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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511571/brain-injury-and-offending-the-development-and-field-testing-of-a-linkworker-intervention
#1
Sara D S Ramos, Michael Oddy, James Liddement, Deborah Fortescue
Evidence suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is more prevalent amongst offender populations than in the general population, and that it can lead to aggressive behaviour while in custody and impair engagement with offender rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a brain injury Linkworker approach designed to support prisoners who report a significant TBI or multiple mild TBIs. Three clinical case examples are reported to illustrate the conceptual foundations of the approach and to demonstrate the feasibility of the service...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#2
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493270/public-health-alternatives-to-incarceration-for-drug-offenders
#3
REVIEW
Nicholas Clark, Kate Dolan, David Farabee
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476272/factors-associated-with-ongoing-criminal-engagement-while-in-opioid-maintenance-treatment
#4
Marianne Riksheim Stavseth, Jo Røislien, Anne Bukten, Thomas Clausen
INTRODUCTION: This study examines factors associated with criminal engagement among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). METHODS: Questionnaire data recorded annually among 5654 patients in the Norwegian OMT programme between 2005 and 2010 from seven regional treatment centres were available for analyses. Each patient answered approximately 4 times (mean: 4.11, SD: 1.46) generating a total of 18,538 questionnaires. The outcome variable of the study, engagement in criminal activity, was defined as whether a patient had been arrested, put in custody, been charged and/or convicted of a crime within the last 12months prior to the completion of the questionnaire...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459264/a-room-with-a-view-setting-influences-information-disclosure-in-investigative-interviews
#5
Evan Dawson, Maria Hartwig, Laure Brimbal, Philipp Denisenkov
Research on embodied cognition and priming show that human behavior is influenced nonconsciously by the environment in metaphoric ways. Previous research has shown that conceptual priming can lead people to disclose sensitive information (Davis, Soref, Villalobos, & Mikulincer, 2016; Dawson, Hartwig, & Brimbal, 2015). Here, we sought to examine whether concepts of openness can be activated to promote disclosure within the interview itself, through the physical setting. In two laboratory studies, participants were exposed to details of a mock environmental terrorism conspiracy through a courier task, which they were subsequently interviewed about in different settings...
May 1, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454628/accessible-biometrics-a-frustrated-total-internal-reflection-approach-to-imaging-fingerprints
#6
Nathan D Smith, James S Sharp
Fingerprints are widely used as a means of identifying persons of interest because of the highly individual nature of the spatial distribution and types of features (or minuta) found on the surface of a finger. This individuality has led to their wide application in the comparison of fingerprints found at crime scenes with those taken from known offenders and suspects in custody. However, despite recent advances in machine vision technology and image processing techniques, fingerprint evidence is still widely being collected using outdated practices involving ink and paper - a process that can be both time consuming and expensive...
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449670/ethics-of-health-research-with-prisoners-in-canada
#7
Diego S Silva, Flora I Matheson, James V Lavery
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing recognition for the need to improve the health of prisoners in Canada and the need for health research, there has been little discussion of the ethical issues with regards to health research with prisoners in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to encourage a national conversation about what it means to conduct ethically sound health research with prisoners given the current realities of the Canadian system. Lessons from the Canadian system could presumably apply in other jurisdictions...
April 27, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421572/-suicidal-behaviour-among-prisoners-prevalence-and-association-with-psychological-distress-in-flemish-prisons
#8
L Favril, F Vander Laenen, K Audenaert
BACKGROUND: Internationally, the prevalence of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicide plan and attempted suicide) is significantly elevated among prisoners compared to the community at large. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among prisoners in the Flanders region of Belgium, to identify differences according to gender and custodial status, and to examine the association of recent suicidal ideation and suicide plan with psychological distress...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408047/psychology-and-psychiatry-in-singapore-courts-a-baseline-survey-of-the-mental-health-landscape-in-the-legal-arena
#9
Kenji Gwee
Despite the increasing prevalence and involvement of mental health professionals in local courts, there has been no systematic study of the role played by these expert witnesses in Singapore courtrooms. An empirical study of all existing recorded cases on Lawnet (Singapore's legal database of all court trial cases) from 1975-2014 involving psychologists and psychiatrists was conducted. Results revealed that, not only were these mental health experts increasingly dotting the landscape of the legal arena, the variety of their contributions has also been gradually growing...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407212/reduced-healthcare-use-and-apparent-savings-with-passive-home-monitoring-technology-a-pilot-study
#10
Michael Finch, Kristen Griffin, James T Pacala
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cost analysis of ambient assisted living technology, which is promising for improving the ability of individuals and care providers to monitor daily activities and gain better awareness through proactive management of health and safety. DESIGN: Three-arm cohort study. SETTING: Homes of enrollees of a state-based healthcare plan for older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Enrollees dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid (N = 268)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400127/community-residential-facilities-in-mental-health-services-a-ten-year-comparison-in-lombardy
#11
Angelo Barbato, Graziella Civenti, Barbara D'Avanzo
Residential mental health services grew steadily since 2000 in Italy. A reorganisation of residential facilities was implemented in 2007 in Lombardy, introducing supported housing in addition to staffed facilities. We compare the provision and characteristics of residential facilities in the 2007 and 2016. In 2007 there were 3462 beds (35.9/100,000 population) in 276 facilities. In 2016 beds were 4783 (47.8/100,000) in 520 facilities. The increase were unevenly distributed in the public and private sector, and the overall increase was due to a higher increase in the private sector...
March 27, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398690/use-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-young-people-entering-custody-in-new-south-wales-australia
#12
Leigh Haysom, Dianne Lawrence, Donna Mellish, Peter Burns, Pariza Khale, Ariana Arulampalam, Catherine Stapylton
AIM: To describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence and acceptance of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in young people entering custody, where smoking is not allowed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 2013. SETTING: All New South Wales Juvenile Justice Centres. PARTICIPANTS: Incarcerated youth, aged 12-21 years. MAIN EXPOSURES: gender, age, ethnicity, cannabis use. MAIN OUTCOMES: rates of smoking, cannabis use, nicotine dependence, NRT acceptance...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387976/physical-punishment-sanctioned-violence-against-children
#13
David Forbes
Australian society continues to support physical punishment of children and is currently conducting a Royal Commission unto violence against children in custody. By contrast, New Zealand has banned physical punishment of children. Australian society needs to address this issue.
May 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386991/how-inter-and-intramolecular-reactions-dominate-formation-of-products-in-lignin-pyrolysis
#14
Victoria B F Custodis, Patrick Hemberger, Jeroen A van Bokhoven
One of the key challenges in renewable chemical production is the conversion of lignin, especially by fast pyrolysis. The complexity of the lignin pyrolysis process has prevented the identification of the mechanism, inhibiting further industrial implementation. By combining pyrolysis of model compounds (4-phenoxyphenol and 2-methoxy-phenoxybenzene) with bonds characteristic of lignin under vacuum and realistic pressure conditions, the roles of inter- and intramolecular reactions were established. On the one hand the stable 4-O-5 ether bond enables, without breaking, C-C bond formation within diphenyl ethers and even directly forms naphthalene depending on the position and type of the substituent...
April 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386585/comprehensive-histological-and-immunochemical-forensic-studies-in-deaths-occurring-in-custody
#15
REVIEW
Kenneth Nugent, Menfil A Orellana-Barrios, Dolores Buscemi
In-custody deaths have several causes, and these include homicide, suicide, natural death from chronic diseases, and unexplained death possibly related to acute stress, asphyxia, excited delirium, and drug intoxication. In some instances, these deaths are attributed to undefined accidents and natural causes even though there is no obvious natural cause apparent after investigation. Understanding these deaths requires a comprehensive investigation, including documentation of circumstances surrounding the death, review of past medical history, drug and toxicology screens, and a forensic autopsy...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379927/grandparents-raising-grandchildren-a-primer-for-pediatricians
#16
William Ge, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide clinicians with a review of key considerations relating to the physical and behavioral well-being of children raised by their grandparents. RECENT FINDINGS: As the number of children being raised by their grandparents in the United States steadily increases, the needs of these families require greater attention. These children and their custodial grandparents face unique health, social, legal, and financial challenges. Children being raised by their grandparents are at higher risk for developmental and behavioral problems because of prior or current adverse family environments...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364642/in-custody-deaths-of-men-related-to-mental-illness-and-substance-use-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-administrative-records-in-ontario-canada
#17
Adam D Vaughan, Denise M Zabkiewicz, Simon N Verdun-Jones
Highly publicized incidents of in-custody deaths have drawn attention to the well-being of individuals who are held in custodial settings and have contributed to questions surrounding the role played by mental illness and substance use. The data for this descriptive study consist of administrative records from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. Section 10(4) jury verdicts filed from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2010 were drawn for analysis. The final sample includes 478 males who died while in custody...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363132/separate-and-unequal-structural-racism-and-infant-mortality-in-the-us
#18
Maeve Wallace, Joia Crear-Perry, Lisa Richardson, Meshawn Tarver, Katherine Theall
We examined associations between state-level measures of structural racism and infant mortality among black and white populations across the US. Overall and race-specific infant mortality rates in each state were calculated from national linked birth and infant death records from 2010 to 2013. Structural racism in each state was characterized by racial inequity (ratio of black to white population estimates) in educational attainment, median household income, employment, imprisonment, and juvenile custody. Poisson regression with robust standard errors estimated infant mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with an IQR increase in indicators of structural racism overall and separately within black and white populations...
May 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348631/optic-neuropathy-as-the-initial-presenting-sign-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis
#19
Mark Mugavin, Brett H Mueller, Masoom Desai, Karl C Golnik
A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325062/personal-experiences-of-the-criminal-justice-system-by-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Patricia Howlin
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the defence and their experiences of being in prison and/or life following the offence. The nine individuals described a range of different and often negative experiences with the Criminal Justice System...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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