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Animal study

Ievgen Strielkov, Nicole Catherine Krause, Natasha Sommer, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Mojtaba Ameli, Mohaddeseh Sadat Hashemi, Maryam Moghimian, Majid Shokoohi
OBJECTIVE: This study used a rat model to investigate the protective effect of tadalafil and verapamil on testicular function and oxidative stress after torsion/detorsion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: G1, Sham group; G2, testicular torsion followed by detorsion (TD); G3, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/4 mg/kg of tadalafil (TDT); G4, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/1 mg/kg of verapamil (TDV); and G5, testicular torsion/detorsion received 0/1 mg/kg of verapamil and 0/4 mg/kg of tadalafil (TDTV)...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
X-X Wang, L Cai
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the effect of glucosamine methyl ester on cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis rat model was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 5 groups of 8 animals each. Osteoarthritis was induced in 4 groups using medial parapatellar incision followed by anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomy. Normal and model osteoarthritis groups were given normal saline. The three treatment groups received 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of glucosamine methyl ester daily for one month...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L-L Zhang, Z-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative injury is an essential part of the pathological changes of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Sestrin2 (Sesn2), a conserved antioxidant protein, is activated under stress to protect cells against oxidative stress. This study mainly explored the function and mechanism of Sesn2 during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of primary neurons was established. MTS and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) kit were used to detect cell viability and cell damage by colorimetric method...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jose M Diaz, M Shane Gadberry, Paul A Beck, John T Richeson, G Douglas Hufstedler, Don S Hubbell, John D Tucker, Tom Hess, Ky G Pohler
The objective of this study was to evaluate a combination of best management practices strategy for steer calves grazing tall fescue pastures with a range of toxicity. The experiment was conducted over two grazing seasons (fall 2015 for 91 days and spring 2016 for 84 days). Steers (n = 80 within season, BW = 197.0 ± 15.43 kg [fall] and 116.9 ± 4.88 [spring]) were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/hectare in fall and spring, respectively, to 16 pastures with varying levels of toxicity based on interim ergovaline (EV) concentration within season...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Mark W Westneat, Melina E Hale
Mechanosensation is a universal feature of animals that is essential for behavior, allowing detection of animals' own body movement and position as well as physical features of the environment. Fish fins provide a key vertebrate system for studying mechanosensation. The extraordinary morphological and behavioral diversity that exists across fish species provide rich opportunities for comparative mechanosensory studies in fins. The fins of fishes have been found to function as proprioceptors, by providing feedback on fin ray position and movement, and as tactile sensors, by encoding pressures applied to the fin surface...
June 18, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Jia Liu, Linda Volkers, Wanchana Jangsangthong, Cindy I Bart, Marc C Engels, Guangqian Zhou, Martin J Schalij, Dirk L Ypey, Daniël A Pijnappels, Antoine A F de Vries
Aims: The generation of homogeneous cardiomyocyte populations from fresh tissue or stem cells is laborious and costly. A potential solution to this problem would be to establish lines of immortalized cardiomyocytes. However, as proliferation and (terminal) differentiation of cardiomyocytes are mutually exclusive processes, their permanent immortalization causes loss of electrical and mechanical functions. We therefore aimed at developing conditionally immortalized atrial myocyte (iAM) lines allowing toggling between proliferative and contractile phenotypes by a single-component change in culture medium composition...
June 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Benjamin Alexander-Dann, Lavinia Lorena Pruteanu, Erin Oerton, Nitin Sharma, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Dezső Módos, Andreas Bender
The toxicogenomics field aims to understand and predict toxicity by using 'omics' data in order to study systems-level responses to compound treatments. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in publicly available toxicological and 'omics' data, particularly gene expression data, and a corresponding development of methods for its analysis. In this review, we summarize recent progress relating to the analysis of RNA-Seq and microarray data, review relevant databases, and highlight recent applications of toxicogenomics data for understanding and predicting compound toxicity...
June 19, 2018: Molecular omics
Carlos J Leitão, Juan Rafael Lima-Rodríguez, Fatima Ferreira, Catarina Avelino, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Luís Antunes
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of nociceptive-antinociceptive balance during general anesthesia is still challenging and routinely based on clinical criteria. Analgesic drug delivered may be optimized with parasympathetic tone activity (PTA) monitor. This study compares ketorolac and ketorolac/tramadol balance analgesia using a PTA monitor. METHODS: Pain intensity response was assessed using a 0-100 numerical state scale (PTA) after nociceptive stimuli in pigs under stable sevoflurane anesthesia...
June 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Alison C MacFadyen, Elizabeth A Fisher, Ben Costa, Cassie Cullen, Gavin K Paterson
Species of the genus Macrococcus are widespread commensals of animals but are becoming increasingly recognised as veterinary pathogens. They can encode methicillin resistance and are implicated in its spread to the closely-related, but more pathogenic, staphylococci. In this study we have identified 33 isolates of methicillin-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus from bovine bulk tank milk from England and Wales. These isolates were characterised to provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of M. caseolyticus and to discern the genetic basis for their methicillin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Honggang Huang, Tracy L Scheffler, David E Gerrard, Martin R Larsen, Rene Lametsch
Pigs with the Halothane (HAL) and/or Rendement Napole (RN) gene mutations demonstrate abnormal muscle energy metabolism patterns and produce meat with poor quality, classified as pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat, but it is not well understood how HAL and RN mutations regulate glucose and energy metabolism in porcine muscle. In order to investigate the potential signaling pathways and phosphorylation events related to these mutations, muscle samples were collected from four genotypes of pigs: wildtype, RN, HAL and RN-HAL double mutations and subjected to quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis using the TiO2 enrichment strategy...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Wei-Ting Lee, Shih-Huang Tai, Yu-Wen Lin, Tian-Shung Wu, E-Jian Lee
3‑(5‑hydroxymethyl‑2‑furyl)‑1‑benzyl‑indazole (YC‑1) is understood to protect against ischemic stroke, but the molecular basis for its neuroprotection remains to be fully characterized. The present study investigated the influence of YC‑1 on inflammatory responses following experimental stroke. Previous studies indicated that nuclear factor (NF)‑κB‑driven signals serve a pivotal role in mediating inflammatory responses following stroke. Ischemic stroke results in activation of NF‑κB to induce gene expression of factors including inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Eun Ji Ryu, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jung Hwan Park, Su Bin Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Duk-Soo Kim, Sung-Woo Cho, Yong-Jun Cho, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Keun Wook Lee, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Oxidative stress is known to be a primary risk factor for neuronal diseases. Glutaredoxin (GLRX)‑1, a redox‑regulator of the thioredoxin superfamily, is known to exhibit an important role in cell survival via various cellular functions. However, the precise roles of GLRX1 in brain ischemia are still not fully understood. The present study investigated whether transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein has protective effects against oxidative stress in cells and in an animal model. Transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein increased HT‑22 cell viability under oxidative stress and this fusion protein significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species and levels of DNA damage...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
David H Lloyd, Stephen W Page
While antimicrobial resistance is already a public health crisis in human medicine, therapeutic failure in veterinary medicine due to antimicrobial resistance remains relatively uncommon. However, there are many pathways by which antimicrobial resistance determinants can travel between animals and humans: by close contact, through the food chain, or indirectly via the environment. Antimicrobial stewardship describes measures that can help mitigate the public health crisis and preserve the effectiveness of available antimicrobial agents...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Sara M Pires, Ana Sofia Duarte, Tine Hald
Source attribution and microbial risk assessment methods have been widely applied for the control of several foodborne pathogens worldwide by identifying (i) the most important pathogen sources and (ii) the risk represented by specific foods and the critical points in these foods' production chains for microbial control. Such evidence has proved crucial for risk managers to identify and prioritize effective food safety and public health strategies. In the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) from livestock and pets, the utility of these methods is recognized, but a number of challenges have largely prevented their application and routine use...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Emily W Baker, Holly A Kinder, Jessica M Hutcheson, Kylee Jo J Duberstein, Simon R Platt, Elizabeth W Howerth, Franklin D West
A number of preclinical rodent models have been developed in an effort to recapitulate injury mechanisms and identify potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is a major cause of death and long-term disability in the United States. However, the lack of restorative treatments for TBI has led to considerable criticism of current preclinical therapeutic development strategies, namely the translatability of widely-used rodent models to human patients. The use of large animal models, such as the pig, with more comparable brain anatomy and physiology to humans may enhance the translational capacity of current preclinical animal models...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Murat Ulu, Erdem Kılıç, Emrah Soylu, Mehmet Kürkçü, Alper Alkan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to histomorphometrically compare the implant-host integration between retrieved implants and new implants. METHODS: Jaws in 10 male beagle dogs were divided into four groups, and 36 dental implants were inserted into the jaws. In groups 1 and 2, experimental peri-implantitis was induced within 2 months after implant insertion. In group 1, surface decontamination of implants was achieved using air-flow and citric acid. In group 2, implants were sterilized with autoclave after air-flow and citric acid surface decontamination...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
Brad Stubenhaus, Jason Pellettieri
Planarians have gained a well-deserved reputation as an excellent model organism for research on the biology of adult stem cells and their role in regeneration. Though less widely recognized, these animals also offer many advantages for investigating mechanisms and functions of programmed cell death in self-renewing tissues. Apoptosis complements stem cell division during physiological cell turnover and constitutes a prominent feature of the tissue remodeling process that restores anatomical scale and proportion during regeneration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
José María Martín-Durán
Thanks to their ability to regrow any missing body part after injury, planarians have become a well-established invertebrate model system in regenerative studies. However, planarians are also unique in their embryonic development, displaying ectolecithality, or the accumulation of embryonic nutrients into accessory cells accompanying the zygotes. Gaining a better understanding of their peculiar embryogenesis can offer answers to some fundamental questions regarding the appearance and evolution of planarian regenerative capacities, and in a broader context, the diversification of embryonic and postembryonic development in animals...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Teresa Adell, Sara Barberán, Miquel Sureda-Gómez, María Almuedo-Castillo, Nidia de Sousa, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are flatworms with almost unlimited regenerative abilities, which make them an excellent model for stem cell-based regeneration. To study the process of regeneration at the cellular level, immunohistochemical staining methods are an important tool, and the availability of such protocols is one of the prerequisites for mechanistic experiments in any animal model. Here, we detail protocols for paraffin embedding and immunostaining of paraffin sections of the model species Schmidtea mediterranea. This protocol yields robust results with a variety of commercially available antibodies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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