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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410195/antagonistic-effects-of-selenium-on-lead-induced-autophagy-by-influencing-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-spleen-of-chickens
#1
Yujing Han, Chunqiu Li, Mingjun Su, Zhihui Wang, Ning Jiang, Dongbo Sun
Lead (Pb) may damage the immune function in human and animal. Selenium (Se) has antagonistic effects on Pb. In our study, brown layer chickens were randomly allocated to control group, Se group (1 mg/kg Se), Se+Pb group (1 mg/kg Se and 350 mg/kg Pb), and Pb group (350 mg/kg Pb). The chickens were sacrificed on the 90th day; spleen tissues were subjected to observation of ultrastructure and detection of spleen-related indexes. The results revealed that in the Pb group, expression levels of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α significantly increased, and expression levels of IL-2 and INF-γ significantly decreased; activities of antioxidant enzyme GPX, SOD and CAT significantly decreased, and expression level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly increased; expression levels of mitochondrial fission-related genes (Mff and Drp1) significantly increased, and expression levels of mitochondrial fusion-related genes (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) significantly decreased; expression of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1, Dynein, Atg 5, LC3-I and LC-II) was upregulated, while expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407242/the-role-of-autophagy-in-pro-inflammatory-responses-of-microglia-activation-via-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-vitro
#2
Junli Ye, Zhongxin Jiang, Xuehong Chen, Mengyang Liu, Jing Li, Na Liu
Microglia over-activation contributes to neurodegenerative processes by neurotoxin factors and pro-inflammatory molecules of pro-inflammatory processes. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy pathway might be involved in microglial activation, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we regulated autophagy pathway of microglia in vitro by autophagy inhibition (3-methyladenine treatment, siRNA-Beclin 1 or siRNA-ATG5 transfection) or induction (rapamycin treatment) in murine microglial BV-2 cells or cultured primary mouse microglial cells...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396174/sirt3-confers-protection-against-neuronal-ischemia-by-inducing-autophagy-involvement-of-the-ampk-mtor-pathway
#3
Shu-Hui Dai, Tao Chen, Xia Li, Kang-Yi Yue, Peng Luo, Li-Kun Yang, Jie Zhu, Yu-Hai Wang, Zhou Fei, Xiao-Fan Jiang
Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) is a member of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of proteins located in mitochondria that influences almost every major aspect of mitochondrial biology, including ATP generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our previous study showed that Sirt3 exerts protective effects against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt3 in neuronal ischemia using an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Sirt3 was up-regulated by OGD and overexpression of Sirt3 through lentivirus transfection significantly reduced OGD-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neuronal apoptosis...
April 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386319/tetrahydrocurcumin-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway-by-modulating-autophagy-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Yongyue Gao, Zong Zhuang, Shanting Gao, Xiang Li, Zihuan Zhang, Zhennan Ye, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Mengliang Zhou, Xiao Han, Jie Li
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) has been identified as a multi-functional neuroprotective agent in numerous neurological disorders. Oxidative stress as a result of injury may induce neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment with THC may improve neurological function following TBI by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis and by enhancing autophagy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of neuroprotection by THC against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis after TBI...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381463/chronic-kidney-disease-induces-autophagy-leading-to-dysfunction-of-mitochondria-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Zhen Su, Janet D Klein, Jie DU, Harold A Franch, Liping Zhang, Faten Hassounah, Matthew B Hudson, Xiaonan H Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes loss of lean body mass by multiple mechanisms. This study examines whether autophagy-mediated proteolysis contributes to CKD-induced muscle wasting. We tested autophagy in the muscle of CKD mice with plantaris muscle overloading to mimic resistance exercise or with acupuncture plus low frequency electrical stimulation (Acu/LFES) treatment. In CKD muscle, Bnip3, Beclin-1, LC3II mRNAs and proteins were increased compared with control muscle, indicating autophagosome-lysosome formation induction...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347844/complex-inhibition-of-autophagy-by-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-shortens-lifespan-and-exacerbates-cardiac-aging
#6
Yingmei Zhang, Cong Wang, Jingmin Zou, Aijun Sun, Lindsay K Hueckstaedt, Junbo Ge, Jun Ren
Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a cascade of biological processes including aging. A number of autophagy regulators have been identified. Here we demonstrated that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), an enzyme with the most common single point mutation in humans, governs cardiac aging through regulation of autophagy. Myocardial mechanical and autophagy properties were examined in young (4 mo) and old (26-28 mo) wild-type (WT) and global ALDH2 transgenic mice...
March 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219700/inhibition-of-ros-production-autophagy-or-apoptosis-signaling-reversed-the-anticancer-properties-of-antrodia-salmonea-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells
#7
Chia-Ting Chang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Hui-Chi Huang, Varadharajan Thiyagarajan, Kai-Yuan Lin, Pei-Jane Huang, Jer-Yuh Liu, You-Cheng Hseu, Hsin-Ling Yang
We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of Antrodia salmonea (AS), a well-known edible/medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, on human triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells and xenografted nude mice; and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in autophagic- and apoptotic-cell death. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with fermented culture broth of AS (0-200 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability/growth. AS-induced autophagy was evidenced via increased LC3-II accumulation, GFP-LC3 puncta and AVOs formation in MDA-MB-231 cells...
February 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215535/ambra1-a-novel-bh3-like-protein-new-insights-into-the-ambra1-bcl2-family-proteins-relationship
#8
A Di Rita, F Strappazzon
Cellular homeostasis swings like a pendulum backward and forward between life and death. Two of the main processes, which regulate this equilibrium, are autophagy and apoptosis. While autophagy is a highly conserved self-digestion mechanism that mediates degradation of damaged or surplus components, apoptosis is a programmed cell suicide in which typical death signals induce the elimination of undesired cells. Both these processes are highly regulated by complex molecular machineries, including some common proteins whose "dual role" favors one process or the other...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112581/toxoplasma-gondii-induces-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-downregulation-of-mcl-1
#9
Jia-Qi Chu, Kai-Peng Jing, Xiang Gao, Peng Li, Rui Huang, Yan-Ru Niu, Shou-Quan Yan, Jun-Chao Kong, Cai-Yuan Yu, Ge Shi, Yi-Ming Fan, Young-Ha Lee, Yu Zhou, Juan-Hua Quan
Autophagy and apoptosis are critical for controlling Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. T. gondii infection during pregnancy can damage the fetus and cause birth defects; however, the molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the activities of autophagy and apoptosis as well as their regulatory mechanisms during T. gondii infection by using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a model of congenital diseases. LC3B, a hallmark protein of autophagy was incrementally upregulated with the infection duration, whereas p62 was downregulated in T...
March 4, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960106/aldose-reductase-deficiency-leads-to-oxidative-stress-induced-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-and-autophagic-abnormality-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Patrick K K Yeung, Angela K W Lai, Hyo Jin Son, Xu Zhang, Onyou Hwang, Stephen S M Chung, Sookja K Chung
Fungicide exposure causes degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Benomyl inhibits enzymes responsible for detoxifying the reactive dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Aldose reductase (AR) is known as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) reductase that generates BH4, a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) involved in dopamine synthesis. AR also acts as an aldehyde reductase involved in detoxifying 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. In PD patients, the level of AR is significantly lower in the cerebellum...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#11
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832632/autophagy-prevents-oxidative-stress-induced-loss-of-self-renewal-capacity-and-stemness-in-human-tendon-stem-cells-by-reducing-ros-accumulation
#12
Hua Chen, Heng-An Ge, Gen-Bing Wu, Biao Cheng, Yong Lu, Chaoyin Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tendon stem cells (TSCs) exhibit a high self-renewal capacity, multi-differentiation potential, and low immunogenicity; thus, these cells might provide a new cell source for tendon repair and regeneration. TSCs are exposed to increased oxidative stress at tendon injury sites; however, how TSCs maintain their stemness under oxidative stress is not clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that H2O2 treatment increased ROS accumulation in human TSCs (hTSCs) and resulted in loss of self-renewal capacity and stemness, as reflected in reduced colony formation and proliferation, decreased expression of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct-4, NS, and SSEA-4, and impaired differentiation capability...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809300/inhibition-of-autophagy-increased-age-ros-mediated-apoptosis-in-mesangial-cells
#13
Li Xu, Qiuling Fan, Xu Wang, Xue Zhao, Lining Wang
The aim of our study was to investigate the role of autophagy, a homeostatic process involved in the lysosomal degradation of damaged cell organelles and proteins, in regulating the survival of mesangial cells treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, AGEs induced mitochondrial depolarization and led to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells, as shown by the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential; increased Bax processing; increased Caspase-9, Caspase-3 and PARP cleavage; and decreased Bcl-2 expression...
November 3, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784315/intraoperative-hemidiaphragm-electrical-stimulation-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-upregulates-autophagy-in-surgery-patients-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation-exploratory-study
#14
Robert T Mankowski, Shakeel Ahmed, Thomas Beaver, Marvin Dirain, Chul Han, Phillip Hess, Tomas Martin, Barbara K Smith, Shinichi Someya, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, A Daniel Martin
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) during a cardio-thoracic surgery contributes to diaphragm muscle dysfunction that impairs weaning and can lead to the ventilator- induced diaphragm dysfunction. Especially, it is critical in older adults who have lower muscle reparative capacity following MV. Reports have shown that the intraoperative intermittent hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation can maintain and/or improve post-surgery diaphragm function. In particular, from a molecular point of view, intermittent ES may reduce oxidative stress and increase regulatory autophagy levels, and therefore improve diaphragm function in animal studies...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755961/marrubium-vulgare-ethanolic-extract-induces-proliferation-block-apoptosis-and-cytoprotective-autophagy-in-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#15
V Paunovic, M Kosic, S Djordjevic, A Zugic, N Djalinac, U Gasic, V Trajkovic, J Harhaji-Trajkovic
Marrubium vulgare is a European medicinal plant with numerous beneficial effects on human health. The aim of the study was to isolate the plant ethanolic extract (MVE) and to investigate its anti-melanoma and anti-glioma effects. MVE was prepared by the modified pharmacopoeial percolation method and characterized by UHPLC-LTQ OrbiTrap MS. MVE dose-dependently reduced viability of melanoma (B16) and glioma (U251) cells, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It arrested cell cycle in S+G2/M phase, which was associated with the activation of MAP kinase p38 and up-regulation of antiproliferative genes p53, p21 and p27...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713820/fibromyalgia-syndrome-metabolic-and-autophagic-processes-in-intermittent-cold-stress-mice
#16
Lisa Oezel, Hanna Then, Anna L Jung, Samir Jabari, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Thaddeus T Wissniowski, Susanne F Önel, Matthias Ocker, Kati Thieme, Ralf Kinscherf, Pietro Di Fazio
Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and depression. The aim was to analyze potential mitochondrial dysfunction or autophagy in mice after exposure to intermittent cold stress (ICS). Muscle and liver specimens were obtained from 36 mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP1LC3B) and glycogen content were determined histologically; muscle ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Mitochondrial- and autophagy-related markers were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711766/cyclometallated-iridium-complexes-inducing-paraptotic-cell-death-like-natural-products-synthesis-structure-and-mechanistic-aspects
#17
Suman Kumar Tripathy, Umasankar De, Niranjan Dehury, Paltan Laha, Manas Kumar Panda, Hyung Sik Kim, Srikanta Patra
Six mononuclear Ir complexes (1-6) using polypyridyl-pyrazine based ligands (L1 and L2) and {[cp*IrCl(μ-Cl)]2 and [(ppy)2Ir(μ-Cl)]2} precursors have been synthesised and characterised. Complexes 1-5 have shown potent anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, LNCap, Ishikawa, DU145, PC3 and SKOV3) while complex 6 is found to be inactive. Flow cytometry studies have established that cellular accumulation of the complexes lies in the order 2 > 1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 6 which is in accordance with their observed cytotoxicity...
September 27, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707689/caveolin-3-plays-a-critical-role-in-autophagy-after-ischemia-reperfusion
#18
Adam Kassan, Uyen Pham, Quynhmy Nguyen, Melissa E Reichelt, Eunbyul Cho, Piyush M Patel, David M Roth, Brian P Head, Hemal H Patel
Autophagy is a dynamic recycling process responsible for the breakdown of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, providing nutrients and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. Loss of autophagy is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), a muscle-specific isoform, is a structural protein within caveolae and is critical to stress adaptation in the heart. Whether Cav-3 plays a role in regulating autophagy to modulate cardiac stress responses remains unknown. In the present study, we used HL-1 cells, a cardiac muscle cell line, with stable Cav-3 knockdown (Cav-3 KD) and Cav-3 overexpression (Cav-3 OE) to study the impact of Cav-3 in regulation of autophagy...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679973/nur77-exacerbates-pc12-cellular-injury-in-vitro-by-aggravating-mitochondrial-impairment-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#19
Huimin Gao, Zhaoyu Chen, Yongmei Fu, Xiaoyan Yang, Ruihui Weng, Rui Wang, Jianjun Lu, Mengqiu Pan, Kunlin Jin, Chris McElroy, Beisha Tang, Ying Xia, Qing Wang
The nuclear orphan receptor, Nur77 plays important roles in neuroimflammation, apoptosis, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We conducted a further mechanistic investigation into the association of Nur77 with cell death. Cytosporone B (Csn-B), an agonist for Nur77, and Nur77 knockdown were adopted in the 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned PC12 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying Nur77-mediated injury. The 6-OHDA incubation caused Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to cytosol and Endoplasm reticulum (ER) and induced co-localization of Tom20/Nur77 and Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI)/Nur77...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666506/inhibition-of-autophagy-sensitises-cells-to-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptosis-protective-effect-of-mild-thermotolerance-acquired-at-40%C3%A2-c
#20
Maureen Redza-Dutordoir, Sarah Kassis, Hou Ve, Mélanie Grondin, Diana A Averill-Bates
Various toxic compounds produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress that threatens cellular homeostasis. Yet, lower doses of stress can stimulate defence systems allowing cell survival, whereas intense stress activates cell death pathways such as apoptosis. Mild thermal stress (40°C, 3h) induces thermotolerance, an adaptive survival response that renders cells less sensitive to subsequent toxic stress, by activating defence systems like heat shock proteins, antioxidants, anti-apoptotic and ER-stress factors...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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