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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#1
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734227/continuous-delivery-of-neutralizing-antibodies-elevate-ccl2-levels-in-mice-bearing-mcf10ca1d-breast-tumor-xenografts
#2
Min Yao, Curtis Smart, Qingting Hu, Nikki Cheng
Chemokines are small soluble molecules that play critical roles in wound healing, infection, and cancer progression. In particular, overexpression of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in multiple cancer types correlates with poor patient prognosis. Animal studies have shown that CCL2 signals to macrophages and breast cancer cells to promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis, indicating that CCL2 is a promising therapeutic target. However, the effectiveness of human-specific neutralizing antibodies has not been fully evaluated...
July 19, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734211/organotropism-of-methylmercury-in-fish-of-the-southeastern-of-brazil
#3
L S Azevedo, M G Almeida, W R Bastos, M S Suzuki, M C N N Recktenvald, M T S Bastos, C S Vergílio, C M M de Souza
This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effect of biometric variables (total length and weight), diet, and abiotic matrices (sediment and water column) on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) of four fish (two carnivore-invertivores, Pimelodus fur and Pachyurus adspersus; one carnivore-piscivore, Oligosarcus hepsetus; and one omnivore, Pimelodella lateristriga) in the lower section of a river in southeastern Brazil. Samples of fish (n = 120), water (n = 5) and sediment (n = 5) were collected at five sites characterized by pollution with mercury due to the use of organomercury fungicides and stream bed gold mining, commonly carried out in that section of the river in the 1980s...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732439/the-extract-of-portulaca-oleracea-and-its-constituent-alpha-linolenic-acid-affects-serum-oxidant-levels-and-inflammatory-cells-in-sensitized-rats
#4
Mahsa Kaveh, Akram Eidi, Ali Nemati, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
The effects of Portulaca oleracea and its constituent, alpha linolenic acid on serum oxidant levels and inflammatory cells in sensitized rats were examined. Eight groups of rats including control, sensitized, sensitized rats treated with 1, 2 and 4 mg/mL extract of P. oleracea, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and 1.25 μg/mL dexamethaswere studied serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT, thiol groups, NO2, NO3, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as total and differential WBC in blood were measured...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732359/resveratrol-inhibits-age-dependent-spontaneous-tumorigenesis-by-sirt1-mediated-post-translational-modulations-in-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#5
Tingting Liu, Long Ma, Zhaodi Zheng, Fenglin Li, Shan Liu, Yingbo Xie, Guorong Li
Resveratrol, SIRT1 activator, inhibits carcinogenesis predominantly performed in transgenic animal models, orthotopic cancers of nude mice or different cancer cell lines, but its effects during process of spontaneous tumors using vertebrate models remain untested. Spontaneous liver neoplasm is an age-related disease and is inhibited by resveratrol in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri, which indicates that the fish can act as an excellent model to study spontaneous tumorigenesis. Totally, 175 fish were fed with resveratrol and another 175 fish for controls...
July 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732334/does-laser-phototherapy-influence-the-proliferation-of-myoepithelial-cells-in-the-salivary-gland-of-hypothyroid-rats
#6
Virgínia Dias Uzêda-E-Silva, Tania Tavares Rodriguez, Luciana Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Flávia Calo Aquino Xavier, Isabele Cardoso Vieira de Castro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa Pinheiro, Jean Nunes Dos Santos
Thyroid hormones influence both development and growth of organs and tissues and guarantee metabolic demands that interfere with the quality of digestive secretions, including those of the salivary glands. Laser phototherapy - LPT can modulate various biological phenomena and its diverse effects permit the action on different cell types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser phototherapy on myoepithelial cells of salivary glands of hypothyroid rats. Forty-two albino Wistar rats were divided into two main groups: euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (HYPO)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732306/photostability-testing-using-online-reactor-hplc-hyphenation-and-mass-spectrometric-compound-identification-illustrated-by-ketoprofen-as-model-compound
#7
Jaber Assaf, Diego Zulkiewicz Gomes, Bernhard Wuest, Maria Kristina Parr
Investigations on the photochemical stability of pharmaceutical substances are mandatory in drug development and licensing as photo-induced degradation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) may not only lead to decreased API concentrations but also to toxic or reactive products. Thus, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued Guidance for Industry Q1B "Photostability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products" for testing of pure but also packed drugs...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732295/determination-of-54-pesticides-in-waters-of-the-iberian-douro-river-estuary-and-risk-assessment-of-environmentally-relevant-mixtures-using-theoretical-approaches-and-artemia-salina-and-daphnia-magna-bioassays
#8
Catarina Cruzeiro, Sofia Amaral, Eduardo Rocha, Maria João Rocha
As a case study, the estuary of the international Douro River (Iberian Peninsula) was sampled over a year (2010) at six sampling sites to determine the presence of 56 pesticides of different categories (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides). 96% of measured pesticides were detected in 79% of the quantified samples. Individual average pesticide concentrations ranged from 39 to 1 265ng/L, indicating a ubiquitous presence of the selected compounds; moreover, twelve pesticides were above the 2013/39/EU Directive limits...
July 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732272/screening-of-the-open-scaffolds-collection-from-compounds-australia-identifies-a-new-chemical-entity-with-anthelmintic-activities-against-different-developmental-stages-of-the-barber-s-pole-worm-and-other-parasitic-nematodes
#9
Sarah Preston, Yaqing Jiao, Jonathan B Baell, Jennifer Keiser, Simon Crawford, Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Moana M Simpson, Ray M Kaplan, Karla J Cowley, Kaylene J Simpson, Andreas Hofmann, Abdul Jabbar, Robin B Gasser
The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the 'Open Scaffolds' collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the 'Open Scaffolds' collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays...
May 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732187/do-genetic-markers-of-inflammation-modify-the-relationship-between-periodontitis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-findings-from-the-ship-study
#10
A A Akinkugbe, C L Avery, A S Barritt, S R Cole, M Lerch, J Mayerle, S Offenbacher, A Petersmann, M Nauck, H Völzke, G D Slade, G Heiss, T Kocher, B Holtfreter
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, <30%, ≥30%) with probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and NAFLD status was determined using liver ultrasound assessment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732056/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-hog-waste
#11
Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, An-Chi Liu, Chieh-Yin Weng, Chu-Yang Chou, Daryi Wang
Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a microbiological process that converts organic waste materials into biogas. Because of its high methane content, biogas is a combustible energy source and serves as an important environmental technology commonly used in the management of animal waste generated on large animal farms. Much work has been done on hardware design and process engineering for the generation of biogas. However, little is known about the complexity of the microbiology in this process. In particular, how microbes interact in the digester and eventually breakdown and convert organic matter into biogas is still regarded as a "black box...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#12
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732009/effects-of-local-cardiac-denervation-on-cardiac-innervation-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-after-chronic-myocardial-infarction
#13
Xudong Liu, Lin Sun, Jugang Chen, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Liang Wang, Jingjie Li
BACKGROUND: Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI. METHODS: Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731987/evidence-of-heritable-determinants-of-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#14
Jacky Lautridou, Peter Buzzacott, Marc Belhomme, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Pierre Lafère, Costantino Balestra, François Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a complex and poorly understood systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a decrease of ambient pressure. Strong variability between individuals is observed for DCS occurrence. This raises questions concerning factors that may be involved in the inter-individual variability of DCS occurrence. This study aimed to experimentally assess the existence of heritable factors involved in DCS occurrence by selectively breeding individuals resistant to DCS from a population stock of wistar rats...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#15
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731861/genetic-control-of-apoprotein-a-i-and-atheroprotection-some-insights-from-inbred-strains-of-mice
#16
Godfrey S Getz, Catherine A Reardon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous epidemiological studies and studies in experimental animals have provided strong evidence for the atheroprotective effect of HDL and its major apoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Identification of genetic loci associating apoA-I/HDL with cardiovascular disease is needed to establish a causal relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacological interventions to increase apoA-I or HDL cholesterol levels in humans are not associated with reduction in atherosclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731834/the-essential-oil-of-hyptis-mutabilis-in-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-infection-and-its-effect-on-hematological-biochemical-and-immunological-parameters-in-silver-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#17
Jessyka Arruda da Cunha, Fernando Jonas Sutili, Anita Motta Oliveira, Leticia Gressler, Cecilia de Ávila Scheeren, Lenise Lima Silva, Rodrigo Vaucher, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Berta Heinzmann
This study evaluated the activity of leaf essential oil (EO) from Hyptis mutabilis as well as its major constituent, (-)-globulol, in infections by the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). Effects on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, exposed to same samples also were evaluated. In the first experiment, naturally infected fish were treated with EO (0, 10 and 20 mgL-1) and ethanol, using several methods of exposure. Fish mortality and the number of trophonts per fish were assessed after 48 and 96 hr...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731826/convergently-evolved-toxic-secondary-metabolites-in-plants-drive-the-parallel-molecular-evolution-of-insect-resistance
#18
Georg Petschenka, Vera Wagschal, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Alexander Donath, Susanne Dobler
Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731825/convergent-phenotypic-evolution-despite-contrasting-demographic-histories-in-the-fauna-of-white-sands
#19
Erica Bree Rosenblum, Christine E Parent, Eveline T Diepeveen, Clay Noss, Ke Bi
When are evolutionary outcomes predictable? Cases of convergent evolution can shed light on when, why, and how different species exhibit shared evolutionary trajectories. In particular, studying diverse species in a common environment can illuminate how different factors facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Here we integrate studies of pattern and process in the fauna at White Sands (New Mexico) to understand the determinants of convergent evolution. Numerous animal species at White Sands exhibit phenotypic convergence in response to a novel-and shared-selective environment: geologically young gypsum dunes...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731798/most-colorful-example-of-genetic-assimilation-exploring-the-evolutionary-destiny-of-recurrent-phenotypic-accommodation
#20
Alexander V Badyaev, Ahva L Potticary, Erin S Morrison
Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pathways...
August 2017: American Naturalist
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