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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922357/analysis-of-nuclear-and-organellar-genomes-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-humans-reveals-ancient-population-structure-and-recent-recombination-among-host-specific-subpopulations
#1
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921398/preliminary-analysis-of-numerical-chromosome-abnormalities-in-reciprocal-and-robertsonian-translocation-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-cases-with-24-chromosomal-analysis-with-an-acgh-snp-microarray
#2
Yanxin Xie, Yanwen Xu, Jing Wang, Benyu Miao, Yanhong Zeng, Chenhui Ding, Jun Gao, Canquan Zhou
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether an interchromosomal effect (ICE) occurred in embryos obtained from reciprocal translocation (rcp) and Robertsonian translocation (RT) carriers who were following a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with whole chromosome screening with an aCGH and SNP microarray. We also analyzed the chromosomal numerical abnormalities in embryos with aneuploidy in parental chromosomes that were not involved with a translocation and balanced in involved parental translocation chromosomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919962/a-karyotype-comparison-between-two-species-of-bordered-plant-bugs-hemiptera-heteroptera-largidae-by-conventional-chromosome-staining-c-banding-and-rdna-fish
#3
Lucila Belén Salanitro, Anabella Cecilia Massaccesi, Santiago Urbisaglia, María José Bressa, Mónica Gabriela Chirino
A cytogenetic characterization, including heterochromatin content, and the analysis of the location of rDNA genes, was performed in Largus fasciatus Blanchard, 1843 and L. rufipennis Laporte, 1832. Mitotic and meiotic analyses revealed the same diploid chromosome number 2n = 12 + X0/XX (male/female). Heterochromatin content, very scarce in both species, revealed C-blocks at both ends of autosomes and X chromosome. The most remarkable cytological feature observed between both species was the different chromosome position of the NORs...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919955/variability-and-evolutionary-implications-of-repetitive-dna-dynamics-in-genome-of-astyanax-scabripinnis-teleostei-characidae
#4
Patrícia Barbosa, Eliza Viola Leal, Maelin da Silva, Mara Cristina de Almeida, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Roberto Ferreira Artoni
DNA sequences of multiple copies help in understanding evolutionary mechanisms, genomic structures and karyotype differentiation. The current study investigates the organization and distribution of different repetitive DNA in the standard complement and B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) chromosomes from three allopatric populations in Campos do Jordão region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The location of microsatellite sequences showed different chromosome distribution between Lavrinha Farm Stream (LFS) and Lake of Pedalinho (LP) populations...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919947/genomic-characterisation-of-arachis-porphyrocalyx-valls-c-e-simpson-2005-leguminosae-multiple-origin-of-arachis-species-with-x-9
#5
Silvestri María Celeste, Alejandra Marcela Ortiz, Germán Ariel Robledo, José Francisco Montenegro Valls, Graciela Inés Lavia
The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918743/eb-family-proteins-functions-and-microtubule-interaction-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
V V Mustyatsa, A V Boyakhchyan, F I Ataullakhanov, N B Gudimchuk
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin protein, one of the key components of cytoskeleton. They are polar filaments whose plus-ends usually oriented toward the cell periphery are more dynamic than their minus-ends, which face the center of the cell. In cells, microtubules are organized into a network that is being constantly rebuilt and renovated due to stochastic switching of its individual filaments from growth to shrinkage and back. Because of these dynamics and their mechanical properties, microtubules take part in various essential processes, from intracellular transport to search and capture of chromosomes during mitosis...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918563/development-and-validation-of-immortalized-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-mammary-gland-functions
#7
Ji-Xia Li, Abdelrahman Said, Xiu-Guo Ge, Wenxiu Wang, Yong Zhang, Tianming Jin
This study aimed to develop a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell line model, which provides a possibility to determine functional properties of the bovine mammary gland. The primary cell culture was derived from bovine mammary gland tissues and processed enzymatically to obtain cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology. The cultures of BME cells were purified and optimally cultured at 37 °C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The BME cells were identified as epithelial cell line by the evaluating the expression of keratin-18 using immunofluorescence staining...
September 16, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917590/karyotype-stability-and-unbiased-fractionation-in-the-paleo-allotetraploid-cucurbita-genomes
#8
Honghe Sun, Shan Wu, Guoyu Zhang, Chen Jiao, Shaogui Guo, Yi Ren, Jie Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Guoyi Gong, Zhangcai Jia, Fan Zhang, Jiaxing Tian, William J Lucas, Jeff J Doyle, Haizhen Li, Zhangjun Fei, Yong Xu
The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#9
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
September 15, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916874/development-of-cacta-transposon-derived-scar-markers-and-their-use-in-population-structure-analysis-in-zea-mays
#10
Neha Samir Roy, Kyong-Cheul Park, Sung-Il Lee, Min-Ji Im, Rahul Vasudeo Ramekar, Nam-Soo Kim
Molecular marker technologies have proven to be an important breakthrough for genetic studies, construction of linkage maps and population genetics analysis. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute major fractions of repetitive sequences in plants and offer a wide range of possible areas to be explored as molecular markers. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker development provides us with a simple and time saving alternative approach for marker development. We employed the CACTA-TD to develop SCARs and then integrated them into linkage map and used them for population structure and genetic diversity analysis of corn inbred population...
September 15, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916873/effects-of-methotrexate-on-the-quality-of-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#11
N Tian, J Yu, Sh Zhang, W Y Ma, T Wang, Y M Wang
Methotrexate (MTX), an antifolate drug, is widely used for clinical treatment of malignancies and ectopic pregnancy. Many studies have documented that MTX has strong side-effects on rapidly dividing somatic cells. However, its side-effects on female reproductive cells have not been widely reported. Combined with in vitro culture, two-photon fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction, this study analyzed the effects of MTX on oocyte maturation time, chromosome arrangement, karyotype, spindle morphology, and the localization of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)...
September 15, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916791/genomic-structure-and-evolution-of-the-mating-type-locus-in-the-green-seaweed-ulva-partita
#12
Tomokazu Yamazaki, Kensuke Ichihara, Ryogo Suzuki, Kenshiro Oshima, Shinichi Miyamura, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Atsushi Toyoda, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Masahira Hattori, Shigeyuki Kawano
The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt(-) and mt(+) strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916711/comparative-analysis-of-three-dimensional-chromosomal-architecture-identifies-a-novel-fetal-hemoglobin-regulatory-element
#13
Peng Huang, Cheryl A Keller, Belinda Giardine, Jeremy D Grevet, James O J Davies, Jim R Hughes, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Ross C Hardison, Gerd A Blobel
Chromatin structure is tightly intertwined with transcription regulation. Here we compared the chromosomal architectures of fetal and adult human erythroblasts and found that, globally, chromatin structures and compartments A/B are highly similar at both developmental stages. At a finer scale, we detected distinct folding patterns at the developmentally controlled β-globin locus. Specifically, new fetal stage-specific contacts were uncovered between a region separating the fetal (γ) and adult (δ and β) globin genes (encompassing the HBBP1 and BGLT3 noncoding genes) and two distal chromosomal sites (HS5 and 3'HS1) that flank the locus...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916647/the-effect-of-common-inversion-polymorphisms-in-2l-t-and-in-3r-mo-on-patterns-of-transcriptional-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Erik Lavington, Andrew D Kern
Chromosomal inversions are an ubiquitous feature of genetic variation. Theoretical models describe several mechanisms by which inversions can drive adaptation and be maintained as polymorphisms. While inversions have been shown previously to be under selection, or contain genetic variation under selection, the specific phenotypic consequences of inversions leading to their maintenance remain unclear. Here we use genomic sequence and expression data from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to explore the effects of two cosmopolitan inversions, In(2L)t and In(3R)Mo, on patterns of transcriptional variation...
September 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#15
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913734/molecular-profile-of-atypical-hyperplasia-of-the-breast
#16
REVIEW
David N Danforth
PURPOSE: Atypical ductal and atypical lobular hyperplasia (AH) of the breast are important proliferative lesions which are associated with a significantly increased risk for breast cancer. The breast cancer which develops in association with AH may occur synchronously, representing local progression, or metachronously at a later date in either the ipsilateral or contralateral breast. These high-risk characteristics of AH suggest they contain significant genomic changes. METHODS: To define the genomic changes in AH, a comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to identify the numerical chromosomal and structural chromosomal changes, DNA methylation, and gene expression abnormalities in atypical ductal and atypical lobular hyperplasia...
September 14, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913147/summary-of-2185-prenatal-invasive-procedures-in-a-single-center-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
Hüseyin Çağlayan Özcan, Mete Gürol Uğur, Seyhun Sucu, Aynur Mustafa, Neslihan Bayramoğlu Tepe, Özcan Balat
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, indications, and outcomes of diagnostic invasive prenatal procedures (DIPP) performed in a university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 2185 cases of DIPP (chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and cordocentesis) performed at the department of obstetrics and gynecology of a university hospital between 2010 and 2016. We included all DIPP cases performed between 11 and 24 weeks of gestation...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#18
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following klp-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905115/clinical-application-of-snp-array-analysis-in-fetuses-with-ventricular-septal-defects-and-normal-karyotypes
#19
Fang Fu, Qiong Deng, Ting-Ying Lei, Ru Li, Xiang-Yi Jing, Xin Yang, Can Liao
PURPOSE: The present study aims to evaluate the utility of high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in fetuses with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) with or without other structural anomalies but with normal karyotypes and to investigate the outcomes of cases of prenatal VSDs via clinical follow-up. METHODS: We analyzed 144 fetuses with VSDs and normal karyotypes using Affymetrix CytoScan HD arrays and the analyses were carried out a year after birth...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903997/mitotic-post-translational-modifications-of-histones-promote-chromatin-compaction-in-vitro
#20
Alisa Zhiteneva, Juan Jose Bonfiglio, Alexandr Makarov, Thomas Colby, Paola Vagnarelli, Eric C Schirmer, Ivan Matic, William C Earnshaw
How eukaryotic chromosomes are compacted during mitosis has been a leading question in cell biology since the nineteenth century. Non-histone proteins such as condensin complexes contribute to chromosome shaping, but appear not to be necessary for mitotic chromatin compaction. Histone modifications are known to affect chromatin structure. As histones undergo major changes in their post-translational modifications during mitotic entry, we speculated that the spectrum of cell-cycle-specific histone modifications might contribute to chromosome compaction during mitosis...
September 2017: Open Biology
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