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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650257/sequential-phosphorylation-of-cst-subunits-by-different-cyclin-cdk1-complexes-orchestrate-telomere-replication
#1
Veena Gopalakrishnan, Cherylin Ruiling Tan, Shang Li
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of linear chromosomes. Telomere homeostasis is central to maintaining genomic integrity. In budding yeast, Cdk1 phosphorylates the telomere-specific binding protein, Cdc13, promoting the recruitment of telomerase to telomere and thereby telomere elongation. Cdc13 is also an integral part of the CST (Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1) complex that is essential for telomere capping and counteracting telomerase-dependent telomere elongation. Therefore, telomere length homeostasis is a balance between telomerase-extendable and CST-unextendable states...
June 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650219/interrogating-cell-division-errors-using-random-and-chromosome-specific-missegregation-approaches
#2
Peter Ly, Don W Cleveland
Accurate segregation of the duplicated genome in mitosis is essential for maintaining genetic stability. Errors in this process can cause numerical and/or structural chromosome abnormalities - hallmark genomic features commonly associated with both tumorigenesis and developmental disorders. A cell-based approach was recently developed permitting inducible missegregation of the human Y chromosome by selectively disrupting kinetochore assembly onto the Y centromere. Although this strategy initially requires several steps of genetic manipulation, it is easy to use, highly efficient and specific for the Y without affecting the autosomes or the X, and does not require cell cycle synchronization or mitotic perturbation...
June 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649585/data-on-the-genome-wide-identification-of-cnl-r-genes-in-setaria-italica-l-p-beauv
#3
Ethan J Andersen, Madhav P Nepal
We report data associated with the identification of 242 disease resistance genes (R-genes) in the genome of Setaria italica as presented in "Genetic diversity of disease resistance genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.)" (Andersen and Nepal, 2017) [1]. Our data describe the structure and evolution of the Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) R-genes in foxtail millet. The CNL genes were identified through rigorous extraction and analysis of recently available plant genome sequences using cutting-edge analytical software...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649264/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-pvhsp20-family-in-switchgrass-motif-genomic-organization-and-identification-of-stress-or-developmental-related-hsp20s
#4
Haidong Yan, Ailing Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiaoyan He, Bin Xu, Guanqi Xie, Zhiming Miao, Xinquan Zhang, Linkai Huang
Hsp20 proteins exist in all plant species and represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in plants. Hsp20s were known as chaperones maintaining cellular homeostasis during heat or other kinds of abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to understand the phylogenetic relationship, genomic organization, diversification of motif modules, genome localization, expression profiles, and interaction networks of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Hsp20s (PvHsp20s). A total of 63 PvHsp20s were identified with their consensus as well as unique ACD motifs and gene structures analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647785/fertility-preservation-for-trans-men-frozen-thawed-in-vitro-matured-oocytes-collected-at-the-time-of-ovarian-tissue-processing-exhibit-normal-meiotic%C3%A2-spindles
#5
S Lierman, K Tilleman, K Braeckmans, K Peynshaert, S Weyers, G T'Sjoen, P De Sutter
PURPOSES: At the moment of sex reassignment surgery (SRS), the ovarian tissue is sometimes cryopreserved as fertility preservation option for female-to-male trans men, also called trans men. During this preparation, cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) can be found and in vitro matured. It is not known if these oocytes are developmentally competent. In order to use these oocytes for fertility preservation and subsequent fertilization, a normal spindle structure before and after vitrification is necessary...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645917/multivalent-binding-of-pwwp2a-to-h2a-z-regulates-mitosis-and-neural-crest-differentiation
#6
Sebastian P├╝nzeler, Stephanie Link, Gabriele Wagner, Eva C Keilhauer, Nina Kronbeck, Ramona Mm Spitzer, Susanne Leidescher, Yolanda Markaki, Edith Mentele, Catherine Regnard, Katrin Schneider, Daisuke Takahashi, Masayuki Kusakabe, Chiara Vardabasso, Lisa M Zink, Tobias Straub, Emily Bernstein, Masahiko Harata, Heinrich Leonhardt, Matthias Mann, Ralph Aw Rupp, Sandra B Hake
Replacement of canonical histones with specialized histone variants promotes altering of chromatin structure and function. The essential histone variant H2A.Z affects various DNA-based processes via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we determine the comprehensive interactome of H2A.Z and identify PWWP2A as a novel H2A.Z-nucleosome binder. PWWP2A is a functionally uncharacterized, vertebrate-specific protein that binds very tightly to chromatin through a concerted multivalent binding mode. Two internal protein regions mediate H2A...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645372/analysis-of-structure-selective-endonuclease-activities-from-yeast-and-human-extracts
#7
Joao Matos, Stephen C West
The efficient separation of two equal DNA masses to the daughter cells is an essential step in mitosis. This process is dependent upon the removal of any remaining recombination or replication intermediates that link sister chromatids, and a failure to resolve these intermediates leads to genome instability. Similarly, a failure to resolve meiotic recombination intermediates that link homologous chromosomes can cause chromosome nondisjunction and aneuploidy. Cleavage of these potentially toxic replication/recombination intermediates requires the Mus81 endonuclease, which is active upon flaps, forks, and more complex secondary structures in DNA such as Holliday junctions...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645274/buccal-mucosa-micronuclei-counts-in-relation-to-exposure-to-low-dose-rate-radiation-from-the-chornobyl-nuclear-accident-and-other-medical-and-occupational-radiation-exposures
#8
D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645217/microtubule-organizing-centers
#9
Jingchao Wu, Anna Akhmanova
The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645177/mobile-genetic-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-movement-for-change
#10
Ana Cehovin, Steven B Lewis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoeae, possesses several mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The MGEs such as transposable elements mediate intra-chromosomal rearrangements, while plasmids and the gonococcal genetic island are involved in inter-chromosomal gene transfer. Additionally, gonococcal MGEs serve as hotspots for recombination and integration of other genetic elements such as bacteriophages, contribute to gene regulation or spread genes through gonococcal populations by horizontal gene transfer...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645155/features-of-genomic-organization-in-a-nucleotide-resolution-molecular-model-of-the-escherichia-coli-chromosome
#11
William C Hacker, Shuxiang Li, Adrian H Elcock
We describe structural models of the Escherichia coli chromosome in which the positions of all 4.6 million nucleotides of each DNA strand are resolved. Models consistent with two basic chromosomal orientations, differing in their positioning of the origin of replication, have been constructed. In both types of model, the chromosome is partitioned into plectoneme-abundant and plectoneme-free regions, with plectoneme lengths and branching patterns matching experimental distributions, and with spatial distributions of highly-transcribed chromosomal regions matching recent experimental measurements of the distribution of RNA polymerases...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644379/physical-forces-may-cause-the-hoxd-gene-cluster-elongation
#12
Spyros Papageorgiou
Hox gene collinearity was discovered be Edward B. Lewis in 1978. It consists of the Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 ordering of the Hox genes in the chromosome from the telomeric to the centromeric side of the chromosome. Surprisingly, the spatial activation of the Hox genes in the ontogenetic units of the embryo follows the same ordering along the anterior-posterior embryonic axis. The chromosome microscale differs from the embryo macroscale by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The traditional biomolecular mechanisms are not adequate to comprise phenomena at so divergent spatial domains...
June 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643793/genomic-rearrangements-in-sporadic-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-an-evolving-genetic-story
#13
Stephen J Murphy, Simone B Terra, Faye R Harris, Aqsa Nasir, Jesse S Voss, James B Smadbeck, Sarah H Johnson, Vishnu Serla, Jay H Ryu, Eunhee S Yi, Benjamin R Kipp, George Vasmatzis, Eva M Carmona
Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a progressive pulmonary cystic disease resulting from the infiltration of smooth muscle-like lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells into the lung. The migratory/metastasizing properties of the lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell together with the presence of somatic mutations, primarily in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene (TSC2), lead many to consider this a low-grade malignancy. As malignant tumors characteristically accumulate somatic structural variations, which have not been well studied in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we utilized mate pair sequencing to define structural variations within laser capture microdissected enriched lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell populations from five sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients...
June 23, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642992/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-pmqr-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-quinolone-resistant-marine-bacteria-and-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-an-aquacultural-area
#14
Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Alejandro H Buschmann, Henry P Godfrey, Felipe C Cabello
Antimicrobial usage in aquaculture selects for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in the marine environment. The relevance of this selection to terrestrial animal and human health is unclear. Quinolone-resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were chromosomally located in four randomly chosen quinolone-resistant marine bacteria isolated from an aquacultural area with heavy quinolone usage. In quinolone-resistant uropathogenic clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from a coastal area bordering the same aquacultural region, qnrA was chromosomally located in two E...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#15
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642229/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-kinetochore-network-in-eukaryotes-as-revealed-by-comparative-genomics
#16
Jolien Je van Hooff, Eelco Tromer, Leny M van Wijk, Berend Snel, Geert Jpl Kops
During eukaryotic cell division, the sister chromatids of duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart by microtubules, which connect via kinetochores. The kinetochore is a multiprotein structure that links centromeres to microtubules, and that emits molecular signals in order to safeguard the equal distribution of duplicated chromosomes over daughter cells. Although microtubule-mediated chromosome segregation is evolutionary conserved, kinetochore compositions seem to have diverged. To systematically inventory kinetochore diversity and to reconstruct its evolution, we determined orthologs of 70 kinetochore proteins in 90 phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes...
June 22, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641941/role-of-recombination-and-replication-fork-restart-in-repeat-instability
#17
REVIEW
Erica J Polleys, Nealia C M House, Catherine H Freudenreich
Eukaryotic genomes contain many repetitive DNA sequences that exhibit size instability. Some repeat elements have the added complication of being able to form secondary structures, such as hairpin loops, slipped DNA, triplex DNA or G-quadruplexes. Especially when repeat sequences are long, these DNA structures can form a significant impediment to DNA replication and repair, leading to DNA nicks, gaps, and breaks. In turn, repair or replication fork restart attempts within the repeat DNA can lead to addition or removal of repeat elements, which can sometimes lead to disease...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641631/-characteristics-and-prognostic-significance-of-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-patients-with-bone-marrow-involvement
#18
Wei Liu, Rui Lyu, Wen-Yang Huang, Cheng-Wen Li, Hong Liu, Jian Li, De-Hui Zou, Lu-Gui Qiu, Shu-Hua Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytogenetic abnormalitis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) patients with bone marrow involvement and their influence on prognosis. METHODS: Conventional karyotyping was performed on bone marrow specimens in 47 DLBCL patients with histologically confirmed bone marrow involvement(BMI). The karyotyping results of bone marrow, the characteristics and clinical effect of chromosomal abnormalities were analysed. RESULTS: In 47 DLBCL cases with BMI, the chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 25(53%) cases...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640495/control-of-mus81-nuclease-during-the-cell-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Boris Pfander, Joao Matos
DNA replication and homologous recombination rely on the formation of branched DNA structures that physically link chromosomes. Such DNA-based connections, which arise during S phase, are typically disengaged prior to entry into mitosis, in order to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Exceptions can, however, occur: replication stress, or elevated levels of DNA damage, may cause cells to enter mitosis with unfinished replication as well as carrying recombination intermediates, such as Holliday junctions. Hence, cells are equipped with pathways that recognize and process branched DNA structures, and evolved mechanisms to enhance their function when on the verge of undergoing cell division...
June 22, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638390/characterization-genomic-organization-abundance-and-chromosomal-distribution-of-ty1-copia-retrotransposons-in-erianthus-arundinaceus
#20
Yongji Huang, Ling Luo, Xuguang Hu, Fan Yu, Yongqing Yang, Zuhu Deng, Jiayun Wu, Rukai Chen, Muqing Zhang
Erianthus arundinaceus is an important wild species of the genus Saccharum with many valuable traits. However, the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown, which have hindered its utilization in sugarcane breeding and evolutionary research. Retrotransposons constitute an appreciable fraction of plant genomes and may have played a significant role in the evolution and sequence organization of genomes. In the current study, we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and genomic abundance of Ty1-copia retrotransposons for the first time and inspect their chromosomal distribution patterns in E...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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