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Parental influence

Manuela Rigo, Jane Willcox, Alison Spence, Anthony Worsley
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents' decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers' perceptions of preschooler's beverages...
March 19, 2018: Nutrients
Erika L Rangel, Douglas S Smink, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Gifty Kwakye, Marguerite Changala, Adil H Haider, Gerard M Doherty
Importance: Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. Objective: To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. Design, Setting, and Participants: A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Gustav M Kessel, Nicole E Phillips
For organisms with complex life histories, carry-over effects (COEs) can manifest between life stages, when conditions experienced by one stage influence the next, as well as trans-generationally, when the parental environment affects offspring. Here we used multiple global change-associated stressors to examine both forms of COE simultaneously in an intertidal limpet with mixed development (i.e. planktonic larvae hatch from benthic egg masses). Adult Siphonaria australis were subjected to four treatments over four weeks: an ambient control, a treatment featuring elevated water temperature (25°C) and UVB (1...
2018: PloS One
Hirofumi Noguchi, Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Yoshiki Nakashima
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. The pattern of expressed genes, DNA methylation, and covalent histone modifications in iPS cells are very similar to those in ES cells. However, it has recently been shown that, following the reprogramming of mouse/human iPS cells, epigenetic memory is inherited from the parental cells. These findings suggest that the phenotype of iPS cells may be influenced by their cells of origin and that their skewed differentiation potential may prove useful in the generation of differentiated cell types that are currently difficult to produce from ES/iPS cells for the treatment of human diseases...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wies Maarse, Chantal W B Boonacker, Henriette F N Swanenburg de Veye, Moshe Kon, Corstiaan C Breugem, Aebele B Mink van der Molen, Johannes J M van Delden
OBJECTIVES: The prenatal diagnosis of oral clefts (OCs) by ultrasound can pose an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this study was to obtain insight into the psychosocial and moral considerations of prospective parents concerning OCs, the burden of OCs and parents' attitude toward possible termination of pregnancy (TOP) in order to improve counseling in the future. DESIGN: Between August 2011 and August 2014, a prospective cohort questionnaire study was administered...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Minako Nagatome, Yuki Kondo, Daisuke Kadowaki, Yusuke Saishyo, Mitsuru Irikura, Tetsumi Irie, Yoichi Ishitsuka
Acetaminophen, a common analgesic/antipyretic, is a frequent cause of acute liver failure in Western countries. The development of an effective cure against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is crucial. Ethyl pyruvate, an ethyl ester derivative of pyruvic acid, has been identified as a possible candidate against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in animal experiments. However, the mode of the hepatoprotective action of ethyl pyruvate remains unclear. We examined the hepatoprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate against hepatocyte injury and oxidative stress in a mouse model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity...
February 2018: Heliyon
Isidore A Diouf, Laurent Derivot, Frédérique Bitton, Laura Pascual, Mathilde Causse
Quality is a key trait in plant breeding, especially for fruit and vegetables. Quality involves several polygenic components, often influenced by environmental conditions with variable levels of genotype × environment interaction that must be considered in breeding strategies aiming to improve quality. In order to assess the impact of water deficit and salinity on tomato fruit quality, we evaluated a multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) tomato population in contrasted environmental conditions over 2 years, one year in control vs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jennifer Leeman, Jean L Wiecha, Maihan Vu, Jonathan L Blitstein, Sallie Allgood, Sarah Lee, Caitlin Merlo
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) develops tools to support implementation of evidence-based interventions for school health. To advance understanding of factors influencing the use of these implementation tools, we conducted an evaluation of state, school district, and local school staffs' use of four CDC tools to support implementation of physical activity, nutrition, health education, and parent engagement. Two frameworks guided the evaluation: Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) for Dissemination and Implementation and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)...
March 20, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Frédérique Rodieux, Laszlo Vutskits, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Walid Habre, Valérie Piguet, Jules A Desmeules, Caroline F Samer
Children represent a vulnerable population in which management of nociceptive pain is complex. Drug responses in children differ from adults due to age-related differences. Moreover, therapeutic choices are limited by the lack of indication for a number of analgesic drugs due to the challenge of conducting clinical trials in children. Furthermore the assessment of efficacy as well as tolerance may be complicated by children's inability to communicate properly. According to the World Health Organization, weak opioids such as tramadol and codeine, may be used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen for moderate nociceptive pain in both children and adults...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Blake Ushijima, Claudia C Häse
Chemotaxis, the directed movement towards or away from a chemical signal, can be essential to bacterial pathogens for locating hosts or avoiding hostile environments. The coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus chemotaxes towards coral mucus; however, chemotaxis has not been experimentally demonstrated to be important for virulence. To further examine this, in-frame mutations were constructed in genes predicted to be important for V. coralliilyticus chemotaxis. Most Vibrio genomes encode multiple homologs of various chemotaxis-related genes and two paralogs of each for cheB , cheR , and cheA were identified...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Nicola Marie Stock, Matthew Ridley
BACKGROUND: During the school years, a cleft of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) may pose a risk to educational achievement. To further understand this multifaceted association, and to offer suggestions as to how young people's educational experiences might be improved, qualitative investigation is warranted. DESIGN: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with young people born with CL/P (n = 10; aged 10-16 years) and their parents (n = 10). The resulting data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Elliott Mark Weiss, Dawei Xie, Noah Cook, Katherine Coughlin, Steven Joffe
Importance: Little is known about how characteristics of particular clinical decisions influence decision-making preferences by patients or their surrogates. A better understanding of the factors underlying preferences is essential to improve the quality of shared decision making. Objective: To identify the characteristics of particular decisions that are associated with parents' preferences for family- vs medical team-centered decision making across the spectrum of clinical decisions that arise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Lisa A Ostrin, Auzita Sajjadi, Julia S Benoit
SIGNIFICANCE: Significant differences in light exposure were observed between school and summer in children, whereas activity and sleep were similar. Associations between parent and child behaviors suggest a potential mechanism for how myopia is transmitted from parents to children through patterns of environmental exposure, in addition to genetic factors. PURPOSE: Objectively measured time outdoors, light exposure, activity, and sleep were examined in children during school and summer and assessed with eye growth...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Feda Almurnak, Alaa Jaradah, Husam Hamdouna
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Louis Dwyer-Hemmings
Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical 'firsts' - dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine - performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a 'dangerous fad'...
April 2018: Medical History
Hetty Rooth, Ulla Forinder, Maja Söderbäck, Eija Viitasara, Katarina Piuva
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. METHOD: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Paul C Helm, Sebastian Kempert, Marc-André Körten, Wiebke Lesch, Katharina Specht, Ulrike M M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) and their families require qualified combined medical and psychosocial information, care, and counseling. This study aimed to analyze CHD patients' and parents' perception of disease-specific knowledge, state of health, and impairments experienced in everyday life, as well as factors influencing these perceptions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on a survey among patients/parents recruited via the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects (NRCHD)...
January 25, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Helen M Milojevich, Mary E Haskett
Parents are perhaps the most direct and profound influences on children's development of emotional competence. For example, how and what emotions parents express in the family has implications for children's ability to understand and regulate their emotions. What is less well understood is what potential environmental or contextual factors impact parents' emotional expressiveness, particularly in high-risk samples prone to atypical emotional expressiveness (e.g., deficits in the production and recognition of emotional expressions)...
January 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Anna Fogel, Lisa R Fries, Keri McCrickerd, Ai Ting Goh, Phaik Ling Quah, Mei Jun Chan, Jia Ying Toh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Lynette P Shek, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Yung Seng Lee, Keith M Godfrey, Mary Foong Fong Chong, Ciarán G Forde
Oral processing behaviours associated with faster eating rates have been consistently linked to increased energy intakes, but little is known about their links to children's appetitive traits. This study used the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to explore cross-sectional and prospective associations between parent-reported appetitive traits and observed oral processing behaviours. Participants were 195 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, who participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4...
March 15, 2018: Appetite
Ruilong Li, Huadong Tan, Linlin Zhang, Shaopeng Wang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu
Microplastics sorption of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was the core processes that cause negative effects to biota, and their influencing factors and related mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the impacts of water extractable organic matter (WEOM), an important source of endogenous dissolved organic matter in mangrove sediment, on the sorption coefficients of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics. The presence of L-WEOM (D) impeded the PAHs sorption as the coefficients (Kf ) decreased to 10...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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