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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421572/-suicidal-behaviour-among-prisoners-prevalence-and-association-with-psychological-distress-in-flemish-prisons
#1
L Favril, F Vander Laenen, K Audenaert
BACKGROUND: Internationally, the prevalence of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicide plan and attempted suicide) is significantly elevated among prisoners compared to the community at large. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among prisoners in the Flanders region of Belgium, to identify differences according to gender and custodial status, and to examine the association of recent suicidal ideation and suicide plan with psychological distress...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408047/psychology-and-psychiatry-in-singapore-courts-a-baseline-survey-of-the-mental-health-landscape-in-the-legal-arena
#2
Kenji Gwee
Despite the increasing prevalence and involvement of mental health professionals in local courts, there has been no systematic study of the role played by these expert witnesses in Singapore courtrooms. An empirical study of all existing recorded cases on Lawnet (Singapore's legal database of all court trial cases) from 1975-2014 involving psychologists and psychiatrists was conducted. Results revealed that, not only were these mental health experts increasingly dotting the landscape of the legal arena, the variety of their contributions has also been gradually growing...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407212/reduced-healthcare-use-and-apparent-savings-with-passive-home-monitoring-technology-a-pilot-study
#3
Michael Finch, Kristen Griffin, James T Pacala
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cost analysis of ambient assisted living technology, which is promising for improving the ability of individuals and care providers to monitor daily activities and gain better awareness through proactive management of health and safety. DESIGN: Three-arm cohort study. SETTING: Homes of enrollees of a state-based healthcare plan for older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Enrollees dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid (N = 268)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400127/community-residential-facilities-in-mental-health-services-a-ten-year-comparison-in-lombardy
#4
Angelo Barbato, Graziella Civenti, Barbara D'Avanzo
Residential mental health services grew steadily since 2000 in Italy. A reorganisation of residential facilities was implemented in 2007 in Lombardy, introducing supported housing in addition to staffed facilities. We compare the provision and characteristics of residential facilities in the 2007 and 2016. In 2007 there were 3462 beds (35.9/100,000 population) in 276 facilities. In 2016 beds were 4783 (47.8/100,000) in 520 facilities. The increase were unevenly distributed in the public and private sector, and the overall increase was due to a higher increase in the private sector...
March 27, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398690/use-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-young-people-entering-custody-in-new-south-wales-australia
#5
Leigh Haysom, Dianne Lawrence, Donna Mellish, Peter Burns, Pariza Khale, Ariana Arulampalam, Catherine Stapylton
AIM: To describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence and acceptance of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in young people entering custody, where smoking is not allowed. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 2013. SETTING: All New South Wales Juvenile Justice Centres. PARTICIPANTS: Incarcerated youth, aged 12-21 years. MAIN EXPOSURES: gender, age, ethnicity, cannabis use. MAIN OUTCOMES: rates of smoking, cannabis use, nicotine dependence, NRT acceptance...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387976/physical-punishment-sanctioned-violence-against-children
#6
David Forbes
Australian society continues to support physical punishment of children and is currently conducting a Royal Commission unto violence against children in custody. By contrast, New Zealand has banned physical punishment of children. Australian society needs to address this issue.
April 7, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386991/how-inter-and-intramolecular-reactions-dominate-formation-of-products-in-lignin-pyrolysis
#7
Victoria B F Custodis, Patrick Hemberger, Jeroen A van Bokhoven
One of the key challenges in renewable chemical production is the conversion of lignin, especially by fast pyrolysis. The complexity of the lignin pyrolysis process has prevented the identification of the mechanism, inhibiting further industrial implementation. By combining pyrolysis of model compounds (4-phenoxyphenol and 2-methoxy-phenoxybenzene) with bonds characteristic of lignin under vacuum and realistic pressure conditions, the roles of inter- and intramolecular reactions were established. On the one hand the stable 4-O-5 ether bond enables, without breaking, C-C bond formation within diphenyl ethers and even directly forms naphthalene depending on the position and type of the substituent...
April 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386585/comprehensive-histological-and-immunochemical-forensic-studies-in-deaths-occurring-in-custody
#8
REVIEW
Kenneth Nugent, Menfil A Orellana-Barrios, Dolores Buscemi
In-custody deaths have several causes, and these include homicide, suicide, natural death from chronic diseases, and unexplained death possibly related to acute stress, asphyxia, excited delirium, and drug intoxication. In some instances, these deaths are attributed to undefined accidents and natural causes even though there is no obvious natural cause apparent after investigation. Understanding these deaths requires a comprehensive investigation, including documentation of circumstances surrounding the death, review of past medical history, drug and toxicology screens, and a forensic autopsy...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379927/grandparents-raising-grandchildren-a-primer-for-pediatricians
#9
William Ge, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide clinicians with a review of key considerations relating to the physical and behavioral well-being of children raised by their grandparents. RECENT FINDINGS: As the number of children being raised by their grandparents in the United States steadily increases, the needs of these families require greater attention. These children and their custodial grandparents face unique health, social, legal, and financial challenges. Children being raised by their grandparents are at higher risk for developmental and behavioral problems because of prior or current adverse family environments...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364642/in-custody-deaths-of-men-related-to-mental-illness-and-substance-use-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-administrative-records-in-ontario-canada
#10
Adam D Vaughan, Denise M Zabkiewicz, Simon N Verdun-Jones
Highly publicized incidents of in-custody deaths have drawn attention to the well-being of individuals who are held in custodial settings and have contributed to questions surrounding the role played by mental illness and substance use. The data for this descriptive study consist of administrative records from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. Section 10(4) jury verdicts filed from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2010 were drawn for analysis. The final sample includes 478 males who died while in custody...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363132/separate-and-unequal-structural-racism-and-infant-mortality-in-the-us
#11
Maeve Wallace, Joia Crear-Perry, Lisa Richardson, Meshawn Tarver, Katherine Theall
We examined associations between state-level measures of structural racism and infant mortality among black and white populations across the US. Overall and race-specific infant mortality rates in each state were calculated from national linked birth and infant death records from 2010 to 2013. Structural racism in each state was characterized by racial inequity (ratio of black to white population estimates) in educational attainment, median household income, employment, imprisonment, and juvenile custody. Poisson regression with robust standard errors estimated infant mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with an IQR increase in indicators of structural racism overall and separately within black and white populations...
March 28, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348631/optic-neuropathy-as-the-initial-presenting-sign-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis
#12
Mark Mugavin, Brett H Mueller, Masoom Desai, Karl C Golnik
A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325062/personal-experiences-of-the-criminal-justice-system-by-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Patricia Howlin
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the defence and their experiences of being in prison and/or life following the offence. The nine individuals described a range of different and often negative experiences with the Criminal Justice System...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301697/managing-opioid-withdrawal-for-hospital-patients-in-custody
#14
Connie R Shi, Manjinder S Kandola, Matthew Tobey, Elizabeth Singer
Dr. Brown, a hospitalist, admits Mark, a patient transferred from a local jail for management of cellulitis. The patient, who was taken into custody two days prior to hospital admission, has a history of intravenous heroin use. Mark explains that he had been prescribed buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance therapy for opioid use disorder for several years prior to being arrested and had not used other opioids during that time. As a policy, the jail where Mark is detained does not prescribe opioid agonists, and his maintenance therapy was stopped upon his arrival there...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299966/family-planning-services-for-incarcerated-women-models-for-filling-an-unmet-need
#15
Carolyn Sufrin, Sara Baird, Jennifer Clarke, Elizabeth Feldman
Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296521/speech-language-pathology-intervention-in-a-youth-justice-setting-benefits-perceived-by-staff-extend-beyond-communication
#16
Pamela C Snow, Kerryn Bagley, Donna White
PURPOSE: Young people in youth justice (YJ) settings face high-risk for unidentified language disorder, however, speech-language pathology (SLP) services are not routinely offered in such settings. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions and experiences of YJ staff in a custodial centre of the utility of having a speech-language pathologist working with young offenders. METHOD: Following a SLP intervention trial, two staff focus groups were conducted by an independent SLP...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289140/detention-of-immigrant-children
#17
Julie M Linton, Marsha Griffin, Alan J Shapiro
Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them...
March 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240035/endoscopic-removal-of-a-hashish-packet
#18
Aurora Burgos García, Consuelo Froilán Torres, Mariana Tavecchia
Illicit drug trafficking within the body ("body packers") represents a medical-legal problem currently on the rise. Endoscopic removal of drug packets is not generally recommended because of the risk of packet rupture and subsequent overdose on the spilled substance. A 40-year-old male presented with abdominal pain and diaphoresis following the ingestion of 30 g of hashish as a means of illegal trafficking, remaining in police custody during his hospital stay.
February 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236512/timing-matters-a-randomized-control-trial-of-recovery-coaches-in-foster-care
#19
Joseph P Ryan, Brian E Perron, Andrew Moore, Bryan G Victor, Kune Park
Substance use disorders are a major problem for child welfare systems. The abuse of and dependence on alcohol and drugs by parents increases the risk of child maltreatment and interferes with efforts to locate a permanent home for children in foster care. The current study focuses on an intervention designed to increase the probability of reunification for foster children associated with substance using families. We focus specific attention on the timing of the intervention, in particular the timing of comprehensive screening and access to substance abuse services in relation to the temporary custody hearing...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225780/cancer-prevalence-incidence-and-mortality-in-people-who-experience-incarceration-in-ontario-canada-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, Lucie Pivnick, Kathryn E McIsaac, Andrew S Wilton, Aisha Lofters, Stephen W Hwang
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that many risk factors for cancer are overrepresented in people who experience incarceration, and data on cancer epidemiology are limited for this population. We aimed to describe cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, Canada in 2000. METHODS: We linked data on 48,166 adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with Ontario Cancer Registry data to 2012. We calculated cancer prevalence in the 10 years prior to admission to custody in 2000, incidence between 2000 and 2012 and mortality between 2000 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
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