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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054116/t-cell-epitope-content-comparison-epicc-of-swine-h1-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin
#1
Andres H Gutiérrez, Vicki Rapp-Gabrielson, Frances E Terry, Crystal Loving, Leonard Moise, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot
BACKGROUND: Predicting vaccine efficacy against emerging pathogen strains is a significant problem in human and animal vaccine design. T cell epitope cross-conservation may play an important role in cross-strain vaccine efficacy. While influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers are widely used to predict protective efficacy of one IAV vaccine against new strains, no similar correlate of protection has been identified for T cell epitopes. OBJECTIVE: We developed a computational method (EpiCC) that facilitates pairwise comparison of protein sequences based on an immunological property - T cell epitope content - rather than sequence identity, and evaluated its ability to classify swine IAV strain relatedness to estimate cross-protective potential of a vaccine strain for circulating viruses...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054089/molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-from-environmental-sources-and-genetic-comparison-with-clinical-isolates-in-apulia-italy
#2
Maria Teresa Montagna, Antonella De Donno, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesca Serio, Osvalda De Giglio, Francesco Bagordo, R D'Amicis, Shawn R Lockhart, Massimo Cogliati
The present study investigated the environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complex molecular types, mating types and sequence types in Apulia, a region of Southern Italy. A total of 2078 specimens from arboreal and animal sources were analyzed. The percentage of positive samples was similar among both arboreal and animal specimens: 4.2% vs. 5.1% for C. neoformans species complex and 0.6% vs. 1.4% for C. gattii species complex. Molecular typing identified 78 isolates as VNI (76 αA and two aA), one as AD-hybrid αADa, and 16 as VGI aB...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054075/evaluation-of-immunological-markers-of-ovine-vaginal-irritation-implications-for-preclinical-assessment-of-non-vaccine-hiv-preventive-agents
#3
Gregg N Milligan, Gracie Vargas, Kathleen L Vincent, Yong Zhu, Nigel Bourne, Massoud Motamedi
The presence of genital inflammatory responses and a compromised vaginal epithelial barrier have been linked to an increased risk of HIV acquisition. It is important to assure that application of candidate microbicides designed to limit HIV transmission will not cause these adverse events. We previously developed high resolution in vivo imaging methodologies in sheep to assess epithelial integrity following vaginal application of a model microbicide, however characterization of genital inflammation in sheep has not been previously possible...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053900/hair-coat-properties-of-donkeys-mules-and-horses-in-a-temperate-climate
#4
B Osthaus, L Proops, S Long, N Bell, K Hayday, F Burden
BACKGROUND: There are clear differences between donkeys and horses in their evolutionary history, physiology, behaviour and husbandry needs. Donkeys are often kept in climates they are not adapted to and as such may suffer impaired welfare unless protection from the elements is provided. OBJECTIVES: To compare some of the hair coat properties of donkeys, mules and horses living outside, throughout the year, in the temperate climate of the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
October 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053859/unexpected-results-when-assessing-underlying-aggressiveness-in-japanese-quail-using-photocastrated-stimulus-birds
#5
J M Caliva, J M Kembro, S Pellegrini, D A Guzman, R H Marin
Aggressive behaviors can affect both animal welfare and productivity. Because the expression of aggressive behaviors is dependent on the quality of the opponent, they reflect relative rather than absolute levels of underlying aggressiveness. This study was aimed to characterize the aggressive responsiveness of photostimulated (14:10 h light:dark photoperiod) adult Japanese quail when interacting with a photocastrated (6:18 h light:dark photoperiod) counterpart in a novel test environment and to assesses interindividual variations...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053856/propolis-supplementation-attenuates-the-negative-effects-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-paraquat-injection-on-productive-performance-and-immune-function-in-turkey-poults
#6
Ahmed O Abass, Nancy N Kamel, Walaa H Khalifa, G F Gouda, M A F El-Manylawi, Gamal M K Mehaisen, Magdi M Mashaly
Paraquat (PQ) is used as a herbicide in agriculture and causes oxidative and inflammatory damage to animal tissues. The current study was conducted to investigate the positive effects of dietary propolis (PR), as a potent naturally produced antioxidant, on growth performance and immune function of turkey poults exposed to oxidative stress induced by PQ injection. Native male turkey poults (n = 120, 49-d-old) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: poults received a basal diet with a daily subcutaneous PQ injection of 5 mg/kg BW for 7 consecutive days (PQ group), an experimental diet containing 1 g/kg PR with a daily subcutaneous PQ injection for 7 days (PR+PQ group), or received the experimental PR diet with a daily subcutaneous injection of 0...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053852/genome-wide-scan-and-analysis-of-positive-selective-signatures-in-dwarf-brown-egg-layers-and-silky-fowl-chickens
#7
Mengmeng Zhang, Liu Yang, Zhencheng Su, Muzhen Zhu, Wenting Li, Keliang Wu, Xuemei Deng
Chinese domestic chickens have been routinely subjected to artificial selection for the production of meats and eggs. Selection results in distinctive signatures in the genome that can reveal the genes underlying phenotypes of interest to breeders. In this study, we used the Chicken60K SNP chip to analyze DNA from Dwarf Brown-egg Layers (DB, n = 203) and Silky Fowls (SF, n = 181) and then examined the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) and fixation index (FST) to detect selection signatures. Since population structure analysis showed that SF was stratified into 2 subpopulations (SF1 and SF2), we removed the 20 SF1 chickens, and the remaining individuals (DB and SF2) were scanned for genome-wide selection signatures...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053816/histomorphometric-study-of-the-anterior-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-and-evaluation-of-enzymatic-markers-of-broilers-affected-with-dorsal-cranial-myopathy
#8
R Sesterhenn, F M Siqueira, A C Hamerski, D Driemeier, S F Valle, S L Vieira, L Kindlein, V P Nascimento
Dorsal cranial myopathy (DCM), which affects the anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscles of commercial broilers, is of unknown etiology, and it represents up to 6% of the partial condemnations in Brazilian slaughterhouses. This study was performed to achieve histomorphometric characterizations of the ALD muscles from male Cobb 500 broilers slaughtered at either 35 d or 42 d and to evaluate the effects of DCM on the enzymatic markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and on uric acid and creatinine metabolites...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053782/seizure-onset-zone-localization-using-postictal-hypoperfusion-detected-by-arterial-spin-labelling-mri
#9
Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Shaily Singh, Tefani Perera, Sherry Sandy, Emmy Li, Paolo Federico
Neurological dysfunction following epileptic seizures is a well-recognized phenomenon. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to explain postictal dysfunction, with alteration in cerebral blood flow being one possibility. These vascular disturbances may be long lasting and localized to brain areas involved in seizure generation and propagation, as supported by both animal and human studies. Therefore, measuring perfusion changes in the postictal period may help localize the seizure onset zone. Arterial spin labelling is a non-invasive, rapid and reproducible magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures cerebral perfusion...
September 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053743/in-vitro-modeling-of-experimental-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-using-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#10
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053739/simultaneous-introgression-of-three-polled-mutations-into-a-synthetic-breed-of-chinese-cattle
#11
Shi-Yi Chen, Linhai Liu, Maozhong Fu, Gong-Wei Zhang, Jun Yi, Song-Jia Lai, Wei Wang
The polled phenotype of cattle is increasingly becoming favourable mainly because of the enhanced emphasis on animal welfare, for which the causative mutations have been reported during the past years. The Shuxuan cattle are a new synthetic breed by crossing the indigenous cattle with both Simmental and Holstein semen in Sichuan of Southwest China, in which about 15% of polled individuals have newly emerged. Because official record about POLLED genotypes for the historically imported sires is unavailable, we therefore genotyped the proposed POLLED variants of P202ID, P80kbID and P219ID among 48 polled and 16 horned Shuxuan cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#12
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053700/come-to-the-light-side-in-vivo-monitoring-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-infections-in-chronic-wounds-in-a-diabetic-hairless-murine-model
#13
Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jacob A Gibson, Casandra L Larrivee, Sandra O'Reilly, Svetlana Navitskaya, Julia V Busik, Christopher M Waters
The presence of bacteria as structured biofilms in chronic wounds, especially in diabetic patients, is thought to prevent wound healing and resolution. Chronic mouse wounds models have been used to understand the underlying interactions between the microorganisms and the host. The models developed to date rely on the use of haired animals and terminal collection of wound tissue for determination of viable bacteria. While significant insight has been gained with these models, this experimental procedure requires a large number of animals and sampling is time consuming...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053693/in-vivo-tracking-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-knee-osteoarthritis-model-with-fluorescent-lipophilic-membrane-dye
#14
Meng Li, Ming Hao, Dong Jiang, Yanxi Chen, Wen Wang
In order to support the clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (haMSC) therapy for knee osteoarthritis (KOA), we examined the efficacy of cell persistence and biodistribution of haMSCs in animal models. We demonstrated a method to label the cell membrane of haMSCs with lipophilic fluorescent dye. Subsequently, intra-articular injection of the labeled cells in rats with surgically induced KOA was monitored dynamically by an in vivo imaging system. We employed the lipophilic carbocyanines DiD (DilC18 (5)), a far-red fluorescent Dil (dialkylcarbocyanines) analog, which utilized a red laser to avoid excitation of the natural green autofluorescence from surrounding tissues...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053676/laminotomy-for-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglion-access-and-injection-in-swine
#16
Mark D Unger, Timothy P Maus, Ross C Puffer, Laura K Newman, Bradford L Currier, Andreas S Beutler
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are anatomically well defined structures that contain all primary sensory neurons below the head. This fact makes DRG attractive targets for injection of novel therapeutics aimed at treating chronic pain. In small animal models, laminectomy has been used to facilitate DRG injection because it involves surgical removal of the vertebral bone surrounding each DRG. We demonstrate a technique for intraganglionic injection of lumbar DRG in a large animal species, namely, swine. Laminotomy is performed to allow direct access to DRG using standard neurosurgical techniques, instruments, and materials...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053673/a-chronic-cardiac-ischemia-model-in-swine-using-an-ameroid-constrictor
#17
Karen J Keeran, Kenneth R Jeffries, Arthur D Zetts, Joni Taylor, Shawn Kozlov, Timothy J Hunt
Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of mortality in the United States. There are numerous approaches to treating these diseases, but regardless of the approach, an in vivo model is needed to test each treatment. The pig is one of the most used large animal models for cardiovascular disease. Its heart is very similar in anatomy and function to that of a human. The ameroid placement technique creates an ischemic area of the heart, which has many useful applications in studying myocardial infarction...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053638/neuroprotective-surgical-strategies-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-preclinical-data
#18
REVIEW
Napoleon Torres, Jenny Molet, Cecile Moro, John Mitrofanis, Alim Louis Benabid
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053625/traditional-uses-origins-chemistry-and-pharmacology-of-bombyx-batryticatus-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Meibian Hu, Zhijie Yu, Jiaolong Wang, Wenxiang Fan, Yujie Liu, Jianghua Li, He Xiao, Yongchuan Li, Wei Peng, Chunjie Wu
Bombyx batryticatus (B. batryticatus), a well-known traditional animal Chinese medicine, has been commonly used in China for thousands of years. The present paper reviewed advances in traditional uses, origin, chemical constituents, pharmacology and toxicity studies of B. batryticatus. The aim of the paper is to provide more comprehensive references for modern B. batryticatus study and application. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) culture, drugs containing B. batryticatus have been used to treat convulsions, headaches, skin prurigo, scrofula, tonsillitis and fever...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053522/immediate-enhancement-of-nerve-function-using-a-novel-axonal-fusion-device-after-neurotmesis
#20
David Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Curt A Deister, Alonda C Pollins, Nancy L Cardwell, Nathaniel D Kelm, Mark D Does, Richard D Dortch, Ravinder Bamba, Robert Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: The management of peripheral nerve injuries remains a large challenge for plastic surgeons. With the inability to fuse axonal endings, results after microsurgical nerve repair have been inconsistent. Our current nerve repair strategies rely upon the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/d). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated as a potential axonal fusion agent; however, the percentage of axonal fusion has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify a PEG delivery device to standardize outcomes after attempted axonal fusion with PEG...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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