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Parental influence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109189/parents-and-peers-normative-influence-on-adolescents-smoking-results-from-a-swiss-italian-sample-of-middle-schools-students
#1
Francesca Scalici, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking...
January 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108594/parental-perceptions-of-barriers-to-active-commuting-to-school-in-spanish-children-and-adolescents
#2
Francisco Javier Huertas-Delgado, Manuel Herrador-Colmenero, Emilio Villa-González, María Jesús Aranda-Balboa, María Victoria Cáceres, Sandra Mandic, Palma Chillón
BACKGROUND: Understanding parental barriers is crucial to promote active commuting to school since the parental perceptions influence how young people commute. This study examined parental barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish children and adolescents, and their association with their gender and the usual mode of commuting. METHODS: Parents of children (n = 628) and parents of adolescents (n = 151) from Granada (Spain) completed a paper-based questionnaire about perceived parental barriers to active commuting to school and mode of commuting...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108188/parental-expectations-and-child-screen-and-academic-sedentary-behaviors-in-china
#3
Miao Li, Hong Xue, Weidong Wang, Youfa Wang
INTRODUCTION: This study examined sociodemographic patterns of parental expectations for academic performance, terminal degree, and future occupation for middle school students in China, and how these expectations influence students' screen-based and academic-related sedentary behaviors through parenting control practices. METHODS: Based on data collected in 2013-2014 from 19,487 Chinese middle school students, bivariate logistic regressions tested associations between sociodemographic variables and parental expectations; structural equation models tested associations between parental expectations and students' self-reported daily time on TV/Internet/homework, with parental controls as potential mediators...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107501/childhood-vaccine-acceptance-and-refusal-among-warao-amerindian-caregivers-in-venezuela-a-qualitative-approach
#4
Jochem Burghouts, Berenice Del Nogal, Angimar Uriepero, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard, Lilly M Verhagen
OBJECTIVES: Acceptance of childhood vaccination varies between societies, affecting worldwide vaccination coverage. Low coverage rates are common in indigenous populations where parents often choose not to vaccinate their children. We aimed to gain insight into reasons for vaccine acceptance or rejection among Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: Based on records of vaccine acceptance or refusal, in-depth interviews with 20 vaccine-accepting and 11 vaccine-declining caregivers were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105963/prevalence-and-heritability-of-early-childhood-caries-among-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins
#5
Anuradha Kuppan, Steven Rodrigues, Victor Samuel, Mahesh Ramakrishnan, Hassan S Halawany, Nimmi B Abraham, Vimal Jacob, Sukumaran Anil
Deciphering the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, which play a major role in the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC), can help clinicians with planning a long-term preventive treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and heritability of ECC among monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in Chennai, India, in the year 2013. A cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of ECC among twins. Zygosity classification for the survey framework was adapted from a highly accurate parental report questionnaire pertaining to the physical similarity between twins...
February 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105654/development-of-anti-immigrant-attitudes-in-adolescence-the-role-of-parents-peers-intergroup-friendships-and-empathy
#6
Marta Miklikowska
Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104626/deformational-plagiocephaly-in-normal-infants-a-systematic-review-of-causes-and-hypotheses
#7
Freia De Bock, Volker Braun, Herbert Renz-Polster
BACKGROUND: Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is one of the most prevalent abnormal findings in infants and a frequent reason for parents to seek paediatric advice. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and identify evidence and hypotheses on the aetiology and determinants of DP in otherwise healthy infants. DESIGN: Systematic keyword search in all major biomedical databases to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting (a) empirical research or (b) hypotheses on the aetiology of DP in healthy, term infants...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104188/maternal-multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-and-other-biomedical-and-socioenvironmental-influences-on-children-s-cognition-at-age-9-12-years-in-indonesia-follow-up-of-the-summit-randomised-trial
#8
Elizabeth L Prado, Susy K Sebayang, Mandri Apriatni, Siti R Adawiyah, Nina Hidayati, Ayuniarti Islamiyah, Sudirman Siddiq, Benyamin Harefa, Jarrad Lum, Katherine J Alcock, Michael T Ullman, Husni Muadz, Anuraj H Shankar
BACKGROUND: Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. METHODS: We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104056/psychological-distress-in-jordanian-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-role-of-positive-reappraisal-coping
#9
Ahmad Rayan, Muayyad Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. AIM: This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102853/skin-to-skin-contact-after-birth-and-the-natural-course-of-neurosteroid-levels-in-healthy-term-newborns
#10
K R McCallie, N W Gaikwad, M E Castillo Cuadrado, M Aleman, J E Madigan, D K Stevenson, V K Bhutani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the postnatal course of neurosteroid levels in relation to gender, mode of delivery and the extent of skin-to-skin (STS) contact during the first days of life in healthy term newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of 39 neonates in which parents recorded total duration of STS in the first 2 days and nine neurosteroids (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, pregnenolone, pregnenolone-sulfate, allopregnanolone, isopregnanolone, epipregnanolone, pregnanolone and pregnanolone-sulfate) were assayed from blood samples at birth and at 1-2 days of age...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102549/enhancing-capillary-blood-collection-the-influence-of-nicotinic-acid-and-nonivamide
#11
Christian Moro, Jessica Bass, Anna Mae Scott, Elisa F D Canetti
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid and nonivamide are often applied topically during capillary blood collection to induce vasodilation. These molecules may have an influence on immune effector cell activity in nearby tissues. This study investigates whether the induction of flushing by nicotinic acid and nonivamide causes an inflammatory response that influences the composition of immune cells present in a capillary blood sample. METHODS: Females aged between 18 and 30 years old provided capillary blood samples...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100703/paternal-epigenetic-programming-evolving-metabolic-disease-risk
#12
Suzy Sj Hur, Jennifer E Cropley, Catherine M Suter
Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. While maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100122/using-the-self-determination-theory-to-understand-chinese-adolescent-leisure-time-physical-activity
#13
Lijuan Wang
PURPOSES: This study applies the self-determination theory (SDT) to test the hypothesized relationships among perceived autonomy support from parents, physical education (PE) teachers, and peers, the fulfilment of psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), autonomous motivation, and leisure-time physical activity of Chinese adolescents. METHOD: There are 255 grade six to eight student participants from four middle schools around Shanghai, China included in this study...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099407/effects-of-functional-cyp2c8-cyp2c9-cyp3a5-and-abcb1-genetic-variants-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-insulin-sensitizer-pioglitazone-in-chinese-han-individuals
#14
Sheng-Ju Yin, Hui-Min Qi, Xin Wang, Pu Zhang, Yuan Lu, Min-Ji Wei, Pu Li, Guang-Zhao Qi, Ya-Qing Lou, Chuang Lu, Guo-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione antihyperglycemic drug with insulin-sensitizing properties. We investigated whether the variant genotypes of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), CYP2C9, CYP3A5 and transporter ABCB1 influence the pharmacokinetic phenotype of the substrate pioglitazone in Chinese individuals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 244 (CYP2C8 and CYP2C9) healthy Chinese Han individuals...
January 17, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098581/timing-of-pavlik-harness-initiation-can-we-wait
#15
Jill E Larson, Anay R Patel, Brian Weatherford, Joseph A Janicki
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip is effectively treated with a Pavlik harness (PH) within the first 6 months of life. Over 80% of unstable hips in the newborn period will naturally stabilize by 2 months of age. If there is no difference in the effectiveness of initiating PH treatment at 1 week compared with 4 weeks of age, waiting may allow the hips to naturally stabilize and avoid treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the timing of PH implementation influences its effectiveness in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098520/the-role-of-the-relationship-with-parents-with-respect-to-work-orientation-and-work-ethic
#16
Monique V E Leenders, Abraham P Buunk, Kène Henkens
We examined the extent to which individual relationships with mother and father, social support from partner, and quality of the relationship with the partner, are related to work orientation and work ethic. Survey data were obtained from 3841 respondents from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (wave 2). The results showed that, overall, people with a more positive relationship with their parents had a more positive work orientation and a stronger work ethic. A positive relationship with the father had a greater influence on these work aspects than a positive relationship with the mother, particularly for men...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098478/the-work-family-interface-and-sleep-quality
#17
Christopher A Magee, Laura D Robinson, Alisha McGregor
OBJECTIVE: This article investigated whether work-to-family conflict (WFC) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE) were associated with employee sleep quality. WFC and WFE reflect the potential for experiences at work to negatively and positively influence nonworking life respectively, and may have implications for sleep quality. In this article, we examined whether WFC and WFE were linked with sleep quality via hedonic balance (i.e., positive affect relative to negative affect). PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 3,170 employed Australian parents involved in the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey...
January 18, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097807/parent-adolescent-influences-on-everyday-dietary-practices-perceptions-of-adolescent-females-with-obesity-and-their-mothers
#18
Megan R Winkler, Elizabeth D Moore, Gary G Bennett, Sarah C Armstrong, Debra H Brandon
Parents demonstrate an important influence on adolescent obesity and dietary behavior; yet, family-based obesity interventions continue to exhibit limited success among adolescents. To further inform family-based approaches for adolescent obesity treatment, we examined the perceptions of adolescent females with obesity and their mothers of the influences experienced within the parent-adolescent relationship that affect everyday dietary practices. We conducted six focus group interviews (three adolescent female and three mother) among 15 adolescent (12-17 years old) females with obesity and 12 of their mothers...
January 17, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097478/study-of-the-influence-of-formulation-variables-in-bioadhesive-emulgels-using-response-surface-methodology
#19
Ana Ochoa-Andrade, M Emma Parente, Álvaro Jimenez-Kairuz, Lucía Boinbaser, Annibal Torregrosa
The aim of the present work was to study the main formulation variables that influence attributes of bioadhesive emulgels based on a combination of polymers, using response surface methodology (RSM). Bioadhesive products continue to gain attention in topical cutaneous administration as they allow long residence times on the application site, which is important when a long dermal action and a reduced product administration frequency are desired. A Box-Behnken design of experiments (DoE) was introduced to study the effect of formulation variables on quality attributes of the emulgels...
January 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097399/segregation-for-fertility-and-meiotic-stability-in-novel-brassica-allohexaploids
#20
Margaret W Mwathi, Mehak Gupta, Chaya Atri, Surinder S Banga, Jacqueline Batley, Annaliese S Mason
Allohexaploid Brassica populations reveal ongoing segregation for fertility, while genotype influences fertility and meiotic stability. Creation of a new Brassica allohexaploid species is of interest for the development of a crop type with increased heterosis and adaptability. At present, no naturally occurring, meiotically stable Brassica allohexaploid exists, with little data available on chromosome behaviour and meiotic control in allohexaploid germplasm. In this study, 100 plants from the cross B. carinata × B...
January 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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