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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822335/specificity-protein-1-modulated-superoxide-dismutase-2-enhances-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-which-is-independent-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase
#1
Kwang-Yu Chang, Tsung-I Hsu, Che-Chia Hsu, Shan-Yin Tsai, Jr-Jiun Liu, Shao-Wen Chou, Ming-Sheng Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Chiung-Yuan Ko, Kai-Yun Chen, Jan-Jong Hung, Wen-Chang Chang, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Jian-Ying Chuang
Acquisition of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a major factor leading to the failure of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. The exact mechanism by which GBM evades TMZ toxicity is not always related to the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and so remains unclear. In this study, TMZ-resistant variants derived from MGMT-negative GBM clinical samples and cell lines were studied, revealing there to be increased specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation following TMZ treatment...
August 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#2
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 16, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822091/effect-of-ap102-a-subtype-2-and-5-specific-somatostatin-analog-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rats
#3
Erika Tarasco, Petra Seebeck, Svende Pfundstein, Adrian F Daly, Philippe J Eugster, Alan G Harris, Eric Grouzmann, Thomas A Lutz, Christina N Boyle
PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#4
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821949/electromagnetically-navigated-in-situ-fenestration-of-aortic-stent-grafts-pilot-animal-study-of-a-novel-fenestrated-evar-approach
#5
Tobias Penzkofer, Hong-Sik Na, Peter Isfort, Christoph Wilkmann, Sabine Osterhues, Andreas Besting, Christoph Hänisch, Stefan Bisplinghoff, Johannes Jansing, Sylvie von Werder, Jorge Gooding, Mathias de la Fuente, Andreas H Mahnken, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Christiane Kuhl, Philipp Bruners
PURPOSE: Assess electromagnetically guided in situ fenestration of juxtarenal aortic stent grafts in an in vivo model. METHODS: Using a newly developed electromagnetic guidance system together with a modified, electromagnetically guidable catheter with steerable tip, an electromagnetically trackable guidewire and a custom in situ fenestrateable stent graft, a series of seven animal experiments was performed. In a swine model, stent grafts were placed juxtarenally, covering the renal arteries...
August 18, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821833/microrna-449c-5p-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-vics-through-smad4-mediated-pathway
#6
Rongjian Xu, Min Zhao, Yun Yang, Zhuo Huang, Chunying Shi, Xianglin Hou, Yannan Zhao, Bing Chen, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianzhou Liu, Qi Miao, Jianwu Dai
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are the prevalent cells in aortic valve and their osteogenic differentiation may be responsible for calcific nodule formation in CAVD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence shows microRNA (miRNA, or miR) can function as important regulators of many pathological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. Here, we aimed to explore the function of miR-449c-5p in CAVD pathogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821732/light-color-importance-for-circadian-entrainment-in-a-diurnal-octodon-degus-and-a-nocturnal-rattus-norvegicus-rodent
#7
Maria Angeles Bonmati-Carrion, Beatriz Baño-Otalora, Juan Antonio Madrid, Maria Angeles Rol
The central circadian pacemaker (Suprachiasmatic Nuclei, SCN) maintains the phase relationship with the external world thanks to the light/dark cycle. Light intensity, spectra, and timing are important for SCN synchronisation. Exposure to blue-light at night leads to circadian misalignment that could be avoided by using less circadian-disruptive wavelengths. This study tests the capacity of a diurnal Octodon degus and nocturnal Rattus norvegicus to synchronise to different nocturnal lights. Animals were subjected to combined red-green-blue lights (RGB) during the day and to: darkness; red light (R); combined red-green LED (RG) lights; and combined red-green-violet LED (RGV) lights during the night...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821729/nonlinear-bayesian-filtering-and-learning-a-neuronal-dynamics-for-perception
#8
Anna Kutschireiter, Simone Carlo Surace, Henning Sprekeler, Jean-Pascal Pfister
The robust estimation of dynamical hidden features, such as the position of prey, based on sensory inputs is one of the hallmarks of perception. This dynamical estimation can be rigorously formulated by nonlinear Bayesian filtering theory. Recent experimental and behavioral studies have shown that animals' performance in many tasks is consistent with such a Bayesian statistical interpretation. However, it is presently unclear how a nonlinear Bayesian filter can be efficiently implemented in a network of neurons that satisfies some minimum constraints of biological plausibility...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821675/synergistic-toxicity-of-polyglutamine-expanded-tbp-in-glia-and-neuronal-cells-therapeutic-implications-for-sca17
#9
Yang Yang, Su Yang, Jifeng Guo, Yiting Cui, Baisha Tang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and is among a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which polyQ expansion leads to preferential neuronal loss in the brain. Although previous studies have demonstrated that expression of polyQ-expanded proteins in glial cells can cause neuronal injury via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, these studies investigated animal models that overexpress transgenic mutant proteins. Since glial cells are particularly reactive to overexpressed mutant proteins, it is important to investigate the in vivo role of glial dysfunction in neurodegeneration when mutant polyQ proteins are endogenously expressed...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821661/attenuated-activity-across-multiple-cell-types-and-reduced-monosynaptic-connectivity-in-the-aged-perirhinal-cortex
#10
A P Maurer, S N Burke, K Diba, C A Barnes
The perirhinal cortex (PER), which is critical for associative memory and stimulus discrimination, has been described as a wall of inhibition between the neocortex and hippocampus. With advanced age, rats show deficits on PER-dependent behavioral tasks and fewer PER principal neurons are activated by stimuli, but the role of PER interneurons in these altered circuit properties in old age has not been characterized. In the present study, PER neurons were recorded while rats traversed a circular track bi-directionally in which the track was either empty or contained 8 novel objects evenly spaced around the track...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821650/feedback-signal-from-motoneurons-influences-a-rhythmic-pattern-generator
#11
Horacio G Rotstein, Elisa Schneider, Lidia Szczupak
Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior, but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821644/calpain-dependent-degradation-of-nucleoporins-contributes-to-motor-neuron-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-excitotoxicity
#12
Kaori Sugiyama, Tomomi Aida, Masatoshi Nomura, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Hanns U Zeilhofer, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity induces neuronal death by altering various intracellular signaling pathways and is implicated as a common pathogenic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of motor neuron disease, there is significant evidence to suggest that overactivation of AMPA receptors due to deficiencies in the expression and function of glial glutamate transporter GLT1 and GLAST plays an important role in the mechanisms of neuronal death. However, a causal role for glial glutamate transporter dysfunction in motor neuron death remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821591/specifying-cell-fate-in-roots-requires-coordinative-lineage-instruction-and-positional-reprogramming
#13
Qiaozhi Yu, Pengxue Li, Nengsong Liang, Hong Wang, Meizhi Xu, Shuang Wu
Tissue organization and pattern formation within a multicellular organism relies on coordinated cell division and cell fate determination. In animals cell fates are mainly determined by a cell lineage dependent mechanism, whereas in plants positional information is thought to be the primary determinant of cell fates (Scheres, 2001; Kidner et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2005; Scheres et al., 2002). However, our understanding of cell fate regulation in plants mostly relies on the histological and anatomical studies on Arabidopsis roots which contain a single layer of each cell type in non-vascular tissues (Scheres et al...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821584/transcriptome-analysis-of-mycobacteria-specific-cd4-t-cells-identified-by-activation-induced-expression-of-cd154
#14
Shajo Kunnath-Velayudhan, Michael F Goldberg, Neeraj K Saini, Christopher T Johndrow, Tony W Ng, Alison J Johnson, Jiayong Xu, John Chan, William R Jacobs, Steven A Porcelli
Analysis of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells in mycobacterial infections at the transcriptome level is informative but technically challenging. Although several methods exist for identifying Ag-specific T cells, including intracellular cytokine staining, cell surface cytokine-capture assays, and staining with peptide:MHC class II multimers, all of these have significant technical constraints that limit their usefulness. Measurement of activation-induced expression of CD154 has been reported to detect live Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells, but this approach remains underexplored and, to our knowledge, has not previously been applied in mycobacteria-infected animals...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821446/diet-induced-obesity-alters-memory-consolidation-in-female-rats
#15
P Zanini, B D Arbo, G Niches, D Czarnabay, F Benetti, M F Ribeiro, A L Cecconello
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821417/single-species-versus-dual-species-probiotic-supplementation-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-strategy-for-obesity
#16
G Karimi, R Jamaluddin, N Mohtarrudin, Z Ahmad, H Khazaai, M Parvaneh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species...
July 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821162/oral-administration-of-thymoquinone-mitigates-the-effect-of-cisplatin-on-brush-border-membrane-enzymes-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-system-in-rat-intestine
#17
Faaiza Shahid, Zeba Farooqui, Subuhi Abidi, Iqbal Parwez, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that elicits severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Nigella sativa, a member of family Ranunculaceae, is one of the most revered medicinal plant known for its numerous health benefits. Thymoquinone (TQ), a major bioactive component derived from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, has been shown to improve gastrointestinal functions in animal models of acute gastric/intestinal injury. In view of this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of TQ on CP induced toxicity in rat intestine and to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821157/in-situ-formation-of-injectable-and-porous-heparin-based-hydrogel
#18
Meeichyn Goh, Younghee Kim, Kihak Gwon, Kiyoon Min, YoungMin Hwang, Giyoong Tae
In this study, by combining photopolymerization and particle leaching technique, in situ formation of porous hydrogel with pore interconnectivity was demonstrated in vivo upon subcutaneous injection into the back of mice as well as in vitro. A precursor solution containing thiolated heparin, PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and gelatin microparticles (GMPs) as a fast dissolving porogen were photopolymerized by visible-light-initiated thiol-ene reaction with eosin Y (EY) as a photo initiator and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a co-initiator...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820992/bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-don-in-wastewaters-from-animal-feedlots-and-storage-lagoons
#19
Jingyi Sun, Eakalak Khan, Senay Simsek, Jae-Bom Ohm, Halis Simsek
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from animal wastes can contribute to pollution of surface waters. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae with or without bacteria. This study determined DON and ABDON levels in animal wastewater collected from two different sources: an animal feedlot wastewater storage tank and a sheep wastewater storage lagoon. Inocula for the ABDON bioassays were comprised of individual species and several combinations involving two algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris) and a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) bacterial culture...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820966/reactive-oxygen-species-responsive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-alleviating-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#20
Gan Chen, Hongzhang Deng, Xiang Song, Mingzi Lu, Lian Zhao, Sha Xia, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Yulong Zhang, Anjie Dong, Hong Zhou
Sepsis-associated acute liver injury contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is associated with increased mortality. Currently, no specific therapeutics for sepsis-associated liver injury are available. With excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being implicated as key players in sepsis-induced liver injury, we hypothesize that ROS-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) formed via the self-assembly of diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) may function as an effective drug delivery system for alleviating sepsis-induced liver injury by preferentially releasing drug molecules at the disease site...
August 11, 2017: Biomaterials
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