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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778718/nimbolide-epigenetically-regulates-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer
#1
Venkatesh Pooladanda, Soumya Bandi, Sandhya Rani Mondi, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala, Chandraiah Godugu
Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation often results in various disease manifestations, including cancer. Nimbolide, an active chemical constituent of neem (Azadirachta indica) exhibits potent anticancer effects. Although, nimbolide mediated apoptosis activation in breast cancer cells is well known. Nevertheless, its role in autophagy induction mechanism and epigenetic alteration is not explored previously. Our current study intended to bridge the gaps in the existing research by exploring the potential of nimbolide in inducing autophagy, which could counter regulate the transformations in breast cancer...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770446/anticancer-activity-of-tetrandrine-by-inducing-pro-death-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#2
Xin-Yu Bai, Yuan-Gui Liu, Wu Song, Ying-Ying Li, Dong-Shun Hou, Hao-Ming Luo, Ping Liu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antitumour property of tetrandrine by inducing autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells, and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The antitumour activity of tetrandrine was assessed through MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and microscopic examination of cellular morphology. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by staining with Rh-123. Induction of autophagy was monitored by transmission electron microscopy observation, using GFP-LC3 transfection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762537/the-cardioprotective-effect-of-metformin-in-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-the-role-of-autophagy
#3
Rita Zilinyi, Attila Czompa, Andras Czegledi, Andrea Gajtko, Dora Pituk, Istvan Lekli, Arpad Tosaki
The molecular mechanisms underlying doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity are still being investigated, but are known to involve oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the dysregulation of autophagy. The objective of the current study was to examine the protective role of metformin and its effect on autophagy in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Sprague⁻Dawley rats were divided into four groups at random. The doxorubicin-treated group received doxorubicin (3 mg/kg every second day) intraperitoneally...
May 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729358/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-and-mitochondrial-damage-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-the-pink1-parkin-pathway
#4
Jian Yin, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Lan Cui, Li Zhang, Tingfen Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Alistair Middleton, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The usefulness of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer agent, is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria play a central role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity though the precise mechanisms are still obscure. Increasing evidence indicates that excessive activation of mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are key causal events leading to DOX-induced cardiac injury. The PINK1/parkin pathway has emerged as a critical pathway in regulation of mitophagy as well as mitochondrial function. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of PINK1/parkin pathway in DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and cardiotoxicity...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725398/ginkgolic-acids-induce-hepg2-cell-death-via-a-combination-of-apoptosis-autophagy-and-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#5
Qian-Ming Qi, Yin-Cun Xue, Jian Lv, Di Sun, Jian-Xin Du, Sheng-Qiang Cai, Yun-He Li, Tian-Cun Gu, Mu-Bing Wang
Ginkgolic acids may induce malignant cell death via the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway. Concurrently, apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction may also be involved in bringing about this endpoint. The anticancer effect of Ginkgolic acids (GAs) was investigated using the HepG2 cell line. The median lethal dose of the GAs of the HepG2 was measured via an MTT assay, the dose-response curves were evaluated and changes in cell morphology were monitored by microscopy...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705899/interplay-between-elemental-imbalance-related-pi3k-akt-mtor-regulated-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-arsenic-iii-induced-jejunum-toxicity-of-chicken
#6
Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Yizhi Shao, Juanjuan Liu, Jinglun Li, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ), the most toxic form of arsenic found in foodstuffs, is considered a carcinogen for human and animal. But many of the events that occur during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract are uncharted in birds. This study assesses the toxic effect on the jejunum of chicken which subchronically exposed to diets that contain As2 O3 (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 90 days. Electron microscopy, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), qPCR, and Western blot were performed...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692266/insights-into-the-biological-evaluation-of-pterocarpanquinones-and-carbapterocarpans-with-anti-tumor-activity-against-mdr-leukemias
#7
Vivian M Rumjanek, Raquel C Maia, Eduardo J Salustiano, Paulo R R Costa
In an attempt to find anticancer agents that could overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), two new classes of modified isoflavonoids were designed and synthesized, and their effectiveness evaluated against a vast array of tumor cell lines. Pterocarpanquinone (LQB-118) and 11a-aza-5-carbapterocarpan (LQB-223) were the most promising. LQB-118 induced cell death, in vitro, in the mM range, to a number of human cancer cell lines as well as to fresh tumor cells obtained from patients with acute or chronic myeloid leukemia, independent on whether they exhibit or not the MDR phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665360/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activation-protects-against-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-through-modulation-of-autophagy
#8
Zuoxu Hou, Yaguang Zhou, Hongyan Yang, Yan Liu, Xuechao Mao, Xinghua Qin, Xiaoliang Li, Xing Zhang, Yuanyuan Hu
Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) activation alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in α7nAChR-mediated cardioprotection and the molecular mechanisms involved. Activating α7nAChR with PNU-282987 at the initiation of reperfusion reduced myocardial infarct size in MI/R rats. PNU-282987 treatment also significantly inhibited MI/R-induced myocardial autophagy dysfunction as evidenced by the reduction of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and p62 abundance...
April 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656200/photoinduced-anticancer-activity-studies-of-iridium-iii-complexes-targeting-mitochondria-and-tubules
#9
Wen-Yao Zhang, Qian-Yan Yi, Yang-Jie Wang, Fan Du, Miao He, Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Yun-Jun Liu, Hong-Liang Huang
Three new iridium (III) complexes [Ir (ppy)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (1), [Ir (bzq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (2) and [Ir (piq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (3) were designed and synthesized. All the complexes were tested for anticancer activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) method. The complexes show no cytotoxic activity toward cancer BEL-7402, SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells. However, upon irradiation with white light, the complexes display high cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 5...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627502/juglone-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-via-modulation-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathways-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#10
Peng Wang, Chang Gao, Wei Wang, Li-Ping Yao, Jing Zhang, Sun-Dong Zhang, Ji Li, Shao-Hong Fang, Yu-Jie Fu
Juglone (JG), a naturally-occurring naphthoquinone of Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) was shown to inhibit proliferation in various tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms of JG on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in HepG2 cells have not been examined. Herein, we investigated that JG could inhibit cell proliferation by induction of G2/M phase arrest. Also, occurrence of apoptosis was closely related with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the changes of apoptosis-related proteins after treatment with JG...
April 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620258/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-eca%C3%A2-109-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway
#11
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Jincheng Lu, Yesong Guo, Huanfeng Zhu, Feijiang Wang
Autophagy inhibition is crucial for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of autophagy and its correlation with mitochondria in human esophageal carcinoma cells following treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Autophagy in Eca‑109 cells was induced under poor nutrient conditions. The formation of autophagic vacuoles was monitored using electron microscopy. In addition, cell apoptosis after IR and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616191/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-in-the-control-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondria-and-autophagy-in-cancer-a-maestro-with-a-large-orchestra
#12
REVIEW
Venturina Stagni, Claudia Cirotti, Daniela Barilà
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603067/secretome-of-differentiated-pc12-cells-restores-the-monocrotophos-induced-damages-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-shsy-5y-cells-role-of-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#13
A Srivastava, S Singh, C S Rajpurohit, P Srivastava, A Pandey, D Kumar, V K Khanna, A B Pant
A perturbed cellular homeostasis is a key factor associated with xenobiotic exposure resulting in various ailments. The local cellular microenvironment enriched with secretory components aids in cell-cell communication that restores this homeostasis. Deciphering the underlying mechanism behind this restorative potential of secretome could serve as a possible solution to many health hazards. We, therefore, explored the protective efficacy of the secretome of differentiated PC12 cells with emphasis on induction of autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis...
March 30, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594326/dysregulation-of-autophagy-in-rat-liver-with-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-induced-by-the-nucleoside-analogue-zidovudine
#14
Ana Santos-Llamas, Maria J Monte, Jose J G Marin, Maria J Perez
The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (AZT), used in HIV infection treatment, induces mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A cause-effect relationship between mtDNA status alterations and autophagy has been reported. Both events are common in several liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we have studied autophagy activation in rat liver with mtDNA depletion induced by AZT administration in drinking water for 35 days. AZT at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, but not 0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water, decreased mtDNA levels in rat liver and extrahepatic tissues...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551681/interferon-gamma-induces-autophagy-associated-apoptosis-through-induction-of-cpla2-dependent-mitochondrial-ros-generation-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Qiu-Shuang Wang, Shi-Qiang Shen, Hua-Wen Sun, Zhi-Xiang Xing, Hou-Lai Yang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in females and the third in males. In this work, we aim to investigate the possible anti-cancer effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in CRC cells. We observed that IFN-γ induced mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a time-dependent manner in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. The IFN-γ-induced mitochondrial ROS generation was dependent on the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In addition, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and/or cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3 abolished the IFN-γ-induced ROS production and subsequent autophagy and apoptosis...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547569/melatonin-balance-the-autophagy-and-apoptosis-by-regulating-ucp2-in-the-lps-induced-cardiomyopathy
#16
Pan Pan, Hongmin Zhang, Longxiang Su, Xiaoting Wang, Dawei Liu
To explore the mechanism of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) mediating the protective of melatonin when septic cardiomyopathy. UCP2 knocked out mice and cardiomyocytes were used to study the effect of melatonin in response to LPS. Indicators of myocardial and mitochondria injury including mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore, calcium loading, ROS, and ATP detection were assessed. In addition cell viability and apoptosis as well as autophagy-associated proteins were evaluated...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479301/homer1a-attenuates-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-damage-in-ht-22-cells-through-ampk-dependent-autophagy
#17
Xiuquan Wu, Peng Luo, Wei Rao, Shuhui Dai, Lei Zhang, Wenke Ma, Jingnan Pu, Yang Yu, Jiu Wang, Zhou Fei
Neuronal oxidative stress is involved in diverse neurological disorders. Homer1a, as an important member of the Homer family and localized at the postsynaptic density, is known to protect cells against oxidative injury. However, the exact neuroprotective mechanism of Homer1a has not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that Homer1a promoted cell viability and reduced H2 O2 -induced LDH release. The overexpression of Homer1a enhanced autophagy after H2 O2 treatment, which was confirmed by increased expression of LC3II, Beclin-1, and greater autophagosome formation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425932/ablation-of-c-ebp-homologous-protein-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-after-ureteral-obstruction-by-reducing-autophagy-and-microtubule-disruption
#18
Mi Ra Noh, Chang-Hoon Woo, Mae-Ja Park, Jee In Kim, Kwon Moo Park
Fibrosis is an undesirable consequence of injury and a critical problem in many diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated an association of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with fibrosis. We investigated the mechanism of CHOP in kidney fibrosis progression after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) using Chop gene-deleted (Chop-/- ) mice and their wild-type littermates (Chop+/+ ). UUO-induced kidney fibrosis was reduced in the Chop-/- than Chop+/+ mice. After UUO, CHOP expression was detected in the cytosol and nucleus of distal tubule cells and collecting duct cells of the kidney...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407753/schisandrin-c-enhances-odontoblastic-differentiation-through-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#19
Jyoti Shrestha Takanche, Jeong-Seok Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, S-H Han, Ho-Keun Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Schisandrin C in odontoblastic differentiation, and its relations between autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in human dental pulp cells (HPDCs). DESIGN: Fresh third molars were used, and cultured for HDPCs. Western blotting technique, Alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and confocal microscopy were used to detect autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and odontoblastic differentiation. To understand the mechanism of Schisandrin C, the HDPCs were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), autophagy and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitors: 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), respectively...
April 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396506/ormeloxifene-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-autophagy-associated-apoptosis-via-disruption-of-akt-mtor-and-activation-of-jnk
#20
Arindam Bhattacharjee, Mohammad Hasanain, Manoj Kathuria, Akhilesh Singh, Dipak Datta, Jayanta Sarkar, Kalyan Mitra
Autophagy, a regulated nutrient recycling program can affect both cell survival and cell death. Here, we show that Ormeloxifene (ORM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for oral contraceptive use induces autophagic flux in ovarian cancer cells, which is activated by an ER stress response upstream of autophagy. The ER stress response is characterized by activation of IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 and is under regulation of JNK. Pharmacological inhibition of either autophagy or ER stress increased cell survival, as did silencing of autophagy proteins LC3 and Beclin 1, implying that ORM-induced autophagy is pro-death in nature...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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