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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#1
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328530/fusing-planar-group-to-a-pi-bowl-electronic-and-molecular-structure-aromaticity-and-solid-state-packing-of-naphthocorannulene-and-its-anions
#2
Zheng Zhou, Sarah Spisak, Qi Xu, Andrey Rogachev, Zheng Wei, Massimo Marcaccio, Marina A Petrukhina
Molecular and electronic structure, reduction and coordination abilities of a PAH having a planar naphtho-group fused to the corannulene bowl have been investigated for the first time using a combination of theoretical and experimental tools. A direct comparison of naphtho[2,3-a]corannulene (C28H14, 1) with parent corannulene (C20H10, 2) revealed the effect of framework topology change on electronic properties and aromaticity of 1. Two reversible one-electron reduction processes with the formal reduction potentials at -2...
January 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324892/genetic-factors-have-a-major-effect-on-growth-number-of-vertebrae-and-otolith-shape-in-atlantic-herring-clupea-harengus
#3
Florian Berg, Oda W Almeland, Julie Skadal, Aril Slotte, Leif Andersson, Arild Folkvord
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320525/seabird-parents-provision-their-chick-in-a-coordinated-manner
#4
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Marcelo Araya-Salas, Dariusz Jakubas
Pair collaborative behavior may play an important role in avian reproduction. However, evidence for this mainly comes from certain ecological groups (e.g. passerines). We studied the coordination of parents in foraging and its effect on food provisioning rate and chick growth in a small seabird, the Dovekie (Little auk, Alle alle). The species exhibits a dual foraging strategy, where provisioning adults make foraging trips of short (mean ~2 h; to provide food for the chick) and long duration (mean ~ 13 h; mainly for adults self-maintenance, although the food is also brought to the chick)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313185/comparing-attention-to-socially-relevant-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-developmental-coordination-disorder
#5
Emma Sumner, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill
Difficulties with social interaction have been reported in both children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), although these disorders have very different diagnostic characteristics. To date, assessment of social skills in a DCD population has been limited to paper-based assessment or parent report. The present study employed eye tracking methodology to examine how children attend to socially-relevant stimuli, comparing 28 children with DCD, 28 children with ASD and 26 typically-developing (TD) age-matched controls (aged 7-10)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302609/effectiveness-of-the-healthy-lifestyles-programme-help-to-prevent-obesity-in-uk-primary-school-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Jenny Lloyd, Siobhan Creanor, Stuart Logan, Colin Green, Sarah G Dean, Melvyn Hillsdon, Charles Abraham, Richard Tomlinson, Virginia Pearson, Rod S Taylor, Emma Ryan, Lisa Price, Adam Streeter, Katrina Wyatt
Background: Although childhood overweight and obesity prevalence has increased substantially worldwide in the past three decades, scarce evidence exists for effective preventive strategies. We aimed to establish whether a school-based intervention for children aged 9-10 years would prevent excessive weight gain after 24 months. Methods: This pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based obesity prevention intervention, was done in 32 schools in southwest England...
January 2018: The lancet child & adolescent health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300703/do-high-fidelity-wraparound-services-for-youth-with-serious-emotional-disturbances-save-money-in-the-long-term
#7
Angela Snyder, James Marton, Susan McLaren, Bo Feng, Mei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Treating youth with serious emotional disturbances (SED) is expensive often requiring institutional care. A significant amount of recent federal and state funding has been dedicated to expanding home and community-based services for these youth as an alternative to institutional care. High Fidelity Wraparound (Wrap) is an evolving, evidence-informed practice to help sustain community-based placements for youth with an SED through the use of intensive, customized care coordination among parents, multiple child-serving agencies, and providers...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289528/cystic-fibrosis-colorectal-cancer-screening-consensus-recommendations
#8
Denis Hadjiliadis, Alexander Khoruts, Ann G Zauber, Sarah E Hempstead, Patrick Maisonneuve, Albert B Lowenfels
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. METHODS: The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent...
December 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279319/survival-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-under-metabolic-stress-via-camk2%C3%AE-mediated-upregulation-of-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase-expression
#9
Ki Cheong Park, Seung Won Kim, Jeong Yong Jeon, A Ra Jo, Hye Ji Choi, Jung Min Kim, Hyun Gyu Lee, Yonjung Kim, Gordon B Mills, Sung Hoon Noh, Min Goo Lee, Eun Sung Park, Jae-Ho Cheong
PURPOSE: Cancer cells grow in an unfavorable metabolic milieu in the tumor microenvironment and are constantly exposed to metabolic stress such as chronic nutrient depletion. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are intrinsically resistant to metabolic stress, thereby surviving nutrient insufficiency and driving more malignant tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the potential mechanisms by which CSCs avoid Ca2+-dependent apoptosis during glucose deprivation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated cell viability and apoptosis under glucose deprivation, performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of paired CSCs and parental cells, studied the effect of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 alpha (CaMK2α) gene knockdown, and investigated the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in CSCs during time-dependent Ca2+-mediated and glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278500/coordination-driven-self-assembly-of-ruthenium-polypyridyl-nodes-resulting-in-emergent-photophysical-and-electrochemical-properties
#10
Cory E Hauke, Amanda N Oldacre, Cressa Ria P Fulong, Alan E Friedman, Timothy R Cook
Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are among the most studied molecular species for photochemical applications such as light-harvesting and photocatalysis, with [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) serving as an iconic example. We report the use of the [Ru(bpy)2]2+ fragment as a 90° acceptor tecton (M) in coordination-driven self-assembly to synthesize a M4L4 metallacycle (L = 4,4'-bipyridine) and a M6L4 truncated tetrahedral cage [L = 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine]. The M6L4 cage possesses emergent properties attributed to its unique electronic structure, which results in increased visible-light absorption and an emission band that decays biexponentially with times of 3 and 790 ns...
December 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260603/efficacy-of-the-cognitive-orientation-to-daily-occupational-performance-with-brazilian-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#11
Clarice Ribeiro Soares Araújo, Ana Amélia Cardoso, Lívia de Castro Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have difficulties performing daily activities which reflects negatively on participation, impacting their lives. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance Approach (CO-OP Approach) protocol on occupational performance and satisfaction of Brazilian children who have DCD; to examine whether children could transfer strategies and skills learned during CO-OP to untrained goals...
December 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245043/participation-and-needs-of-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-at-home-and-in-the-community-perceptions-of-children-and-parents
#12
Emmanuelle Jasmin, Sylvie Tétreault, Nadine Larivière, Jacques Joly
BACKGROUND: The existing literature provides only a partial understanding of the viewpoints of elementary school-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) regarding their participation and needs. In order to plan and develop health and social services driven by a personalized approach, it is essential to further document their perceptions with those of their parents. AIMS: The aim of the study was to explore the participation and needs of school-aged children with DCD at home and in the community, as perceived by children and parents...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242643/rnas-coordinate-nuclear-envelope-assembly-and-dna-replication-through-elys-recruitment-to-chromatin
#13
Antoine Aze, Michalis Fragkos, Stéphane Bocquet, Julien Cau, Marcel Méchali
Upon fertilisation, the sperm pronucleus acquires the competence to replicate the genome through a cascade of events that link chromatin remodelling to nuclear envelope formation. The factors involved have been partially identified and are poorly characterised. Here, using Xenopus laevis egg extracts we show that RNAs are required for proper nuclear envelope assembly following sperm DNA decondensation. Although chromatin remodelling and pre-replication complex formation occur normally, RNA-depleted extracts show a defect in pre-RC activation...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239776/differential-release-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-evoked-by-low-versus-high-frequency-medial-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#14
Daniel F Hill, Kate L Parent, Christopher W Atcherley, Stephen L Cowen, Michael L Heien
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coordinates goal-directed behaviors, which may be mediated through mPFC regulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, frequency-specific oscillatory activity between the frontal cortex and downstream structures may facilitate inter-region communication. Although high-frequency (e.g., 60 Hz) mPFC stimulation is known to increase basal dopamine levels in the NAc, little is known about how phasic dopamine release is affected by mPFC stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235781/addressing-the-social-determinants-of-health-through-medicaid-managed-care
#15
David Machledt
Issue: With its emphasis on coordinated care and prevention, managed care should be tailor-made to tackle social determinants of health. But various challenges discourage Medicaid health plans and providers from assisting beneficiaries with nonmedical concerns such as housing insecurity or parenting skills that are integral to improving health outcomes and lowering costs. To better address these social factors, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) updated its Medicaid managed care rule in early 2016...
November 1, 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226773/exercise-effects-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-metabolic-health-autistic-traits-and-quality-of-life
#16
Chrystiane V A Toscano, Humberto M Carvalho, José P Ferreira
This study examined the effects of a 48-week exercise-based intervention on the metabolic profile, autism traits, and perceived quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We randomly allocated 64 children with ASD (aged 6-12 years) to experimental ( n = 46) and control groups ( n = 18) and used multilevel regression modeling to examine responses to receiving or not receiving the intervention. The experimental group showed beneficial effects on metabolic indicators (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), autism traits, and parent-perceived quality of life...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224988/linking-hiv-negative-youth-to-prevention-services-in-12-u-s-cities-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-the-hiv-prevention-continuum
#17
Mimi Doll, J Dennis Fortenberry, Denise Roseland, Kathleen McAuliff, Craig M Wilson, Cherrie B Boyer
PURPOSE: Linkage of HIV-negative youth to prevention services is increasingly important with the development of effective pre-exposure prophylaxis that complements behavioral and other prevention-focused interventions. However, effective infrastructure for delivery of prevention services does not exist, leaving many programs to address HIV prevention without data to guide program development/implementation. The objective of this study was to provide a qualitative description of barriers and facilitators of linkage to prevention services among high-risk, HIV-negative youth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216711/electrocatalytic-reduction-of-dioxygen-to-hydrogen-peroxide-by-a-molecular-manganese-complex-with-a-bipyridine-containing-schiff-base-ligand
#18
Shelby Hooe, Arnold L Rheingold, Charles W Machan
The synthesis and electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by a molecular manganese (III) complex with a tetradentate dianionic bipyridine-based ligand is reported. Electrochemical characterization suggests that upon reduction to Mn(II), the coordinated phenolate moieties of the ligand are protonated with a Nernstian dependence on the added proton source, allowing protons and electrons to be incorporated into the overall complex with retention of a vacant axial coordination site. The resultant species is competent for the reduction of dioxygen to H2O2 with 81±4% Faradaic efficiency...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216415/a-cesium-rare-earth-silicate-cs3resi6o15-re-dy-lu-y-in-the-parent-of-an-unusual-structural-class-featuring-a-remarkable-57-%C3%A3-unit-cell-axis
#19
Rylan Terry, Daniel Vinton, Colin McMillen, Joseph Kolis
A new structural member of the broad class of A3RESi6O15 compounds has been discovered for the formula Cs3RESi6O15, where RE = Dy-Lu,Y,In. The structure is unusual in that it contains octahedrally coordinated rare earth ions whose relative orientation dictates the structure as they rotate about the c-axis supported by the cyclic Si6O15 framework. The repeat unit of the rotation is eight units generating a very long, ~57 Å, unit cell axis. This unusual repeat unit is created by the structural flexibility of the hexasilicate ring, which is in turn affected by the size of the rare earth ion as well as the size of alkali ion residing within the silicate layers...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210127/highly-luminescent-cspbx3-x-cl-br-i-nanocrystals-achieved-by-a-novel-rapid-anion-exchange-at-room-temperature
#20
Shaofan Fang, Guangshe Li, Yantong Lu, Liping Li
Cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbX3) nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit excellent photoelectric performance, which is directly governed by composition fine-tuning and preparation of materials with special phase structure and morphology. However, it is still facing challenges to achieve highly stable and luminescent CsPbX3 NCs at room temperature. Herein, we report on a novel exchange reaction, in which metal halides MX2 (M = Zn, Mg, Cu, Ca; X = Cl, Br, I) solids act as anion source to directly prepare CsPbX3 NCs at room temperature without any pretreatment...
December 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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