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phosphatidylserine, multiple sclerosis

Christian W Keller, Jan D Lünemann
Reactivation and expansion of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrated that accumulation of myelin-specific CD4+ T cells within the CNS and subsequent clinical disease development require autophagy related (ATG) protein-dependent phagocytosis in dendritic cells (DCs). Genetic ablation of this pathway impairs presentation of myelin-associated antigen following phagocytosis of injured, phosphatidylserine-exposing oligodendroglial cells...
January 25, 2018: Autophagy
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Alberto Lazarowski
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Ilaria Prada, Martina Gabrielli, Elena Turola, Alessia Iorio, Giulia D'Arrigo, Roberta Parolisi, Mariacristina De Luca, Marco Pacifici, Mattia Bastoni, Marta Lombardi, Giuseppe Legname, Dan Cojoc, Annalisa Buffo, Roberto Furlan, Francesca Peruzzi, Claudia Verderio
Recent evidence indicates synaptic dysfunction as an early mechanism affected in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, which are characterized by chronic microglia activation. However, the mode(s) of action of reactive microglia in causing synaptic defects are not fully understood. In this study, we show that inflammatory microglia produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are enriched in a set of miRNAs that regulate the expression of key synaptic proteins. Among them, miR-146a-5p, a microglia-specific miRNA not present in hippocampal neurons, controls the expression of presynaptic synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) and postsynaptic neuroligin1 (Nlg1), an adhesion protein which play a crucial role in dendritic spine formation and synaptic stability...
April 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Christian W Keller, Christina Sina, Monika B Kotur, Giulia Ramelli, Sarah Mundt, Isaak Quast, Laure-Anne Ligeon, Patrick Weber, Burkhard Becher, Christian Münz, Jan D Lünemann
Although reactivation and accumulation of autoreactive CD4+ T cells within the CNS are considered to play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mechanisms of how these cells recognize their target organ and induce sustained inflammation are incompletely understood. Here, we report that mice with conditional deletion of the essential autophagy protein ATG5 in classical dendritic cells (DCs), which are present at low frequencies in the nondiseased CNS, are completely resistant to EAE development following adoptive transfer of myelin-specific T cells and show substantially reduced in situ CD4+ T cell accumulation during the effector phase of the disease...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Irma Pujol-Autonell, Maria-Jose Mansilla, Silvia Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mary Cano-Sarabia, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Rosa-Maria Ampudia, Aleix Rius, Sonia Garcia-Jimeno, David Perna-Barrull, Eva Martinez-Caceres, Daniel Maspoch, Marta Vives-Pi
AIM: Based on the ability of apoptosis to induce immunological tolerance, liposomes were generated mimicking apoptotic cells, and they arrest autoimmunity in Type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to validate the immunotherapy in other autoimmune disease: multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes were loaded with disease-specific autoantigen. Therapeutic capability of liposomes was assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Liposomes induced a tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells, and arrested autoimmunity, thus decreasing the incidence, delaying the onset and reducing the severity of experimental disease, correlating with an increase in a probably regulatory CD25(+) FoxP3(-) CD4(+) T-cell subset...
June 2017: Nanomedicine
Amber C Chevalier, Thad A Rosenberger
Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA metabolism, alters histone and non-histone protein acetylation, increases brain energy reserves, and is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in rat models of neuroinflammation and neuroborreliosis. To determine the impact acetate supplementation has on a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we quantified the effect treatment had on injury progression, spinal cord lipid content, phospholipase levels, and myelin structure in mice subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
June 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Dana Ben-Ami Shor, Guy A Weiss, Ori Barzilai, Maya Ram, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yaniv Sherer
BACKGROUND: The association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested previously, but prior studies provided contradicting findings. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the expression profile of eight classic and non-classic aPL in patients diagnosed with MS. METHODS: Using the BioPlex 2200 immunoassay, we measured the levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG isotypes of three classic aPL and five non-classic aPL in 98 subjects with MS and 237 healthy controls...
September 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Reid A Roberts, Timothy K Eitas, James D Byrne, Brandon M Johnson, Patrick J Short, Karen P McKinnon, Shannon Reisdorf, J Christopher Luft, Joseph M DeSimone, Jenny P Ting
The possibility of engineering the immune system in a targeted fashion using biomaterials such as nanoparticles has made considerable headway in recent years. However, little is known as to how modulating the spatial presentation of a ligand augments downstream immune responses. In this report we show that geometric manipulation of phosphatidylserine (PS) through fabrication on rod-shaped PLGA nanoparticles robustly dampens inflammatory responses from innate immune cells while promoting T regulatory cell abundance by impeding effector T cell expansion...
December 2015: Biomaterials
Dominique F Leitner, Bozho Todorich, Xuesheng Zhang, James R Connor
We have previously established that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 2 (Tim2) is an H-ferritin receptor on oligodendrocytes (OLs). Tim2 also binds Semaphorin4A (Sema4A). Sema4A is expressed by lymphocytes, and its role in immune activation is known; however, its relationship to diseases that are known to have myelin damage has not been studied. In this study, we demonstrate that Sema4A is cytotoxic to OLs in culture: an effect accompanied by process collapse, membrane blebbing, and phosphatidylserine inversion...
May 2015: ASN Neuro
Markus Arnold, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mitoxantrone, a cytotoxic drug used for the treatment of malignancy and multiple sclerosis, is at least in part effective by triggering apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a type of suicidal cell death. Hallmarks of eryptosis are cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signalling involved in eryptosis include Ca(2+)-entry, ceramide formation and oxidative stress...
2014: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jeroen F J Bogie, Winde Jorissen, Jo Mailleux, Philip G Nijland, Noam Zelcer, Tim Vanmierlo, Jack Van Horssen, Piet Stinissen, Niels Hellings, Jerome J A Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Foamy macrophages, containing myelin degradation products, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Recent studies have described an altered phenotype of macrophages after myelin internalization. However, mechanisms by which myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype influences lesion progression remain unclear. RESULTS: We demonstrate that myelin as well as phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid found in myelin, reduce nitric oxide production by macrophages through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ)...
2013: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Gloudina M Hon, Mogamat S Hassan, Susan J van Rensburg, Stefan Abel, Rajiv T Erasmus, Tandi Matsha
Immune cell membrane lipids are important determinants of membrane fluidity, eicosanoid production and phagocytosis and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities have been reported in immune cells from patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cell membrane fluidity, permeability status, and disease outcome as measured by the Kurtzke expanded disability status scale. Phospholipids, fatty acids and cholesterol composition in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 26 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and 25 healthy control subjects were determined by colorimetric assay, gas chromatography and enzymatic assays, respectively...
March 2012: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Sabrina Grecchi, Giuliano Mazzini, Antonella Lisa, Marie-Therese Armentero, Roberto Bergamaschi, Alfredo Romani, Fabio Blandini, Carol Di Perri, Anna Ivana Scovassi
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, the etiology of which, although not completely known, involves inflammation and autoimmunity. In the present study we aimed at identifying molecular markers of apoptosis, cellular stress and DNA damage in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients. The analysis was carried on 19 relapsing-remitting untreated MS patients and 13 healthy individuals. We investigated the emergency-driven synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), the expression level of the constitutive enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX...
2012: PloS One
Sukhvir Chand, Nisha Mehta, Malkeet Singh Bahia, Anshuman Dixit, Om Silakari
PKC-θ is a serine/threonine specific protein kinase and its activation depends upon the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipids (phosphatidylserine). PKC-θ phosphorylates a variety of proteins that are known to be involved in the diverse cellular signaling pathways. It is predominantly expressed in the T-cells and localized in the center of immunological synapse upon T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signaling. Activation of PKC-θ leads to the activation of various transcription factors in the nuclei of T-cells, e...
2012: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Peggy P Ho, Jennifer L Kanter, Amanda M Johnson, Hrishikesh K Srinagesh, Eun-Ju Chang, Timothy M Purdy, Keith van Haren, William R Wikoff, Tobias Kind, Mohsen Khademi, Laura Y Matloff, Sirisha Narayana, Eun Mi Hur, Tamsin M Lindstrom, Zhigang He, Oliver Fiehn, Tomas Olsson, Xianlin Han, May H Han, Lawrence Steinman, William H Robinson
Lipids constitute 70% of the myelin sheath, and autoantibodies against lipids may contribute to the demyelination that characterizes multiple sclerosis (MS). We used lipid antigen microarrays and lipid mass spectrometry to identify bona fide lipid targets of the autoimmune response in MS brain, and an animal model of MS to explore the role of the identified lipids in autoimmune demyelination. We found that autoantibodies in MS target a phosphate group in phosphatidylserine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine derivatives...
June 6, 2012: Science Translational Medicine
Seung-Chul Choi, Venkateswara R Simhadri, Linjie Tian, Aleksandra Gil-Krzewska, Konrad Krzewski, Francisco Borrego, John E Coligan
Reportedly, CD300f negatively regulates interactions between dendritic and T cells and acts as an anti-inflammatory molecule in a multiple sclerosis mouse model. We found that a CD300f/Fc chimeric protein specifically binds to apoptotic/dead splenocytes and to apoptotic cells from starved or irradiated lymphocytic cell lines, an observation extended to insect cells. CD300f also binds PMA/ionomycin-activated splenocytes and Ag-stimulated T cells, an interaction inhibited by Annexin V. By ELISA, cosedimentation, and surface plasmon resonance using phospholipid-containing liposomes, we show that CD300f preferentially binds phosphatidylserine and requires a metal ion...
October 1, 2011: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Majid Assadi, Reza Nemati, Iraj Nabipour, Hooman Salimipour, Abdullatif Amini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that involves myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons and culminates in consecutive neuronal death and progressive neurologic disability. Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuroaxonal loss in MS results in brain atrophy and has a strong correlation with neurological disability. The newer MR imaging tools seem to be sensitive biomarkers for measuring the pathogenetic processes associated with disease activity and progression...
July 2011: Medical Hypotheses
Gloudina Hon, Mogamat Hassan, Susan Janse van Rensburg, Stefan Abel, De Wet Marais, Paul van Jaarsveld, Cornelius Smuts, Franclo Henning, Rajiv Erasmus, Tandi Matsha
Measurement of fatty acids in biological fluids and cell membranes including leucocytes from multiple sclerosis patients is inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid composition within the different membrane phospholipid fractions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosis patients, and correlate with severity of neurological outcome as measured by the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale and Functional System Scores. The fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylinositol phospholipids in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of twenty-six multiple sclerosis and twenty-five control subjects were measured by GC, and C-reactive protein was measured in all subjects...
November 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
Gilles N Chironi, Chantal M Boulanger, Alain Simon, Françoise Dignat-George, Jean-Marie Freyssinet, Alain Tedgui
Microparticles are submicron vesicles shed from plasma membranes in response to cell activation, injury, and/or apoptosis. The measurement of the phospholipid content (mainly phosphatidylserine; PSer) of microparticles and the detection of proteins specific for the cells from which they are derived has allowed their quantification and characterization. Microparticles of various cellular origin (platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells) are found in the plasma of healthy subjects, and their amount increases under pathological conditions...
January 2009: Cell and Tissue Research
Abdiwahab A Musse, Eugenia Polverini, Reinout Raijmakers, George Harauz
Multiple sclerosis is a complex human neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the active destruction of the insulating myelin sheath around the axons in the central nervous system. The physical deterioration of myelin is mediated by hyperdeimination of myelin basic and other proteins, catalysed by the Ca2+ -dependent enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2). Thus, inhibition of PAD2 may be of value in treatment of this disease. Here, we have first characterized the in vitro kinetic properties of the human peptidylarginine deiminase isoform 2 (hPAD2)...
October 2008: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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