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TSH AND Melatonin

Cristina Sáenz de Miera, Béatrice Bothorel, Catherine Jaeger, Valérie Simonneaux, David Hazlerigg
In wild mammals, offspring development must anticipate forthcoming metabolic demands and opportunities. Within species, different developmental strategies may be used, dependent on when in the year conception takes place. This phenotypic flexibility is initiated before birth and is linked to the pattern of day length (photoperiod) exposure experienced by the mother during pregnancy. This programming depends on transplacental communication via the pineal hormone melatonin. Here, we show that, in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), the programming effect of melatonin is mediated by the pars tuberalis (PT) of the fetal pituitary gland, before the fetal circadian system and autonomous melatonin production is established...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Rosario D'Anna, Angelo Santamaria, Grazia Giorgianni, Alberto Vaiarelli, Giuseppe Gullo, Flavia Di Bari, Salvatore Benvenga
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on serum insulin and serum thyroid profile of a dietary supplement, myo-inositol, given alone or in combination with melatonin to women during menopausal transition. METHODS: Forty women aged 45-55 years and at least 6 months of amenorrhea were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 each. One group took myo-inositol (myo-Ins) (2 g twice a day) and the other group took 2 g/d myo-Ins plus 3 g/d melatonin before sleeping...
April 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
Ewa Walecka-Kapica, Grażyna Klupińska, Jan Chojnacki, Karolina Tomaszewska-Warda, Aleksandra Błońska, Cezary Chojnacki
AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation on the nutritional status of postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 56 women (51-65 years) and 25 healthy women (27-36 years). The emotional state was assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the quality of sleep using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were also calculated. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (control) - 25 women with normal body weight, group II - 26 postmenopausal women with normal body weight, group III - 30 postmenopausal women with high body weight...
December 2014: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Daniel F Kripke, Jeffrey A Elliott, David K Welsh, Shawn D Youngstedt
Seasonal effects on mood have been observed throughout much of human history.  Seasonal changes in animals and plants are largely mediated through the changing photoperiod (i.e., the photophase or duration of daylight).  We review that in mammals, daylight specifically regulates SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) circadian organization and its control of melatonin secretion.  The timing of melatonin secretion interacts with gene transcription in the pituitary pars tuberalis to modulate production of TSH (thyrotropin), hypothalamic T3 (triiodothyronine), and tuberalin peptides which modulate pituitary production of regulatory gonadotropins and other hormones...
2015: F1000Research
Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, José Córdoba-Chacón, Manuel D Gahete, Rhonda D Kineman, Justo P Castaño, Raúl M Luque
Melatonin (MT) is secreted by the pineal gland and exhibits a striking circadian rhythm in its release. Depending on the species studied, some pituitary hormones also display marked circadian/seasonal patterns and rhythms of secretion. However, the precise relationship between MT and pituitary function remains controversial, and studies focusing on the direct role of MT in normal pituitary cells are limited to nonprimate species. Here, adult normal primate (baboons) primary pituitary cell cultures were used to determine the direct impact of MT on the functioning of all pituitary cell types from the pars distalis...
March 2015: Endocrinology
Brian K Follett
This perspective considers first the general issue of seasonality and how it is shaped ecologically. It asks what is the relative importance of "strategic" (photoperiod-dependent) versus "tactical" (supplemental) cues in seasonality and what neural circuits are involved? It then considers recent developments as reflected in the Special Issue. What don't we understand about the photoperiodic clock and also the long-term timing mechanisms underlying refractoriness? Are these latter related to the endogenous annual rhythms? Can we finally identify the opsins involved in photodetection? What is the present position with regard to melatonin as "the" annual calendar? An exciting development has been the recognition of the involvement of thyroid hormones in seasonality but how does the Dio/TSH/thyroid hormone pathway integrate with downstream components of the photoperiodic response system? Finally, there are the seasonal changes within the central nervous system itself--perhaps the most exciting aspect of all...
April 2015: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
György Csaba
Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands...
September 2014: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Cristina Sáenz de Miera, Stefanie Monecke, Julien Bartzen-Sprauer, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Paul Pévet, David G Hazlerigg, Valérie Simonneaux
Animals living in temperate zones anticipate seasonal environmental changes to adapt their biological functions, especially reproduction and metabolism. Two main physiological mechanisms have evolved for this adaptation: intrinsic long-term timing mechanisms with an oscillating period of approximately 1 year, driven by a circannual clock [1], and synchronization of biological rhythms to the sidereal year using day length (photoperiod) [2]. In mammals, the pineal hormone melatonin relays photoperiodic information to the hypothalamus to control seasonal physiology through well-defined mechanisms [3-6]...
July 7, 2014: Current Biology: CB
Yusuke Nakane, Takashi Yoshimura
Most vertebrates living outside the tropical zone show robust physiological responses in response to seasonal changes in photoperiod, such as seasonal reproduction, molt, and migration. The highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanism in Japanese quail has been used to uncover the mechanism of seasonal reproduction. Molecular analysis of quail mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) revealed that local thyroid hormone activation within the MBH plays a critical role in the photoperiodic response of gonads. This activation is accomplished by two gene switches: thyroid hormone-activating (DIO2) and thyroid hormone-inactivating enzymes (DIO3)...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shona Wood, Andrew Loudon
Adaptation to the environment is essential for survival, in all wild animal species seasonal variation in temperature and food availability needs to be anticipated. This has led to the evolution of deep-rooted physiological cycles, driven by internal clocks, which can track seasonal time with remarkable precision. Evidence has now accumulated that a seasonal change in thyroid hormone (TH) availability within the brain is a crucial element. This is mediated by local control of TH-metabolising enzymes within specialised ependymal cells lining the third ventricle of the hypothalamus...
August 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
Long-lived animals such as birds and mammals adapt readily to seasonal changes in their environment. They integrate environmental cues with their internal clocks to prepare and time seasonal physiological changes. This is reflected in several seasonal phenotypes, particularly in those linked with migration, hibernation, pelage growth, reproduction and molt. The two endocrine secretions that play key roles in regulating the seasonal physiology are melatonin and thyroid hormone. Whereas, melatonin is used as an endocrine index of day length (and consequently duration of night), the seasonal up- and down-regulation of thyroid hormone affects the physiology, perhaps by influencing different pathways...
May 2014: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
H Iwama, M Adachi, C Tase, Y Akama
To examine the effects of bilateral cervical sympathectomy on the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL), 18 male rats were divided into three groups: control (Cont), sham operation (Sham), and bilateral cervical sympathectomy (Symp). All rats were kept under a normal circadian rhythm for 2 weeks. Subsequently, blood was collected and plasma ACTH as well as serum TSH, GH, and PRL levels were measured. The difference in ACTH levels between the Cont and Sham groups was not significant, but ACTH levels in the Symp group were significantly higher than those in the other groups...
September 1996: Journal of Anesthesia
Kaori Tsujino, Ryohei Narumi, Koh-hei Masumoto, Etsuo A Susaki, Yuta Shinohara, Takaya Abe, Masayuki Iigo, Atsushi Wada, Mamoru Nagano, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Hiroki R Ueda
Organisms have seasonal physiological changes in response to day length. Long-day stimulation induces thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHβ) in the pars tuberalis (PT), which mediates photoperiodic reactions like day-length measurement and physiological adaptation. However, the mechanism of TSHβ induction for day-length measurement is largely unknown. To screen candidate upstream molecules of TSHβ, which convey light information to the PT, we generated Luciferase knock-in mice, which quantitatively report the dynamics of TSHβ expression...
July 2013: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Zofia Ostrowska, Katarzyna Ziora, Joanna Oświęcimska, Kinga Wołkowska-Pokrywa, Bożena Szapska
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that disturbances in melatonin (MEL) secretion might play a role in osteoporosis development in females with anorexia nervosa (AN). It might be hypothesized that changes in the levels of hormones of the pituitary-ovarian, -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes might mediate the potential relationship between MEL and bone tissue. AIM: We investigated whether a relationship existed between MEL and LH, FSH-E2, TSH-FT3, FT4 and ACTH-cortisol axes in girls with AN...
2013: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Takashi Yoshimura
Organisms living outside the tropics use changes in photoperiod to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Several models have contributed to an understanding of this mechanism at the molecular and endocrine levels. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of these mechanisms because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. Studies of birds have demonstrated that light is perceived by a deep brain photoreceptor and long day-induced thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland causes local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH)...
August 2013: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Paul Klosen, Marie-Emilie Sébert, Kamontip Rasri, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Valérie Simonneaux
In mammals, melatonin is the pivotal messenger synchronizing biological functions, notably reproductive activity, with annual daylength changes. Recently, two major findings clarified melatonin's mode of action. First, melatonin controls the production of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis. This TSH regulates local thyroid hormone availability in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Second, the RF-amides kisspeptin and RFRP-3, recently discovered regulators of the gonadotropic axis, are involved in the melatonin control of reproduction...
July 2013: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Keisuke Ikegami, Masayuki Iigo, Takashi Yoshimura
In mammals, light information received by the eyes is transmitted to the pineal gland via the circadian pacemaker, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland at night decodes night length and regulates seasonal physiology and behavior. Melatonin regulates the expression of the β-subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; Tshb) in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. Long day-induced PT TSH acts on ependymal cells in the mediobasal hypothalamus to induce the expression of type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) and reduce type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) that are thyroid hormone-activating and hormone-inactivating enzymes, respectively...
2013: PloS One
Sunantha Kosonsiriluk, Laura J Mauro, Voravasa Chaiworakul, Yupaporn Chaiseha, Mohamed E El Halawani
The pathway for light transmission regulating the reproductive neuroendocrine system in temperate zone birds remains elusive. Based on the evidence provided from our studies with female turkeys, it is suggested that the circadian clock regulating reproductive seasonality is located in putatively photosensitive dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurons residing in the premammillary nucleus (PMM) of the caudal hypothalamus. Melanopsin is expressed by these neurons; a known photopigment which mediates light information pertaining to the entrainment of the clock...
September 1, 2013: General and Comparative Endocrinology
I Zofková
Bone remodeling is determined by function of two basic cell forms--bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone formation activating osteoblasts. Both cells are under control of a variety of endogenic and environmental factors, which ensure balance between bone resorption and bone formation. This article reviews the neuro-hormonal factors with osteoanabolic (central isoform of serotonin, melatonin, cannabinoids, beta 1 adrenergic system, oxytocin, ACTH and TSH) or osteocatabolic effects (neuropeptide Y, neuromedin U, beta2 adrenergic system)...
2012: Ceskoslovenská Fysiologie
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