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Pushpa Bhawan Mal, Kauser Jabeen, Joveria Farooqi, Magnus Unemo, Erum Khan
BACKGROUND: Accurate detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance is essential for appropriate management and prevention of spread of infection in the community. In this study Calibrated Dichotomous Sensitivity (CDS) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disc diffusion methods were compared with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Karachi, Pakistan. CDS and CLSI disc diffusion techniques, and Etest for ceftriaxone, penicillin G, spectinomycin and ciprofloxacin against 100 isolates from years 2012-2014 were performed...
October 10, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Sasmita Panda, Sarita Kar, Savitri Sharma, Durg V Singh
This study aimed to determine the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), SCCmec elements and genetic relatedness among Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolated from patients with a variety of eye infections (n=11) and from healthy conjunctiva (n=7). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 14 antimicrobials according to BSAC guidelines. PCR was used to identify the presence of mecA, mecC, SCCmec type and ARGs. Sequencing was used to determine mutations in gyrA, gyrB, topoisomerase IVA and IVB genes...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ping Tang, Wei Shi, Hai-Ling Zeng, Wei Ding, Cheng Wang, Kai-Hu Yao, De-Nian Wen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharyngeal region of children with respiratory infection and the sensitivity of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to common antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 1 082 children with respiratory infection, and Moraxella catarrhalis strains were isolated. The E-test method and disc diffusion test were used to determine the sensitivity of these strains to 11 common antimicrobial drugs...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Abi Jenkins, Alison H Thomson, Nicholas M Brown, Yvonne Semple, Christine Sluman, Alasdair MacGowan, Andrew M Lovering, Phil J Wiffen
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the amikacin dosage regimens and drug concentrations consistent with good outcomes and to determine the drug exposures related to nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. METHODS: A literature review was conducted in Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Full journal articles reporting randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series trials, and controlled before and after studies involving amikacin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and dose adjustment were considered for inclusion...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tracey Guise, Dilip Nathwani
This brief article describes the relationship between the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) and JAC, and how JAC has directly and indirectly facilitated delivery of the BSAC's charitable objectives over the past 40 years.
June 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M J Day, M Doumith, J Abernethy, R Hope, R Reynolds, J Wain, D M Livermore, N Woodford
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is the most common agent of bacteraemia, bacterial gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Lineages causing UTIs and gastrointestinal disease are well defined, but less is known about those causing bacteraemia. We therefore investigated the population structure of E. coli from bacteraemia in the UK and Ireland between 2001 and 2010. METHODS: E. coli isolates (n = 2166) were submitted to the BSAC Bacteraemia Surveillance Programme from 18 UK and Irish centres from 2001 to 2010...
August 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Howard T H Saw, Mark A Webber, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Laura J V Piddock
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the contribution of the multidrug resistance AcrAB-TolC efflux system to carbapenem resistance in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the impact of the efflux inhibitor PABN on this resistance. METHODS: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and their corresponding AcrAB-TolC mutants, each carrying carbapenemase-carrying plasmids (pKpQIL-UK with blaKPC and pNDM-HK with blaNDM), were tested for their susceptibility to six β-lactam antibiotics according to the BSAC agar dilution method...
June 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jacqueline Findlay, Katie L Hopkins, Michel Doumith, Danièle Meunier, Camilla Wiuff, Robert Hill, Rachel Pike, Richard Loy, Nazim Mustafa, David M Livermore, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) have been increasingly reported in the UK since 2003. We analysed patient and isolate data for KPC-positive bacteria confirmed by the national reference laboratory from UK laboratories from August 2003 to August 2014, excluding North-West England, where the epidemiology has previously been studied. METHODS: MICs were determined by BSAC agar dilution. Carbapenem-resistant isolates lacking imipenem/EDTA synergy were tested by PCR for blaKPC...
May 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Brian Cummings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Shoorashetty Manohar Rudresh, G S Ravi, Ann Mary Alex, K R Mamatha, L Sunitha, K Thangam Ramya
INTRODUCTION: Non-diphtheritic corynebacteria are normal inhabitants of skin and mucous membrane. When isolated from clinical specimens they are often considered as contaminants. Recent reports suggest their role as emerging nosocomial pathogens. AIM: To speciate non-diphtheritic corynebacteria isolated from wound specimens, to correlate their clinical significance and to determine their invitro antimicrobial susceptibilities to 9 antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty five non-diphtheritic corynebacteria from skin and soft tissue infections were selected for study...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Derek F J Brown, Mandy Wootton, Robin A Howe
The BSAC Standing Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing is one of several European national breakpoint committees that agreed in 2002 to harmonize clinical MIC breakpoints. The process of harmonization has since been completed for commonly used agents, and breakpoints for new agents have been set by EUCAST in accordance with a procedure defined by the EMA. EUCAST breakpoints have now been adopted by a large majority of laboratories in Europe. BSAC implemented the EUCAST breakpoints in its own disc diffusion susceptibility testing method as harmonized breakpoints were agreed to over the years...
January 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
D Patel, M J Ellington, R Hope, R Reynolds, C Arnold, M Desai
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia cases have declined since 2003, and have mostly been due to two epidemic (E) strains, E15 (multi-locus sequence type clonal complex CC22) and E16 (CC30). By contrast, the incidence of meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia has remained largely unchanged and our understanding of these isolates has remained poor. AIM: To investigate the distribution and nucleotide sequence of heterogeneous regions between successful lineages using the 2009 British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Bacteraemia Resistance Surveillance Programme collection of S...
October 2015: Journal of Hospital Infection
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Marina Warner, Dorothy James, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: A 1 mg/L susceptibility breakpoint for ceftaroline and staphylococci is universally agreed; EUCAST counts MIC >1 mg/L as resistant whereas CLSI and FDA count 2 mg/L as intermediate and >2 mg/L as resistant. We investigated whether routine diagnostic tests reliably distinguish MICs of 1 versus 2 mg/L. METHODS: Thirty-five UK laboratories collected Staphylococcus aureus isolates and performed tests with 5 μg (as EUCAST) or 30 μg (as CLSI) discs and either confluent growth on Mueller-Hinton agar (as EUCAST and CLSI) or semi-confluent growth on Iso-Sensitest agar (as BSAC)...
December 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Marina Warner, Dorothy James, Angela Kearns, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs) are frequent settings for antibiotic use. We surveyed their UK aetiology and pathogen susceptibility, including susceptibility to ceftaroline. METHODS: Consecutive SSSI isolates were collected at 35 UK hospitals, to a maximum of 60/site, together with 15 'supplementary' MRSA/site. Isolates were re-identified and BSAC susceptibility testing was performed, with parallel CLSI agar testing for ceftaroline...
October 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Toshio Ohshiro
BACKGROUND: The first part of this historical overview, (see Laser Therapy, 2014; 23: 89-95), took the reader from the conception of the WFSLMS to its inception at the inaugural meeting in Tokyo, 2005 and events up to the 2009 2(nd) WFSLMS in Tokyo when the author was the congress president. The previous article also dealt with the necessity for founding a non-profit organization, NPO-WFSLMS, to handle the commercial and social responsibilities of the WFSLMS. For details, please refer to that previous article...
March 31, 2015: Laser Therapy
G Goel, D Das, S Mukherjee, S Bose, K Das, R Mahato, S Bhattacharya
PURPOSE: For antibiotic susceptibility results, conventional culture and sensitivity methods takes 48 hours after a blood culture is flagged positive by automated systems. Early initiation of targeted antibiotic therapy is essential for effective management of sepsis to reduce morbidity, mortality, cost of treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance. Objective of this study was to evaluate Direct Sensitivity Test (DST) as a potential tool to get reliable antibiotic susceptibility results 24 hours earlier...
February 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jacqueline Sneddon, Mark Gilchrist, Hayley Wickens
The role of antimicrobial pharmacists has changed considerably over the past 15 years. We describe here the development and ratification of a new expert professional curriculum to guide the training and development of antimicrobial specialist pharmacists. The curriculum has been developed by the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association Pharmacy Infection Network and endorsed by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society as a tool to support pharmacists in meeting the requirements for joining the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Faculty...
May 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
G R Jones, D V E Cumming, G Honeywell, R Ball, F Sanderson, R A Seaton, B Healy, S Hedderwick, M Gilchrist
OBJECTIVES: We determined the available mechanisms to generate income from outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in the UK and calculated the revenue generated from treatment of an episode of cellulitis. METHODS: Revenue was calculated for patients receiving treatment for cellulitis as an inpatient and for patients receiving OPAT by a series of different payment pathways. Selected established OPAT services in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, where Payment-by-Results (PbR) does not operate, were contacted to determine individual national funding arrangements...
April 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Patricia A Eisenach, Franziska Schikora, Guido Posern
Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A/MAL/MKL1/BSAC) regulates the expression of serum-response factor (SRF)-dependent target genes in response to the Rho-actin signaling pathway. Overexpression or activation of MRTF-A affects shape, migration, and invasion of cells and contributes to human malignancies, including cancer. In this study, we report that inhibition of arginyltransferase 1 (ATE1), an enzyme mediating post-transcriptional protein arginylation, is sufficient to increase MRTF-A activity in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells independently of external growth factor stimuli...
December 19, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jonathan A T Sandoe, Gavin Barlow, John B Chambers, Michael Gammage, Achyut Guleri, Philip Howard, Ewan Olson, John D Perry, Bernard D Prendergast, Michael J Spry, Richard P Steeds, Muzahir H Tayebjee, Richard Watkin
Infections related to implantable cardiac electronic devices (ICEDs), including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices, are increasing in incidence in the USA and are likely to increase in the UK, because more devices are being implanted. These devices have both intravascular and extravascular components and infection can involve the generator, device leads and native cardiac structures or various combinations. ICED infections can be life-threatening, particularly when associated with endocardial infection, and all-cause mortality of up to 35% has been reported...
February 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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