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Gareth E Ross, Kerensa Hocken, Jonathan M Auty
Adaptive functioning (AF) has been overlooked in the assessment of intellectual disability within the UK Prison Service, primarily because there are no reliable and valid measures of AF suitable for use with prison populations. This position is incompatible with the obligation of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service to provide specialist interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Adaptive Functioning Assessment Tool (AFAT), a new measure of AF developed for use in prisons...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
Jack Tomlin, Peter Bartlett, Birgit Völlm
Mentally disordered offenders may be sent to secure psychiatric hospitals. These settings can resemble carceral spaces, employing high levels of security restricting resident autonomy, expression and social interaction. However, research exploring the restrictiveness of forensic settings is sparse. A systematic review was therefore undertaken to conceptualize this restrictiveness. Eight databases were searched for papers that address restrictive elements of secure forensic care in a non-cursory way. Fifty sources (empirical articles and policy documents) were included and subject to thematic analysis to identify 1) antecedent conditions to, 2) characteristic attributes, 3) consequences and 4) 'deviant' cases of the developing concept...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
D R Purohit, Ankit Awasthi, G D Koolwal, Sanjay Gehlot, Surender Kumar
Since 1979, consistent and untiring efforts of Dr. D.R. Purohit, Dr. Mahaveer Chand Jain and Dr. G. D. Koolwal against the odds have brought remarkable changes in the Psychiatric centre, Jodhpur.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Suprakash Chaudhury, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Subhas Soren
Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS; Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital; Ranchi Manasik Aryogyashala) traces its origin from a lunatic asylum for Indian soldiers established at Munghyr in Bihar in 1795 and thus is the first mental hospital in India established by the British purely for Indian patients as well as the second oldest functioning mental hospital in India. The hospital made great strides in improving patients care and using modern methods of assessment and treatment as well as education and research during the tenure of Dr J E Dhunjibhoy the first Indian medical superintendent...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
O Somasundaram, Ponnudurai Ratnaraj
Period of Custodial Care Only: The magnificent "Institute of Mental Health" has its history almost from 1795 when the East India company appointed Surgeon Valentine Conolly to be in charge of a "House for accommodating persons of unsound mind." After a few transitions, backed by a government order for the construction of a lunatic asylum in a 66 1/2 acre site, the asylum started functioning from 1871. The period of about six decades from its inception could be referred to as "the period of custodial care...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn E Cherry, Claudia Campbell, Elise Trombetta
Complex trauma exposure has been defined as multiple or chronic interpersonal trauma that begins early in life, which leads to widespread dysregulation. Previous studies have reported that minorities may be at greater risk for trauma exposure and symptoms; yet, racial differences have not been investigated in the context of complex trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if there are racial disparities in children's trauma exposure and outcomes among 167 child survivors of complex trauma (3-18 years, M = 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abhishek Pandey, Kerry Littlewood, Larry Cooper, Julie McCrae, Michelle Rosenthal, Angelique Day, Liliana Hernandez
Custodial grandparenting can be especially challenging for older grandmothers facing age specific issues. Kinship navigator programs are social service delivery programs intended to inform grandparents and other relatives raising children about available resources and services, provide information specific to their individual needs, and help families navigate service systems. Our study utilizes self-report data from one kinship navigator federal demonstration project, which used a randomized control trial, to examine demographic characteristics for grandmothers under and over 55 years of age, whether grandmother caregivers (≥55 years) improve family resilience, social support, and caregiver self-efficacy, and which interventions improved outcomes for grandmothers (≥55 years)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Women & Aging
W Huw Williams, Prathiba Chitsabesan, Seena Fazel, Tom McMillan, Nathan Hughes, Michael Parsonage, James Tonks
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the biggest cause of death and disability in children and young people. TBI compromises important neurological functions for self-regulation and social behaviour and increases risk of behavioural disorder and psychiatric morbidity. Crime in young people is a major social issue. So-called early starters often continue for a lifetime. A substantial majority of young offenders are reconvicted soon after release. Multiple factors play a role in crime. We show how TBI is a risk factor for earlier, more violent, offending...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Brigitte Ramsauer, Sandra Achtergarde
BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum psychoses pose a serious risk to the mother-infant interaction. It is unclear how different subtypes of postpartum psychosis, including acute and chronic, might differentially affect the mother-infant interaction. METHOD: A systematic search of electronic journal databases was performed. RESULTS: This systematic review yielded 17 studies with adequate overall study quality. They focused on child custody and involvement of social services as indirect indicators of the mother-infant interaction, observed mother-infant interactions as direct indicators, or potential transitional mechanisms, including memory processing, mind-mindedness, and affect recognition, that may partially explain the effects of psychotic disorders...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Gianmarco Latte, Livia Avvisati, Sara Calandro, Carmela Di Filippo, Monica Di Genio, Giovanna Di Iorio, Valentina Gilardi, Sara Giordano, Antonio Maria Pagano
AIMS: Managing health care for people suffering from mental illness is undergoing deep changes in recent years in Italy. The purpose of this study is to describe the progressive process of overcoming the Forensic Hospitals in Italy (OPGs) and to identify the necessary care and rehabilitation pathways in this process, in the experience of the territorial health service in Salerno, Italy. METHODS: An analysis of the recent laws related to the ongoing process and an analysis of epidemiological and structural data referring to the time interval between 2010 and 2017 concerning the OPGs/Residential Services for the Execution of Security Measures (RSESM)/Mental Health System in Campania, Italy and in the territory of Salerno in particular...
January 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
Samson J Schatz
False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing...
February 2018: Stanford Law Review
Charles Herbert Lea Iii, Theodore K Gideonse, Nina T Harawa
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use secondary data from qualitative interviews that examined the sexual behaviors, HIV attitudes, and condom use of 17 gay, bisexual, and transgender women housed in a protective custody unit in the Los Angeles County Jail (Harawa et al., 2010), to develop a better understanding of the consensual sexual behaviors of male prisoners. Design/methodology/approach Study eligibility included: report anal or oral sex with another male in the prior six months; speak and understand English; and incarcerated in the unit for at least two weeks...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Anna Banerji, Chandrakant Shah
Background: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can have a disproportionate impact in some Indigenous communities, there is a paucity of literature on its epidemiology. Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of Indigenous individuals under the age of 18 years who were diagnosed with FASD at Anishnawbe Health Toronto over a 10-year period. Methods: Children who were assessed at Anishnawbe Health Toronto from 2002 to 2012 and met the 2005 criteria for FASD were included...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Lidón Villanueva, Keren Cuervo
This study aimed to examine the impact of the educational measure of confinement in juvenile detention center versus probation, on adult recidivism. Participants were 264 youths with a disciplinary record in the Juvenile Court ( M = 16.5), who were sentenced to custody in a juvenile closed detention center or to probation. The risk levels were assessed using the YLS/CMI Inventory (Youth Level of Service/Case Management). A follow-up period for studying these two groups into adulthood was carried out to register possible adult recidivism...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Jennifer Nazareno
The U.S. government has a long tradition of providing direct care services to many of its most vulnerable citizens through market-based solutions and subsidized private entities. The privatized welfare state has led to the continued displacement of some of our most disenfranchised groups in need of long-term care. Situated after the U.S. deinstitutionalization era, this is the first study to examine how immigrant Filipino women emerged as owners of de facto mental health care facilities that cater to the displaced, impoverished, severely mentally ill population...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci, Kristine M Nacion, Karen Leonhart, Jennifer N Cooper, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Kelly J Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. METHODS: The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures...
February 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
B Ludes, A Geraut, M Väli, D Cusack, D Ferrara, E Keller, P Mangin, D N Vieira
Sexual assault is a complex situation with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Forensic experts play a major role in terms of forensic and gynecological medical examination and evidence collection in order to maintain the chain of custody. Victims should be examined by a specially trained medico-legal examiner in order to avoid multiple examinations in the surroundings that do not meet minimum health standards. The evolution and treatment of sexual assault victims are time-intensive and should optimally be provided by a team that includes a forensic medical doctor...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lorraine Steefel
Correctional nursing practice is focused on a unique patient population: inmates who present with their own ethnicities and have an imposed culture from the prison structure. As such, culture must be considered to provide holistic care. Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, which maintains that care is the essence of nursing (without inclusion of culture, there is no care), suggests three nursing actions: to maintain the patient's culture, make accommodations for it, and/or repattern cultural ways that may be unhealthful...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Stuart A Kinner, Kathryn Snow, Andrea L Wirtz, Frederick L Altice, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years)...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Eileen M Ahlin
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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