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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647881/alterations-in-soil-microbial-communities-caused-by-treatments-with-penicillin-or-neomycin
#1
Qichun Zhang, Ouyang Kang, Salma Jabeen, Warren A Dick
Antibiotic residues in soils can lead to serious health risk and ecological hazards. In this study, the effects of penicillin and neomycin, two antibiotics widely used in animal production, were investigated on soil bacterial communities. Changes in the community structure were monitored using three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-based approaches, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis...
June 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647871/cytoskeleton-as-a-target-of-quinolinic-acid-neurotoxicity-insight-from-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Paula Pierozan, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Cytoskeletal proteins are increasingly recognized as having important roles as a target of the action of different neurotoxins. In the last years, several works of our group have shown that quinolinic acid (QUIN) was able to disrupt the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of neural cells and this was associated with cell dysfunction and neurodegeneration. QUIN is an excitotoxic metabolite of tryptophan metabolism and its accumulation is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive view of the actions of QUIN upstream of glutamate receptors, eliciting kinase/phosphatase signaling cascades that disrupt the homeostasis of the phosphorylation system associated with intermediate filament proteins of astrocytes and neurons...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#3
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
June 24, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647775/a-natural-calcium-rich-marine-multi-mineral-complex-preserves-bone-structure-composition-and-strength-in-an-ovariectomised-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#4
Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J Byrne, Denise M O'Gorman, Fergal J O'Brien
Calcium supplements are used as an aid in the prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis and also for the treatment of patients when used along with medication. Many of these supplements are calcium carbonate based. This study compared a calcium-rich, marine multi-mineral complex (Aquamin) to calcium carbonate in an ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis in order to assess Aquamin's efficacy in preventing the onset of bone loss. Animals were randomly assigned to either non-ovariectomy control (Control), ovariectomy (OVX) plus calcium carbonate, ovariectomy plus Aquamin or ovariectomy plus Aquamin delay where Aquamin treatment started 8 weeks post OVX...
June 24, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647739/antipsychotic-induced-dopamine-supersensitivity-psychosis-pharmacology-criteria-and-therapy
#5
Guy Chouinard, Anne-Noël Samaha, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Masaomi Iyo
The first-line treatment for psychotic disorders remains antipsychotic drugs with receptor antagonist properties at D2-like dopamine receptors. However, long-term administration of antipsychotics can upregulate D2 receptors and produce receptor supersensitivity manifested by behavioral supersensitivity to dopamine stimulation in animals, and movement disorders and supersensitivity psychosis (SP) in patients. Antipsychotic-induced SP was first described as the emergence of psychotic symptoms with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a fall in prolactin levels following drug discontinuation...
June 24, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647700/molecular-proteomic-characterization-of-a-pediatric-medulloblastoma-xenograft
#6
George T Tsangaris, Konstantinos Dimas, Angeliki Malamou, Angeliki Katsafadou, Chrissa Papathanasiou, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Constantinos E Vorgias, Maria Gazouli, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MBL), an archetypal primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy representing approximately 20% of all childhood brain tumors. Herein, we report on a new xenotransplantable tumor cell line, derived from a 6-year-old female patient with cerebellar medulloblastoma, and the completele proteome molecular characterization of subsequent tumors from MBL xenotrasplanted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were grown in nude mice as subcutaneous xenografts (MBLX) composed of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647673/constitutive-differences-in-glucocorticoid-responsiveness-to-stress-are-related-to-variation-in-aggression-and-anxiety-related-behaviors
#7
Sophie E Walker, Olivia Zanoletti, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Carmen Sandi
Glucocorticoids coordinate responses that enable an individual to cope with stressful challenges and, additionally, mediate adaptation following cessation of a stressor. There are important individual differences in the magnitude of glucocorticoid responsiveness to stressors. However, whether individual differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are linked to different behavioral strategies in coping with social and non-social challenges is not easily studied, owing to the lack of appropriate animal models...
June 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647564/effects-of-chronic-forced-swim-stress-on-behavioral-properties-in-rats-with-neonatal-repeated-mk-801-treatment
#8
Kouichi Kawabe
The two-hit hypothesis has been used to explain the onset mechanism of schizophrenia. It assumes that predisposition to schizophrenia is originally attributed to vulnerability in the brain which stems from genetic or early developmental factors, and that onset is triggered by exposure to later detrimental factors such as stress in adolescence or adulthood. Based on this hypothesis, the present study examined whether rats that had received neonatal repeated treatment with an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (MK-801), an animal model of schizophrenia, were vulnerable to chronic stress...
June 21, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647555/normalizing-the-gene-dosage-of-dyrk1a-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-rescues-several-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes
#9
Susana García-Cerro, Noemí Rueda, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Carmen Martínez-Cué
The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology...
June 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647535/the-involvement-of-monoaminergic-neurotransmission-in-the-antidepressant-like-action-of-scopolamine-in-the-tail-suspension-test
#10
Agnieszka Pałucha-Poniewiera, Karolina Podkowa, Tomasz Lenda, Andrzej Pilc
Some clinical studies indicate that scopolamine may induce a rapid antidepressant effect. Although scopolamine is a muscarinic antagonist, it seems that not only cholinergic but also glutamatergic and GABAergic systems might be involved in the mechanism of its antidepressant activity in animal models of depression. Here, we present a set of behavioral data aimed at investigating the role of monoaminergic system activity in the mechanism of the antidepressant-like action of scopolamine in an animal model based on behavioral despair, namely, the tail suspension test (TST)...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647517/proteomics-to-study-macrophage-response-to-viral-infection
#11
Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647510/hepatoprotective-effect-of-gan-kang-yaun-against-chronic-liver-injury-induced-by-alcohol
#12
Yuanheng Guo, Qingsheng Zhao, Lili Cao, Bing Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gan Kang Yuan (GKY) is a compound medicine formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was composed of Herba Cistanchis (Roucongrong), Radix Puerariae (Gegen), Radix Astragali (Huangqi), Fructus Schisandrae (Wuweizi) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (Gancao). AIM: The purpose of this study is to research the hepatoprotective effect of GKY against liver injury induced by alcohol, and to elucidate the mechanism of hepatopretective effect...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647507/differential-replication-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-in-mice-determine-lethality
#13
Marco Cacciabue, María Soledad García-Núñez, Fernando Delgado, Anabella Currá, Rubén Marrero, Paula Molinari, Elizabeth Rieder, Elisa Carrillo, María Inés Gismondi
Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (A01L) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. Both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. Virus A01L reached higher viral loads in plasma and organs of inoculated mice as well as increased replication in an ovine kidney cell line...
June 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647490/sex-biased-eicosanoid-biology-impact-for-sex-differences-in-inflammation-and-consequences-for-pharmacotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Simona Pace, Lidia Sautebin, Oliver Werz
The incidence, severity and progression of autoimmune diseases (e.g. scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis) and certain inflammatory diseases (e.g. asthma) are sex-biased where these pathologies dominate in women. However, other immune disorders such as sepsis, post-surgery infections and gout display higher incidence and severity in men. The molecular and cellular basis underlying this sex dimorphism remains incompletely elucidated but may provide important insights for sex-specific pharmacotherapy...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647441/prevention-of-epilepsy-should-we-be-avoiding-clinical-trials
#15
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Ivana Tyrlikova
Epilepsy prevention is one of the great unmet needs in epilepsy. Approximately 15% of all epilepsy is caused by an acute acquired CNS insult such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke or encephalitis. There is a latent period between the insult and epilepsy onset that presents an opportunity to intervene with preventive treatment that is unique in neurology. Yet no phase 3 epilepsy prevention studies, and only 2 phase 2 studies have been initiated in the last 16years. Current prevailing opinion is that the research community is not ready for clinical preventive epilepsy studies, and that animal models should first be refined and biomarkers of epileptogenesis and of epilepsy discovered before clinical studies are embarked upon...
June 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647436/social-judgments-frontal-asymmetry-and-aggressive-behavior-in-young-children-a-replication-study-using-eeg
#16
Ilse C van Wijk, Bianca G van den Bulk, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Renske Huffmeijer
Early in their lives young children are confronted with social judgments by peers. Previous studies have shown that in adults negative social judgments are associated with more aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the relation between social judgments and aggressive behavior, or the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, in early childhood. We developed the Social Network Aggression Task - Early Childhood (SNAT-EC) to examine the mediating role of frontal EEG asymmetry in the relation between social judgment and aggressive behavior in 4-6 year old children...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647408/identification-and-expression-characterization-of-wnta-during-intestinal-regeneration-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#17
Xiaoni Li, Lina Sun, Hongsheng Yang, Libin Zhang, Ting Miao, Lili Xing, Da Huo
Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647350/antitumor-activity-of-resveratrol-is-independent-of-cu-ii-complex-formation-in-mcf-7-cell-line
#18
Priscylla Andrade Volkart, Rodrigo Benedetti Gassen, Bettina Mühlen Nogueira, Bárbara Nery Porto, José Eduardo Vargas, André Arigony Souto
Resveratrol (Rsv) is widely reported to possess anticarcinogenic properties in a plethora of cellular and animal models having limited toxicity toward normal cells. In the molecular level, Rsv can act as a suppressive agent for several impaired signaling pathways on cancer cells. However, Fukuhara and Miyata have shown a non-proteic reaction of Rsv, which can act as a prooxidant agent in the presence of copper (Cu), causing cellular oxidative stress accompanied of DNA damage. After this discovery, the complex Rsv-Cu was broadly explored as an antitumor mechanism in multiples tumor cell lines...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647332/longitudinal-relationship-between-fecal-culture-fecal-quantitative-pcr-and-milk-elisa-in-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-infected-cows-from-low-prevalence-dairy-herds
#19
A Beaver, R W Sweeney, E Hovingh, D R Wolfgang, Y T Gröhn, Y H Schukken
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647327/genomic-analysis-of-cow-mortality-and-milk-production-using-a-threshold-linear-model
#20
S Tsuruta, D A L Lourenco, I Misztal, T J Lawlor
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genomic evaluation for cow mortality and milk production using a single-step methodology. Genomic relationships between cow mortality and milk production were also analyzed. Data included 883,887 (866,700) first-parity, 733,904 (711,211) second-parity, and 516,256 (492,026) third-parity records on cow mortality (305-d milk yields) of Holsteins from Northeast states in the United States. The pedigree consisted of up to 1,690,481 animals including 34,481 bulls genotyped with 36,951 SNP markers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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