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Cortical thickness & encephalopathy

Alberto Leal, Eulália Calado, José P Vieira, Carla Mendonça, José C Ferreira, Hugo Ferreira, Daniel Carvalho, Fátima Furtado, Roseli Gomes, José P Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: Early neonatal thalamic lesions account for about 14% of continuous spike-wave of sleep (CSWS) syndrome, representing the most common etiology in this epileptic encephalopathy in children, and promise useful insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODS: We describe nine patients with unilateral neonatal thalamic lesions which progressed to CSWS. Longitudinal whole-night and high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) were performed, as well as detailed imaging and clinical evaluation...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xiu Wu, Xiao-Fei Lv, Yu-Ling Zhang, Hua-Wang Wu, Pei-Qiang Cai, Ying-Wei Qiu, Xue-Lin Zhang, Gui-Hua Jiang
Previous studies have shown that patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) are associated with a varying degree of cognitive dysfunction. Several resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been conducted to explore the neural correlates of such cognitive deficits, whereas little effort has been made to investigate the cortical integrity in cirrhotic patients without OHE. Here, using cortical thickness, surface area and local gyrification index (lGI), this study performed a comprehensive analysis on the cortical morphometry of patients with HBV-RC without OHE (HBV-RC-NOHE) vs...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Elizabeth K Ruzzo, José-Mario Capo-Chichi, Bruria Ben-Zeev, David Chitayat, Hanqian Mao, Andrea L Pappas, Yuki Hitomi, Yi-Fan Lu, Xiaodi Yao, Fadi F Hamdan, Kimberly Pelak, Haike Reznik-Wolf, Ifat Bar-Joseph, Danit Oz-Levi, Dorit Lev, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Esther Leshinsky-Silver, Yair Anikster, Edna Ben-Asher, Tsviya Olender, Laurence Colleaux, Jean-Claude Décarie, Susan Blaser, Brenda Banwell, Rasesh B Joshi, Xiao-Ping He, Lysanne Patry, Rachel J Silver, Sylvia Dobrzeniecka, Mohammad S Islam, Abul Hasnat, Mark E Samuels, Dipendra K Aryal, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Yong-Hui Jiang, William C Wetsel, James O McNamara, Guy A Rouleau, Debra L Silver, Doron Lancet, Elon Pras, Grant A Mitchell, Jacques L Michaud, David B Goldstein
We analyzed four families that presented with a similar condition characterized by congenital microcephaly, intellectual disability, progressive cerebral atrophy, and intractable seizures. We show that recessive mutations in the ASNS gene are responsible for this syndrome. Two of the identified missense mutations dramatically reduce ASNS protein abundance, suggesting that the mutations cause loss of function. Hypomorphic Asns mutant mice have structural brain abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles and reduced cortical thickness, and show deficits in learning and memory mimicking aspects of the patient phenotype...
October 16, 2013: Neuron
Tina Bregant, Milan Rados, Lana Vasung, Metka Derganc, Alan C Evans, David Neubauer, Ivica Kostovic
BACKGROUND: A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. AIM: To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. METHODS: MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE...
November 2013: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Carmina Montoliu, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Mercedes Atienza, Amparo Urios, Olga Gonzalez, Abdallah Wassel, Roberto Aliaga, Remedios Giner-Duran, Miguel A Serra, Jose M Rodrigo, Vicente Belloch, Vicente Felipo, Jose L Cantero
Little attention has been paid to cortical integrity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), although cognitive functions affected in early stages of liver disease are mainly allocated in different neocortical structures. Here we used cortical surface-based analysis techniques to investigate if patterns of cortical thinning accompany the mildest form of HE. To aim this goal, cortical thickness obtained from high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was measured in patients with no MHE (NMHE), MHE, and healthy controls...
July 16, 2012: NeuroImage
Manon Brundel, Martijn van den Heuvel, Jeroen de Bresser, L Jaap Kappelle, Geert Jan Biessels
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cortical atrophy on MRI. It is unclear whether this atrophy is global or if there are areas with particular vulnerability. We compared regional cortical atrophy between patients with T2DM and controls and examined determinants of atrophy within the T2DM group. METHODS: Cortical surface, volume and thickness were compared between 56 patients with T2DM and 30 controls, both globally and regionally, using the Freesurfer software package...
December 15, 2010: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Birgitte Bo Andersen
It is generally believed that chronic alcohol consumption results in cerebellar atrophy and Purkinje cell loss, especially in the anterior vermal region. A post-mortem stereological design was applied to cerebella from 10 chronic male alcoholics (mean age 45.5 years) with a minimum of 10 years of severe addiction and 10 male controls (mean age 42.5 years). All alcoholics had pathoanatomical evidence of alcohol abuse but no clinical signs of Wernicke's encephalopathy. Cerebellum was divided into five different areas: the anterior and posterior lobe, the anterior and posterior vermis, and the flocculonodular lobe...
May 8, 2004: Brain Research
Renzo Guerrini, Federico Sicca, Lucio Parmeggiani
Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCC) are often associated with severe epilepsy and developmental delay. About 40% of drug-resistant epilepsies are caused by MCC. Classification of MCC is based on embryological brain development, recognising forms that result from faulty neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration and cortical organisation. Hemimegalencephaly, an enlarged dysplastic hemisphere, can present as early onset severe epileptic encephalopathy or as partial epilepsy. In focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), MRI shows focal cortical thickening and simplified gyration...
September 2003: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
S R Pitkin, L M Savage
The present study aimed to assess the role of advanced age in the development and manifestation of thiamine deficiency using an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Interactions between pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) and age were examined relative to working memory impairment and neuropathology in Fischer 344 rats. Young (2-3 months) and aged (22-23 months) F344 rats were assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PTD or pair-fed control (PF). Rats in the former group were further divided into three groups according to duration of PTD treatment...
March 15, 2001: Behavioural Brain Research
I Tominaga, M Kaïhou, T Kimura, Y Kato, M Onaya, M Kasahara, H Kashima, T Takayanagi, N Funamoto
A boy, born after normal pregnancy and delivery, began to have fits at 3 days. The seizures were composed of tonic or tonic-clonic convulsions at the upper extremities but myoclonus was absent. These attacks were not easy to control. There was gross developmental delay. Laboratory investigations were almost normal except for cerebrospinal fluid: pleocytosis and high protein content. EEG showed "suppression-burst" and MRI revealed high signal intensity in the left temporo-occipital region on T2 weighted image...
1993: Revue Neurologique
W C Shen, C C Chen, S K Lee, Y J Ho, K R Lee
Twenty-one cases of cerebral hemiatrophy were studied using 1.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to showing the generalized decrease in volume of the cerebral hemisphere, three patterns of cerebral hemiatrophy were noted: pattern I, diffuse cortical and subcortical atrophy (six cases):pattern II, diffuse cortical atrophy associated with expanded porencephalic cysts (10 cases); pattern III, old infarction with necrosis in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (five cases). Pattern I and pattern II were believed to have resulted from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with subcortical leukomalacia (SCL)...
November 1993: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
V Affolter, P Boujon, G Bestetti, G L Rossi
Diabetic encephalopathy is a relatively frequent late complication in human and experimental diabetes mellitus. Although it is generally assumed that microangiopathy plays a major role in its pathogenesis, many aspects of the latter are still poorly understood. To detect possible correlations between vascular and cellular changes, we examined in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive streptozotocin diabetic rats the neurons of hypothalamic and cortical regions in which the capillary basement membrane thickness had been known from a previous study...
1986: Acta Neuropathologica
G L Kalifa, C Chiron, N Sellier, P Demange, G Ponsot, G Lalande, O Robain
Hemimegalencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by cerebral asymmetry and cortical dysplasia. Infants with the condition present with early seizures and severe encephalopathy. Five patients were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR imaging was the most efficient diagnostic method for this rare entity. It demonstrated brain hemispheric hypertrophy with lateral ventricle dilatation, abnormal gyral pattern, and a thick cortex on the enlarged side. The images correlate well with the known pathologic data...
October 1987: Radiology
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