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Parental attunement

Deborah Coolhart, Daran L Shipman
Families of transgender and gender-nonconforming youth often seek therapy for assistance in understanding, accepting, and supporting their child. This article describes a gender-affirmative approach to family therapy and outlines strategies for addressing common challenges faced by the families of transgender and gender-nonconforming youth. Therapy begins by assessing family attunement and working with parents, siblings, and other family members to better support the youth. Once family attunement is achieved, therapy can begin to explore options for gender expression and/or transition...
March 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
An Hooghe, Paul C Rosenblatt, Peter Rober
Within Western cultural traditions, the idea that parents should talk about the death of their child with each other is deeply rooted. However, across bereaved parent couples there are wide variations in communication about their grief with each other. In this study, we explored the experiences of bereaved couples related to the process of talking and not talking. We used a thematic coding approach to analyze 20 interviews with 26 bereaved parents (11 interviewed as couples, four as individuals). Four main meanings emerged out of our analysis: not talking because of the inadequacy and pointlessness of words in grief, not talking as a way to regulate emotions in daily life, not talking as an expression of a personal, intimate process, and not talking because the partner has the same loss but a different grief process...
January 5, 2017: Family Process
Mariana Pereira
Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social experience while the reciprocal relationship between the mother and her infant forms and develops. These alterations account for the remarkable behavioral plasticity of mothers...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Betty Davies, Rose Steele, Guenther Krueger, Susan Albersheim, Jennifer Baird, Michelle Bifirie, Susan Cadell, Gweneth Doane, Deepshikha Garga, Harold Siden, Caron Strahlendorf, Yuan Zhao
In this 3-year prospective grounded theory study in three pediatric settings, we aimed to develop a conceptualization of best practice health care providers (BPHCPs) in interaction with parents of children with complex, chronic, life-threatening conditions. Analysis of semistructured interviews with 34 parents and 80 health care professionals (HCPs) and 88 observation periods of HCP/parent interactions indicated that BPHCPs shared a broad worldview; values of equity, family-centered care, and integrity; and a commitment to authentic engagement...
August 23, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Rehana Capurchande, Gily Coene, Ingrid Schockaert, Manuel Macia, Herman Meulemans
BACKGROUND: By focusing upon formal sex education programmes, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of adolescents and young adults. However, when it comes to contraception, little is known about how adolescents and young adults actually behave. METHODS: Based upon a qualitative study in two settings in Maputo province - Ndlavela and Boane - this paper explores the knowledge and practices of contraception among adolescents and young adults...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Kishani Townshend
OBJECTIVE: Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes...
June 27, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Lotte Krabbenborg, L E L M Vissers, J Schieving, T Kleefstra, E J Kamsteeg, J A Veltman, M A Willemsen, S Van der Burg
The use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnostics of children with rare genetic diseases raises questions about best practices in genetic counselling. While a lot of attention is now given to pre-test counselling procedures for WES, little is known about how parents experience the (positive, negative, or inconclusive) WES results in daily life. To fill this knowledge gap, data were gathered through in-depth interviews with parents of 15 children who underwent WES analysis. WES test results, like results from other genetic tests, evoked relief as well as worries, irrespective of the type of result...
December 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Tracy E Moran, Joshua R Polanin, Amber L Evenson, Beth R Troutman, Christina L Franklin
Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations...
May 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Kelly Stone, Cheryl Burgess
The 'A Good Start' programme is a universal early attachment programme for parents and babies aged 8 weeks and over, run by a charitable organization in one Scottish local authority. The programme offers non-stigmatizing support and parents are encouraged to access other community resources on completing it. At a family level, the programme aims are that parents (i) have an increased feeling of well-being; (ii) are more attuned to their babies and (iii) are more aware of services and confident in becoming involved with them...
April 12, 2016: Health Promotion International
Orla O'Connell, Sarah Meaney, Keelin O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Many bereavement practices have become standard within maternity hospitals however little published evidence is available to confirm their benefit. We wanted to establish which aspects of care are valued, which could be improved and which, if any, cause distress. METHODS: This study aimed to survey parents who experienced stillbirth in a tertiary referral centre. There were seven question areas including receiving bad news, involvement of the multidisciplinary team, facilitation to grieve and have time with baby, autopsy communication process, post-discharge support and the importance parents placed on aspects of care...
August 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants than do men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Yael Apter-Levi, Maayan Pratt, Adam Vakart, Michal Feldman, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms...
February 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Danielle N Shapiro, Jennifer Waljee, Kavitha Ranganathan, Steven Buchman, Seth Warschausky
BACKGROUND: Although children with craniofacial anomalies appear to have relatively high self-esteem, research has identified gender differences in psychosocial outcomes, including self-concept, suggesting that girls with craniofacial anomalies may be at an increased risk. In addition, though parents make important medical and aesthetic decisions for their children, it is unclear whether they are attuned to their children's perceptions of their appearance. METHODS: The current study assessed self-ratings and parent proxy ratings of child satisfaction with the appearance of both the face and the body among 74 children with craniofacial anomalies (50 percent boys)...
December 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
John H Porcerelli, Alissa Huth-Bocks, Steven K Huprich, Laura Richardson
OBJECTIVE: For at-risk (single parent, low income, low support) mothers, healthy adaptation and the ability to manage stress have clear implications for parenting and the social-emotional well-being of their young offspring. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between defense mechanisms in pregnant women and their toddlers' attachment security, social-emotional, and behavioral adjustment. METHOD: Participants were 84 pregnant women during their last trimester of pregnancy, recruited from community agencies primarily serving low-income families...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
M Verónica Mingo, M Ann Easterbrooks
This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z...
September 2015: Infant Mental Health Journal
Cecilia Benoit, Samantha Magnus, Rachel Phillips, Lenora Marcellus, Sinéad Charbonneau
INTRODUCTION: Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants...
2015: International Journal for Equity in Health
Mariana Pereira, Annabel Ferreira
This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Becoming a parent is arguably the most profound transforming experience in life. It is also inherently very emotionally and physically demanding, such that the reciprocal interaction with the young changes the brain and behavior of the parents. In this review, we examine the neurobiological mechanisms of parenting primarily discussing recent research findings in rodents and primates, especially humans. We argue that it is essential to consider parenting within a conceptual framework that recognizes the dynamics of the reciprocal mother-young relationship, including both the complexity and neuroplasticity of its underlying mechanisms...
January 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Jason K Baker, Rachel M Fenning, Mariann A Howland, Brian R Baucom, Jacquelyn Moffitt, Stephen A Erath
The theory of biobehavioral synchrony proposes that the predictive power of parent-child attunement likely lies in the manner with which behaviors are aligned with relevant biological processes. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may challenge the formation of behavioral and physiological synchrony, but maintenance of such parent-child attunement could prove beneficial. The present study is the first to examine parent-child physiological synchrony in ASD. Parent and child electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured continuously during naturalistic free play...
December 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Sayyed Ali Samadi, Roy McConkey
Suitable screening instruments for the early diagnosis of autism are not readily available for use with preschoolers in non-Western countries. This study evaluated two tools: M-CHAT which is widely used internationally and one developed in Iran called Hiva. A population sample was recruited of nearly 3000 preschoolers in one Iranian city. Parents self-completed the two tools and children who screened positive were invited for a follow-up interview followed by a diagnostic assessment. The Hiva scale proved to be more efficacious in identifying children with ASD and the resulting prevalence rate was higher than that previously reported for Iranian 5 year olds...
September 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Laurie J Zandberg, Laura C Skriner, Brian C Chu
BACKGROUND: Studies exploring the association between alliance and outcome in youth cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have yielded inconsistent results based upon whose perspective is measured. OBJECTIVE: The current study explored the degree to which youth with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, anxiety disorders and their therapists agree in their ratings of the alliance at multiple assessment points and evaluated whether inter-rater discrepancies predicted treatment outcome...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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