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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813241/should-potential-risk-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-be-discussed-with-young-athletes
#1
Kimberly Hornbeck, Kevin Walter, Matthew Myrvik
As participation in youth sports has risen over the past two decades, so has the incidence of youth sports injuries. A common topic of concern is concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, in young athletes and whether concussions sustained at a young age could lead to lifelong impairment such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While the pathway from a concussed young athlete to an adult with CTE remains unknown, current research is attempting to provide more clarity. This article discusses how health care professionals can help foster an informed, balanced decision-making process regarding participation in contact sports that involves the parents as well as the children...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810748/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-a-brief-historical-overview-and-recent-focus-on-nfl-players
#2
Craig W Lindsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805003/protein-astrogliopathies-in-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-aging
#3
Gabor G Kovacs, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons associated with depositions of pathologically altered proteins showing hierarchical involvement of brain regions. The role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is explored as contributors to neuronal degeneration or neuroprotection pathways, and also as potential mediators of the transcellular spreading of disease-associated proteins. Protein astrogliopathy (PAG), including deposition of amyloid-β, prion protein, tau, α-synuclein, and very rarely transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is not unprecedented or unusual in neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797650/hepatoprotective-effect-of-10-ethanolic-extract-from-curdrania-tricuspidata-leaves-against-ethanol-induced-oxidative-stress-through-suppression-of-cyp2e1
#4
Yanghee You, Seoyoung Min, Yoo-Hyun Lee, Kwontack Hwang, Woojin Jun
The hepatoprotective effect of 10% ethanolic extract of Curdrania tricuspidata (CTE) was investigated in HepG2/2E1 cells and C57BL/6 J mice. When compared ethanol-only treated HepG2/2E1 cells, pretreatment of CTE prevented increased intra-cellular reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant activities by ethanol-induced oxidative stress. In C57BL/6 J mice, CTE at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day was administered for 10 days, with ethanol (5 g/kg/day) administered for the final 3 days. Pretreatment with CTE prevented the elevated activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase caused by ethanol-induced hepatic damage...
August 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792522/biochemical-characterization-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-an-isothiocyanate-enriched-moringa-moringa-oleifera-seed-extract
#5
Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Brittany L Graf, Charlotte Simmler, Youjin Kim, Peter Kuhn, Guido F Pauli, Ilya Raskin
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tropical plant, used for centuries as food and traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and biochemically characterize an isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract (MSE), and to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of MSE-containing moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1) with a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric extract (CTE), and a material further enriched in its primary phytochemical, curcumin (curcumin-enriched material; CEM). MSE was prepared by incubating ground moringa seeds with water to allow myrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic formation of bioactive MIC-1, the predominant isothiocyanate in moringa seeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772979/using-b%C3%A2-c-nanoparticles-to-enhance-thermal-and-mechanical-response-of-aluminum
#6
Fareeha Ubaid, Penchal Reddy Matli, Rana Abdul Shakoor, Gururaj Parande, Vyasaraj Manakari, Adel Mohamed Amer Mohamed, Manoj Gupta
In this work, Al-B₄C nanocomposites were produced by microwave sintering and followed by hot extrusion processes. The influence of ceramic reinforcement (B₄C) nanoparticles on the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the extruded Al-B₄C nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the density decreased and porosity increased with an increase in B₄C content in aluminum matrix. The porosity of the composites increased whereas density decreased with increasing B₄C content...
June 6, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761588/salvage-prostatectomy-for-post-radiation-adenocarcinoma-with-treatment-effect-pathological-and-oncological-outcomes
#7
Michael J Metcalfe, Patricia Troncoso, Charles C Guo, Hsiang-Chun Chen, Yasar Bozkurt, John F Ward, Louis L Pisters
INTRODUCTION: Prostate biopsies following localized radiation therapy for prostate cancer often demonstrate residual prostatic carcinoma with treatment effect (CTE). The final oncological outcome of prostatic CTE is currently uncertain. We studied the pathological and oncological outcomes for a large cohort of patients who had CTE on post-radiation therapy biopsy and subsequently underwent salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP). METHODS: A single-centre retrospective review of all SRPs performed from 1995-2014 was performed...
July 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742910/clinicopathological-evaluation-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-players-of-american-football
#8
Jesse Mez, Daniel H Daneshvar, Patrick T Kiernan, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Todd M Solomon, Christopher J Nowinski, Lisa McHale, Kerry A Cormier, Caroline A Kubilus, Brett M Martin, Lauren Murphy, Christine M Baugh, Phillip H Montenigro, Christine E Chaisson, Yorghos Tripodis, Neil W Kowall, Jennifer Weuve, Michael D McClean, Robert C Cantu, Lee E Goldstein, Douglas I Katz, Robert A Stern, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Importance: Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Objective: To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739934/crossover-from-band-like-to-thermally-activated-charge-transport-in-organic-transistors-due-to-strain-induced-traps
#9
Yaochuan Mei, Peter J Diemer, Muhammad R Niazi, Rawad K Hallani, Karol Jarolimek, Cynthia S Day, Chad Risko, John E Anthony, Aram Amassian, Oana D Jurchescu
The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737701/application-of-extrusion-based-hydrogel-bioprinting-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Fu You, B Frank Eames, Xiongbiao Chen
Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly developing technique that has made substantial progress in the fabrication of constructs for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) over the past decade. With this technique, cell-laden hydrogels or bio-inks have been extruded onto printing stages, layer-by-layer, to form three-dimensional (3D) constructs with varying sizes, shapes, and resolutions. This paper reviews the cell sources and hydrogels that can be used for bio-ink formulations in CTE application. Additionally, this paper discusses the important properties of bio-inks to be applied in the EBB technique, including biocompatibility, printability, as well as mechanical properties...
July 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#11
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710577/detection-of-small-bowel-tumours-with-ct-enteroclysis-using-carbon-dioxide-and-virtual-enteroscopy-a-preliminary-study
#12
Anthony Dohan, Mourad Boudiaf, Xavier Dray, Elia Samaha, Christophe Cellier, Marine Camus, Clarisse Eveno, Raphael Dautry, Philippe Soyer
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, tolerance and performance of virtual enteroscopy (VE) using carbon dioxide for small-bowel distension in patients with suspected small-bowel tumours (SBTs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After IRB approval, 17 patients with suspected SBTs were prospectively included. Radiation dose was compared to 34 matched patients (2 for 1) for age, gender and body weight, who had undergone CT-enteroclysis with neutral contrast (CTE)...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702918/assessment-of-potential-health-risk-of-fluoride-consumption-through-rice-pulses-and-vegetables-in-addition-to-consumption-of-fluoride-contaminated-drinking-water-of-west-bengal-india
#13
Piyal Bhattacharya, Alok Chandra Samal, Suman Banerjee, Jagadish Pyne, Subhas Chandra Santra
A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701297/genomic-analysis-of-an-infant-with-intractable-diarrhea-and-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#14
Dale L Bodian, Thierry Vilboux, Suchitra K Hourigan, Callie L Jenevein, Haresh Mani, Kathleen C Kent, Alina Khromykh, Benjamin D Solomon, Natalie S Hauser
We describe a case of an infant presenting with intractable diarrhea who subsequently developed dilated cardiomyopathy, for whom a diagnosis was not initially achieved despite extensive clinical testing, including panel-based genetic testing. Research-based whole genome sequences of the proband and both parents were analyzed by the SAVANNA pipeline, a variant prioritization strategy integrating features of variants, genes, and phenotypes, which was implemented using publicly available tools. Although the intestinal morphological abnormalities characteristic of congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) were not observed in the initial clinical gastrointestinal tract biopsies of the proband, an intronic variant, EPCAM c...
July 12, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690969/two-dimensional-silicon-and-carbon-monochalcogenides-with-the-structure-of-phosphorene
#15
Dario Rocca, Ali Abboud, Ganapathy Vaitheeswaran, Sébastien Lebègue
Phosphorene has recently attracted significant interest for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Inspired by this material an ab initio study was carried out on new two-dimensional binary materials with a structure analogous to phosphorene. Specifically, carbon and silicon monochalcogenides have been considered. After structural optimization, a series of binary compounds were found to be dynamically stable in a phosphorene-like geometry: CS, CSe, CTe, SiO, SiS, SiSe, and SiTe. The electronic properties of these monolayers were determined using density functional theory...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680303/an-autopsy-proven-child-onset-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#16
Kyuho Lee, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Sung-Hye Park
Here we present an autopsy case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a 36-year-old man. He had a history of febrile seizures at the age of four and was severely demented at age 10 when he was admitted to a mental hospital. He had suffered repetitive self-harm, such as frequent banging of the head on the wall in his hospital record, but he had no clear history between the ages of four and ten. Autopsy revealed global cerebral atrophy, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, mammilary bodies and lateral geniculate bodies...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678511/negative-thermal-expansion-of-ultrathin-metal-nanowires-a-computational-study
#17
Duc Tam Ho, Soon-Yong Kwon, Harold S Park, Sung Youb Kim
Most materials expand upon heating because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the fundamental property of materials characterizing the mechanical response of the materials to heating, is positive. There have been some reports of materials that exhibit negative thermal expansion (NTE), but most of these have been in complex alloys, where NTE originates from the transverse vibrations of the materials. Here, we show using molecular dynamics simulations that some single crystal monatomic FCC metal nanowires can exhibit NTE along the length direction due to a novel thermomechanical coupling...
July 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674990/traumatic-brain-injury-as-a-trigger-of-neurodegeneration
#18
Victoria E Johnson, William Stewart, John D Arena, Douglas H Smith
Although millions of individuals suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) worldwide each year, it is only recently that TBI has been recognized as a major public health problem. Beyond the acute clinical manifestations, there is growing recognition that a single severe TBI (sTBI) or repeated mild TBIs (rTBI) can also induce insidious neurodegenerative processes, which may be associated with early dementia, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Identified at autopsy examination in individuals with histories of exposure to sTBI or rTBI, CTE is recognized as a complex pathology featuring both macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665185/the-interplay-of-energy-balance-and-daily-timing-of-activity-in-a-subterranean-rodent-a-laboratory-and-field-approach
#19
Patricia Tachinardi, Verónica S Valentinuzzi, Gisele A Oda, C Loren Buck
The tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti) is among the rodent species known to be nocturnal under standard laboratory conditions and diurnal under natural conditions. The circadian thermoenergetics (CTE) hypothesis postulates that switches in activity timing are a response to energetic challenges; daytime activity reduces thermoregulatory costs by consolidating activity to the warmest part of the day. Studying wild animals under both captive and natural conditions can increase understanding of how temporal activity patterns are shaped by the environment and could serve as a test of the CTE hypothesis...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664614/evolving-concepts-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-as-a-neuropathological-entity
#20
Helen Ling, James W Neal, Tamas Revesz
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a long-term neurodegenerative consequence of repetitive head impacts which can only be definitively diagnosed in post-mortem. Recently, the consensus neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of CTE was published requiring the presence of the accumulation of abnormal tau in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci in an irregular pattern as the mandatory features. The clinical diagnosis and antemortem prediction of CTE pathology remain challenging if not impossible due to the common co-existing underlying neurodegenerative pathologies and the lack of specific clinical pointers and reliable biomarkers...
June 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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