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Calcium waves heart

Felix Hohendanner, Jaime DeSantiago, Frank R Heinzel, Lothar A Blatter
We tested the hypothesis that in atrial myocytes from a rabbit left ventricular heart failure (HF) model, spatial inhomogeneity and temporal dyssynchrony of Ca removal during excitation-contraction coupling together with increased Na/Ca exchange (NCX) activity generates a substrate for proarrhythmic Ca release. Ca removal occurs via Ca reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and extrusion via NCX exclusively in the cell periphery since rabbit atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules. Ca removal kinetics were assessed by the time constant τ of decay of local peripheral subsarcolemmal (SS) and central (CT) action potential (AP) induced Ca transients (CaTs) recorded in confocal line scan mode (using Fluo-4)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Kevin K Chiou, Jason W Rocks, Christina Yingxian Chen, Sangkyun Cho, Koen E Merkus, Anjali Rajaratnam, Patrick Robison, Manorama Tewari, Kenneth Vogel, Stephanie F Majkut, Benjamin L Prosser, Dennis E Discher, Andrea J Liu
In the beating heart, cardiac myocytes (CMs) contract in a coordinated fashion, generating contractile wave fronts that propagate through the heart with each beat. Coordinating this wave front requires fast and robust signaling mechanisms between CMs. The primary signaling mechanism has long been identified as electrical: gap junctions conduct ions between CMs, triggering membrane depolarization, intracellular calcium release, and actomyosin contraction. In contrast, we propose here that, in the early embryonic heart tube, the signaling mechanism coordinating beats is mechanical rather than electrical...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Emmanuel Eroume-A Egom, James S H Bae, Rebecca Capel, Mark Richards, Yunbo Ke, Rebabonye B Pharithi, Vincent Maher, Peter Kruzliak, Ming Lei
Modulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis in cardiac myocytes plays a major role in beat-to-beat regulation of heart function. Previous studies suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a biologically active sphingomyelin metabolite, regulates Ca(2+) handling in cardiac myocytes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that S1P-induced functional alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) handling includes the L-type calcium channel current (ICa,L) via a signalling pathway involving P21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1)...
August 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Aditya V S Ponnaluri, Luigi E Perotti, Michael Liu, Zhilin Qu, James N Weiss, Daniel B Ennis, William S Klug, Alan Garfinkel
Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling...
June 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Lili Zhang, Xiangru Lu, Le Gui, Yan Wu, Stephen M Sims, Guoping Wang, Qingping Feng
Rac1 is a small GTPase and plays key roles in multiple cellular processes including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether Rac1 activation during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) contributes to arrhythmogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the effects of Rac1 inhibition on store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) and ventricular arrhythmia during myocardial I/R. Adult Rac1(f/f) and cardiac-specific Rac1 knockdown (Rac1(ckd) ) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R and their electrocardiograms (ECGs) were monitored for ventricular arrhythmia...
August 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Jegan Iyyathurai, Bernard Himpens, Geert Bultynck, Catheleyne D'hondt
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination and synchronization of cellular processes. Gap junction channels play an important role to communicate between cells and organs, including the brain, lung, liver, lens, retina, and heart. Gap junctions enable a direct route for ions like calcium and potassium, and low molecular weight compounds, such as inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and various kinds of metabolites to pass between cells. Intercellular calcium wave propagation evoked by a local mechanical stimulus is one of the gap junction assays to study intercellular communication...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laurence Laplante, Bruno S Benzaquen
Very frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) may be a reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Literature on this largely unrecognized entity has increased in the last 15 years. This paper reviews the literature on the consequences of frequent PVCs on myocardial function and management of PVC-associated cardiomyopathy. The authors reviewed articles published in English before June 2015 describing pathophysiology, risk factors, symptoms, time course, treatment, and outcome of cardiomyopathy associated with PVCs...
July 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Rachel Sarah Wightman, Robert S Hoffman, Mary Ann Howland, Brian Rice, Rana Biary, Daniel Lugassy
OBJECTIVE: Loperamide, a non-prescription anti-diarrheal agent, is a peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist that is excluded from the blood-brain barrier by p-glycoprotein at therapeutic doses. Overdoses of loperamide penetrate the central nervous system (CNS), leading to abuse. We report cardiac conduction abnormalities and dysrhythmias after ingestion of a recreational supra-therapeutic dose of loperamide confirmed with an elevated blood loperamide concentration. CASE DETAILS: A 48-year-old woman with a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine abuse presented to the emergency department (ED) with somnolence, weakness and slurred speech...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
P Bambrick, W S Tan, R Mulcahy, G A Pope, J Cooke
Modern cardiovascular risk prediction tools, which have their genesis in the Framingham Heart Study, have allowed more accurate risk stratification and targeting of treatments worldwide over the last seven decades. Better cardiovascular risk factor control during this time has led to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and, at least in part, to improved life expectancy. As a result, western societies as a whole have seen a steady increase in the proportion of older persons in their populations. Unfortunately, several studies have shown that the same tools which have contributed to this increase cannot be reliably extrapolated for use in older generations...
June 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
J S Schulte, E Fehrmann, M A Tekook, D Kranick, B Fels, N Li, X H T Wehrens, A Heinick, M D Seidl, W Schmitz, F U Müller
Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation is regarded as a pivotal step in the progression of heart failure which is associated with a high risk for arrhythmia. The cAMP-dependent transcription factors cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) mediate transcriptional regulation in response to β-adrenergic stimulation and CREM repressor isoforms are induced after stimulation of the β-adrenoceptor. Here, we investigate whether CREM repressors contribute to the arrhythmogenic remodeling in the heart by analyzing arrhythmogenic alterations in ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCMs) from mice with transgenic expression of the CREM repressor isoform CREM-IbΔC-X (TG)...
March 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Mohamed Matter, Enas El-Sherbiny, Atef Elmougy, Mohamed Abass, Sahar Aldossary, Waleed Abu Ali
Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia especially in children and adolescents. Many studies have reported the relation between low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with cardiovascular diseases risk factors as well as cardiovascular events, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 25(OH)D deficiency on the myocardial function and other echocardiographic variables in adolescent, using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to correlate these parameters with 25(OH)D level...
January 2016: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Ravi Varshney, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. METHODS: We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Nathalie A Vikulova, Leonid B Katsnelson, Alexander G Kursanov, Olga Solovyova, Vladimir S Markhasin
We utilized our earlier developed 1D mathematical model of the heart muscle strand to study contribution of the bilateral interactions between excitation and contraction on the cellular and tissue levels to the local and global myocardium function. Numerical experiments on the model showed that an initially uniform strand, formed on the inherently identical cells, became functionally heterogeneous due to the asynchronous excitation via the electrical wave spread. Mechanical interactions between the cells and the mechano-electric feedback beat-to-beat affect the functional characteristics of coupled cardiomyocytes further, adjusting their electrical and mechanical heterogeneity to the activation timing...
August 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Rama Mohan Pathapati, Sujith Tumkur Rajashekar, Madhavulu Buchineni, Rajesh Kumar Meriga, Chirra Bhakthavasthala Reddy, Kolla Praveen Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which affects both large and small arteries. Because of the associated morbidity and mortality and the cost to society, it is an important public health challenge. Population based studies have reported that large artery stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular events and mortality in general population and in patients with hypertension. This study was designed to compare the effects of 8 weeks blood pressure control using Amlodepine and cilnidipine on haemodynamic parameters and vascular indices in mild to moderate hypertensive patients...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Mari Merentie, Jukka A Lipponen, Marja Hedman, Antti Hedman, Juha Hartikainen, Jenni Huusko, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Viktor Parviainen, Svetlana Laidinen, Pasi A Karjalainen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied...
December 2015: Physiological Reports
Jan Němec, Jong J Kim, Guy Salama
Release of Ca(2+) ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into myocyte cytoplasm and their binding to troponin C is the final signal form myocardial contraction. Synchronous contraction of ventricular myocytes is necessary for efficient cardiac pumping function. This requires both shuttling of Ca(2+) between SR and cytoplasm in individual myocytes, and organ-level synchronization of this process by means of electrical coupling among ventricular myocytes. Abnormal Ca(2+) release from SR causes arrhythmias in the setting of CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and digoxin toxicity...
January 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Rajiv Sankaranarayanan, Yatong Li, David J Greensmith, David A Eisner, Luigi Venetucci
Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay. In the presence of β-adrenergic stimulation, RyR-mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase. Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca-sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non-sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient. Only Ca-sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Robert Ekart, Sebastjan Bevc, Nina Hojs, Maša Knehtl, Benjamin Dvoršak, Radovan Hojs
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Albuminuria is a well-established marker of subclinical organ damage. Pulse-wave analysis (PWA) employs the technique of applanation tonometry to obtain a peripheral pulse pressure waveform, from which central hemodynamic data are derived by application of the transfer function. Using PWA we can measure the subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration (ED). SEVR or the Buckberg index is a non-invasive estimate of myocardial workload, oxygen supply and perfusion and a measure of the ability of the arterial system to meet the heart`s energy requirements...
2015: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Pecoraro Michela, Verrilli Velia, Pinto Aldo, Popolo Ada
Gap junctions (GJs) channels provide the basis for intercellular communication in the cardiovascular system for maintenance of the normal cardiac rhythm, regulation of vascular tone and endothelial function as well as metabolic interchange between the cells. They allow the transfer of small molecules and may enable slow calcium wave spreading, transfer of "death" or of "survival" signals. In the cardiomyocytes the most abundant isoform is Connexin 43 (Cx43). Alterations in Cx43 expression and distribution were observed in myocardium disease; i...
December 5, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Premysl Mladenka, Tomáš Filipský, Michal Ríha, Jaroslava Vávrová, Magdalena Holecková, Vladimir Palicka, Radomír Hrdina
Although a majority of studies related oxidative stress to cardiovascular diseases, the pathophysiological relevance has been remaining unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship among different commonly used biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardiovascular dys/function in rats. A pathological state in many aspects similar to that of acute myocardial infarction was induced by administration of isoprenaline (, s.c.) in Wistar:Han rats. Haemodynamic, biochemical and ECG parameters were measured in two sets of experiments: after 24hours and continuously during the first 2hours following the administration of isoprenaline...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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