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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222506/synaptic-compensation-as-a-probable-cause-of-prolonged-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-from-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-the-disease
#1
Narjes Baazaoui, Michael Flory, Khalid Iqbal
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease in which cognitive decline takes place over a period of several years with a very variable period of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and, in some cases, relatively long period before progression to dementia. The cognitive deficit during MCI is probably due to neuronal loss, an intermediate level of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and synaptosis, which is interrupted with a transient compensatory increase. We found impairment in reference memory accompanied by a decrease in the expression of synaptophysin, β-III tubulin, and MAP2 and a trend for GluR1, at 12 weeks of age in 3xTg-AD mice (hAPPSwe, P301L tau, PS1 [M146V] knock-in), a widely used transgenic model of AD...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222466/cromolyn-sodium-attenuates-paraquat-induced-lung-injury-by-modulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#2
Amir Larki Harchegani, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi, Borhan Darabi, Somayeh Shabib
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Cromolyn Sodium (CS) on proinflammatory cytokines in Paraquat (PQ)-induced lung damage in rat. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 and 2 received nebulized vehicle and CS (8 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively. Group 3 was treated with single oral dose of PQ (40 mg/kg). Groups 4 and 5 were PQ groups which received nebulized CS (6 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively) from 1 week before to 2 weeks after PQ administration. Finally, the animals were scarified and the changes of hydroxyproline (HP) and histology were evaluated in lung tissue...
February 21, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222395/technetium-99m-radiolabeled-paclitaxel-as-an-imaging-probe-for-breast-cancer-in-vivo
#3
Liziane O F Monteiro, Renata S Fernandes, Luciano C Castro, Valbert N Cardoso, Mônica C Oliveira, Danyelle M Townsend, Alice Ferretti, Domenico Rubello, Elaine A Leite, André L B de Barros
The high incidence and mortality of breast cancer supports efforts to develop innovative imaging probes to effectively diagnose, evaluate the extent of the tumor, and predict the efficacy of tumor treatments while concurrently and selectively delivering anticancer agents to the cancer tissue. In the present study we described the preparation of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled paclitaxel (PTX) and evaluated its feasibility as a radiotracer for breast tumors (4T1) in BALB/c mice. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of (99m)Tc-PTX...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222393/caffeine-prevents-changes-in-muscle-caused-by-high-intensity-interval-training
#4
Juliano M Vieira, Jessié M Gutierres, Fabiano B Carvalho, Luciane B Pereira, Liziele S Oliveira, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Marília V Rodrigues, Jossiele Leitemperger, Vânia Loro, Cristina C Krewer, Marina S Vencato, Roselia M Spanevello
The use of ergogenic substances such as caffeine has become a strategy to enhance sports performance. In the present study we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with caffeine intake on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Ca(2+)ATPase activity and glycogen levels in the muscles of rats were evaluated. The animals were divided in groups: control, caffeine 4 or 8mg/kg, HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine 4 or caffeine 8mg/kg. Our results showed a decrease in glycogen levels in muscle in all trained groups after acute session exercise, while that an increase in glycogen levels was observed in all groups in relation to control in chronic exercise protocol...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222348/effects-of-bamboo-charcoal-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-chicken-manure-composting
#6
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222338/effect-of-synaptic-adhesion-like-molecule-3-on-epileptic-seizures-evidence-from-animal-models
#7
Jie Li, Ling Chen, Na Wang, Guohui Jiang, Yuqing Wu, Yi Zhang
Axonal sprouting and synaptic reorganization are the primary pathophysiological characteristics of epilepsy. Recent studies demonstrated that synaptic adhesion-like molecule 3 (SALM3) is highly expressed in the central nervous system and plays important roles in neurite outgrowth, branching, and axon guidance, mechanisms that are also observed in epilepsy. However, the expression of SALM3 in the epileptic brain and the effect of SALM3 in the pathogenesis of epilepsy remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate SALM3 expression in rat models of epilepsy and to explore the functional significance of SALM3 in epilepsy...
February 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222179/seed-and-peel-essential-oils-obtained-from-campomanesia-adamantium-fruit-inhibit-inflammatory-and-pain-parameters-in-rodents
#8
Danieli Zuntini Viscardi, Jucicléia da Silva Arrigo, Camila de Azevedo Chaves Correia, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Iriani Rodrigues Maldonade, Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as "gabiroba" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222167/emergence-and-development-of-gut-motility-in-the-chicken-embryo
#9
N R Chevalier, V Fleury, S Dufour, V Proux-Gillardeaux, A Asnacios
The gastrointestinal tract transports the food bolus by peristalsis. Gut motility starts at an early age in the developing embryo, well before it is required for nutrition of the organism. We present a comprehensive kinematic study of the emergence and physiological development of gut motility in all regions of the lower digestive tract of the chicken embryo from embryonic days E5 through E9. We characterized motility emergence time, propagation patterns, speed, frequency and amplitude of peristalsis waves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222163/investigating-human-geographic-origins-using-dual-isotope-87sr-86sr-%C3%AE-18o-assignment-approaches
#10
Jason E Laffoon, Till F Sonnemann, Termeh Shafie, Corinne L Hofman, Ulrik Brandes, Gareth R Davies
Substantial progress in the application of multiple isotope analyses has greatly improved the ability to identify nonlocal individuals amongst archaeological populations over the past decades. More recently the development of large scale models of spatial isotopic variation (isoscapes) has contributed to improved geographic assignments of human and animal origins. Persistent challenges remain, however, in the accurate identification of individual geographic origins from skeletal isotope data in studies of human (and animal) migration and provenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222143/antidepressive-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-ethanolic-extract-and-fruticuline-a-from-salvia-lachnostachys-benth-leaves-on-rodents
#11
Joyce Alencar Santos, Ana Claudia Piccinelli, Maira Dante Formagio, Cristhian Santos Oliveira, Elide Pereira Dos Santos, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Ubirajara Lanza Junior, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Mário Mateus Sugizaki, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. METHODS: In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222133/maternal-psychological-stress-induced-developmental-disability-neonatal-mortality-and-stillbirth-in-the-offspring-of-wistar-albino-rats
#12
Sakthivel Govindaraj, Annadurai Shanmuganathan, Ravindran Rajan
BACKGROUND: Stress is an inevitable part of life, and maternal stress during the gestational period has dramatic effects in the early programming of the physiology and behavior of offspring. The developmental period is crucial for the well-being of the offspring. Prenatal stress influences the developmental outcomes of the fetus, in part because the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to stress. The etiology of birth defects of the offspring is reported to be 30-40% genetic and 7-10% multifactorial, with the remaining 50% still unknown and also there is no clear cause for neonatal mortality and still-birth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222111/a-meta-analysis-of-the-abscopal-effect-in-preclinical-models-is-the-biologically-effective-dose-a-relevant-physical-trigger
#13
Raffaella Marconi, Silvia Strolin, Gianluca Bossi, Lidia Strigari
BACKGROUND: Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are considered crucial in translational cancer research and clinical implementation of novel treatments. This is of paramount relevance in radiobiology, especially for any technological developments permitted to deliver high doses in single or oligo-fractionated regimens, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). In this context, clinical success in cancer treatment needs to be guaranteed, sparing normal tissue and preventing the potential spread of disease or local recurrence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222110/different-antibiotic-growth-promoters-induce-specific-changes-in-the-cecal-microbiota-membership-of-broiler-chicken
#14
Marcio C Costa, Jose A Bessegatto, Amauri A Alfieri, J Scott Weese, João A B Filho, Alexandre Oba
Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222100/development-of-topical-ophthalmic-in-situ-gel-forming-estradiol-delivery-system-intended-for-the-prevention-of-age-related-cataracts
#15
Udaya K Kotreka, Vicki L Davis, Moji C Adeyeye
The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an ion-activated in situ gel-forming estradiol (E2) solution eye drops intended for the prevention of age-related cataracts. Accordingly, in situ gelling eye drops were made using gellan gum as an ion-activated gel-forming polymer, polysorbate-80 as drug solubilizing agent, mannitol as tonicity agent, and combination of potassium sorbate and edetate disodium dihydrate (EDTA) as preservatives. The formulations were tested for the following characteristics: pH, clarity, osmolality, antimicrobial efficacy, rheological behavior, and in vitro drug release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221964/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#16
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. Our objective was to develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. We conducted a consensus meeting with 17 experts in Mississauga, Canada. Experts completed a premeeting survey about whether items in the STROBE statement should be modified or added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare, or food safety outcomes...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221927/characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-pigs-and-farm-workers
#17
Hongna Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhai, Qing Li, Linghong Liu, Shuyuan Guo, Qimeng Li, Lingling Yang, Chaoqun Ye, Weishan Chang, Jing Zhai
Food-producing animals can serve as reservoirs for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli . The present study aimed to characterize and compare ESBL-carrying E. coli isolates from both pigs and farm workers. Rectal swabs were obtained from 60 pigs on four pig-fattening farms (15 samples per farm), and rectal swabs were taken from 40 farm workers on these farms (10 samples per farm). ESBL-carrying E. coli isolates from the workers and pigs were characterized by ESBL genotype, antibiotic susceptibility, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus type, and multilocus sequence type...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221926/evaluation-of-selected-nutrients-and-contaminants-in-distillers-grains-from-ethanol-production-in-texas
#18
Kyung-Min Lee, Timothy J Herrman, Lynn Post
This article contains the results of the evaluation of distillers grain (DG) coproducts from different ethanol plants around the United States and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between maize and sorghum coproducts, as well as wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry grind process stream on DG composition and quality...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221921/national-survey-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotypes-o26-o45-o103-o111-o121-o145-and-o157-in-australian-beef-cattle-feces
#19
Glen E Mellor, Narelle Fegan, Lesley L Duffy, Kate E McMILLAN, David Jordan, Robert S Barlow
Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, colloquially referred to as the "big 6") have been classified as adulterants of raw nonintact beef products in the United States. While beef cattle are a known reservoir for the prototype STEC serotype, E. coli O157, less is known about the dissemination of non-O157 STEC serotypes in Australian cattle. In the present study, 1,500 fecal samples were collected at slaughter from adult (n =628) and young (n =286) beef cattle, adult (n =128) and young (n =143) dairy cattle, and veal calves (n = 315) across 31 Australian export-registered processing establishments...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221920/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-foods-of-animal-origin-turkey
#20
Belgin Siiriken, Tuba Yildirim, Akif Koray Güney, Irfan Erol, Belma Durupinar
In the present study, 175 coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolates recovered from samples of beef (n = 110), raw milk n = 56), and fish (n = 9) were analyzed for methicillin resistance using MIC and PCR assays. Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates were then characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). According to findings, 62 (35.4%) of the isolates (44 from beef, 9 from milk, and 9 from fish) were identified as S. aureus based on the presence of the nuc gene...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
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