, the dominant ST in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847293/clinical-value-of-crystalluria-and-quantitative-morphoconstitutional-analysis-of-urinary-calculi
#20
REVIEW
Vincent Frochot, Michel Daudon
Crystalluria is a marker of urine supersaturation with substances deriving from metabolic disorders, inherited diseases or drugs. The investigation of crystalluria must be done according to a protocol which includes the delivery to the laboratory of a proper urine sample, the use of a microscope equipped with polarized light, the accurate knowledge of urine pH, and a comprehensive examination of the crystals, which is based on their identification, quantification and size measurement. For unusual crystals, infrared spectroscopy may also be needed...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
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