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Parental attunement

Jelle Knop, Marian Joëls, Rixt van der Veen
Over the past decades, the influence of parental care on offspring development has been a topic of extensive research in both human and animal models. Rodent models offer several unique advantages over human studies, allowing for higher levels of environmental control, exploration of interventions, genetic control and examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms in greater spatiotemporal detail. Although exploitation of these opportunities has led to increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying susceptibility to the early-life environment, translation of results to human parenting and child development appears to be challenging...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Roger Kobak, Caroline Abbott, Abigail Zisk, Nadia Bounoua
Changes in adolescents' motivations and capabilities pose unique challenges to parents who play a continuing role in ensuring the youth's safety and well-being. We describe sensitively attuned parenting as an optimal response to this challenge and summarize practices of positive engagement, supervision/guidance and open communication that support sensitive attunement and facilitate the continuing development of the adolescent's self-confidence, autonomous decision-making, and communication skills. We then consider factors that require parents to adapt their practices to the particular needs and developmental level of the adolescent...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Darby E Saxbe, Ofer Golan, Sharon Ostfeld-Etzion, Yael Hirschler-Guttenberg, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Families of preschoolers participated in two dyadic home visits, once with mother (56 dyads) and once with father (59 dyads). Each member of the dyad provided three cortisol samples and participated in several interaction tasks that were behaviorally coded. Approximately half of the children had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), whereas half were typically developing (TD). In a multilevel model, father's cortisol level at each timepoint predicted child cortisol. Father-child linkage was stronger in dyads that showed less reciprocity, in which fathers showed less sensitivity, and in which children showed less self-regulation and more withdrawal...
September 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
Cristina Colonnesi, Marleen van Polanen, Louis W C Tavecchio, Ruben G Fukkink
Mind-mindedness refers to the caregiver's ability to be attuned to the child's mental states. Within the parent-child relationship, mind-mindedness relates to parents' sensitive caregiving, and to children's secure attachment. However, the same relations are still unexplored in out-of-home care settings. We investigated the associations between childcare professionals' mind-mindedness, sensitive responsiveness and respect for autonomy, and child-caregiver attachment security. Moreover, we examined whether these relations are influenced by caregivers' and children's gender...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
Roslyn Malcolm, Stefan Ecks, Martyn Pickersgill
Experiences of autism-spectrum disorder are now increasingly studied by social scientists. Human-animal relations have also become a major focus of social inquiry in recent years. Examining horse-assisted therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, this is the first paper that brings these fields together. Drawing on participant observation and interviews at a UK horse therapy Centre, this article examines how staff and the parents of riders account for the successes and limitations of equine therapy. To the respondents, horses 'open up' autistic children and make possible interactions that seemed impossible before...
May 17, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
Courtney Addison, Jesper Lassen
What and where is ethics in gene therapy? Historical debates have identified a set of ethical issues with the field, and current regulatory systems presume a discrete ethics that can be achieved or protected. Resisting attempts at demarcation or resolution, we use the notions of "ordinary" or "everyday" ethics to develop a better understanding of the complexities of experimental gene therapy for patients, families, and practitioners and create richer imaginings of ethics in the gene therapy sphere. Drawing on ethnographic research in several clinical trials, we show that patients/parents can acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients' needs...
May 11, 2017: Medical Anthropology
Hilary Kennedy, Kevin Ball, Jane Barlow
This article describes the contribution of video interaction guidance (VIG) to the development of infant and parental and VIG practitioners' mental health and well-being. The theoretical core of VIG was depicted in terms of concepts such as intersubjectivity, attunement and mediated learning. The way the VIG principles alongside the underpinning values and beliefs promote a process of attunement between parent and infant, the VIG practitioner and parent, and the VIG practitioner and supervisor is described...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Deborah Coolhart, Daran L Shipman
Families of transgender and gender-nonconforming youth often seek therapy for assistance in understanding, accepting, and supporting their child. This article describes a gender-affirmative approach to family therapy and outlines strategies for addressing common challenges faced by the families of transgender and gender-nonconforming youth. Therapy begins by assessing family attunement and working with parents, siblings, and other family members to better support the youth. Once family attunement is achieved, therapy can begin to explore options for gender expression and/or transition...
March 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
An Hooghe, Paul C Rosenblatt, Peter Rober
Within Western cultural traditions, the idea that parents should talk about the death of their child with each other is deeply rooted. However, across bereaved parent couples there are wide variations in communication about their grief with each other. In this study, we explored the experiences of bereaved couples related to the process of talking and not talking. We used a thematic coding approach to analyze 20 interviews with 26 bereaved parents (11 interviewed as couples, four as individuals). Four main meanings emerged out of our analysis: not talking because of the inadequacy and pointlessness of words in grief, not talking as a way to regulate emotions in daily life, not talking as an expression of a personal, intimate process, and not talking because the partner has the same loss but a different grief process...
January 5, 2017: Family Process
Mariana Pereira
Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social experience while the reciprocal relationship between the mother and her infant forms and develops. These alterations account for the remarkable behavioral plasticity of mothers...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Betty Davies, Rose Steele, Guenther Krueger, Susan Albersheim, Jennifer Baird, Michelle Bifirie, Susan Cadell, Gweneth Doane, Deepshikha Garga, Harold Siden, Caron Strahlendorf, Yuan Zhao
In this 3-year prospective grounded theory study in three pediatric settings, we aimed to develop a conceptualization of best practice health care providers (BPHCPs) in interaction with parents of children with complex, chronic, life-threatening conditions. Analysis of semistructured interviews with 34 parents and 80 health care professionals (HCPs) and 88 observation periods of HCP/parent interactions indicated that BPHCPs shared a broad worldview; values of equity, family-centered care, and integrity; and a commitment to authentic engagement...
February 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Rehana Capurchande, Gily Coene, Ingrid Schockaert, Manuel Macia, Herman Meulemans
BACKGROUND: By focusing upon formal sex education programmes, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of adolescents and young adults. However, when it comes to contraception, little is known about how adolescents and young adults actually behave. METHODS: Based upon a qualitative study in two settings in Maputo province - Ndlavela and Boane - this paper explores the knowledge and practices of contraception among adolescents and young adults...
July 30, 2016: BMC Women's Health
Kishani Townshend
OBJECTIVE: Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes...
June 27, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Lotte Krabbenborg, L E L M Vissers, J Schieving, T Kleefstra, E J Kamsteeg, J A Veltman, M A Willemsen, S Van der Burg
The use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnostics of children with rare genetic diseases raises questions about best practices in genetic counselling. While a lot of attention is now given to pre-test counselling procedures for WES, little is known about how parents experience the (positive, negative, or inconclusive) WES results in daily life. To fill this knowledge gap, data were gathered through in-depth interviews with parents of 15 children who underwent WES analysis. WES test results, like results from other genetic tests, evoked relief as well as worries, irrespective of the type of result...
December 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Tracy E Moran, Joshua R Polanin, Amber L Evenson, Beth R Troutman, Christina L Franklin
Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations...
May 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Kelly Stone, Cheryl Burgess
The 'A Good Start' programme is a universal early attachment programme for parents and babies aged 8 weeks and over, run by a charitable organization in one Scottish local authority. The programme offers non-stigmatizing support and parents are encouraged to access other community resources on completing it. At a family level, the programme aims are that parents (i) have an increased feeling of well-being; (ii) are more attuned to their babies and (iii) are more aware of services and confident in becoming involved with them...
April 12, 2016: Health Promotion International
Orla O'Connell, Sarah Meaney, Keelin O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Many bereavement practices have become standard within maternity hospitals however little published evidence is available to confirm their benefit. We wanted to establish which aspects of care are valued, which could be improved and which, if any, cause distress. METHODS: This study aimed to survey parents who experienced stillbirth in a tertiary referral centre. There were seven question areas including receiving bad news, involvement of the multidisciplinary team, facilitation to grieve and have time with baby, autopsy communication process, post-discharge support and the importance parents placed on aspects of care...
August 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants than do men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Yael Apter-Levi, Maayan Pratt, Adam Vakart, Michal Feldman, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms...
February 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Danielle N Shapiro, Jennifer Waljee, Kavitha Ranganathan, Steven Buchman, Seth Warschausky
BACKGROUND: Although children with craniofacial anomalies appear to have relatively high self-esteem, research has identified gender differences in psychosocial outcomes, including self-concept, suggesting that girls with craniofacial anomalies may be at an increased risk. In addition, though parents make important medical and aesthetic decisions for their children, it is unclear whether they are attuned to their children's perceptions of their appearance. METHODS: The current study assessed self-ratings and parent proxy ratings of child satisfaction with the appearance of both the face and the body among 74 children with craniofacial anomalies (50 percent boys)...
December 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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