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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786975/a-comparison-of-one-stage-vs-two-stage-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-methods-a-simulation-study
#1
Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for the exploration of heterogeneity and can identify subgroups that most benefit from an intervention (or exposure), much more successfully than meta-analysis of aggregate data. One-stage or two-stage IPD meta-analysis is possible, with the former using mixed-effects regression models and the latter obtaining study-estimates through simpler regression models before aggregating using standard meta-analysis methodology. However, a comprehensive comparison of the two methods, in practice, is lacking...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786604/size-shape-and-compositional-effects-on-the-order-disorder-phase-transitions-in-au-cu-and-pt-m-m-fe-co-and-ni-nanocluster-alloys
#2
Forrest H Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel
Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) nanocluster alloys are currently being investigated world-wide by many researchers for their interesting catalytic and nanophase properties. The low temperature behavior of the phase diagrams is not well understood for alloys with nanometer sizes and shapes. We consider two models for low temperature ordering in the phase diagrams of Au-Cu and Pt-M nanocluster alloys. These models are valid for sizes ∼ 5 nm and approach bulk values for sizes ∼ 20 nm. We study the phase transitions in nanoclusters with cubic, octahedral, and cuboctahedral shapes, covering the compositions of interest...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786474/a-mixed-methods-investigation-of-clicker-implementation-styles-in-stem
#3
Erin D Solomon, Michelle D Repice, Jacinta M Mutambuki, Denise A Leonard, Cheryl A Cohen, Jia Luo, Regina F Frey
Active learning with clickers is a common approach in high-enrollment, lecture-based courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this study, we describe the procedures that faculty at one institution used when implementing clicker-based active learning, and how they situated these activities in their class sessions. Using a mixed-methods approach, we categorized faculty into four implementation styles based on quantitative observation data and conducted qualitative interviews to further understand why faculty used these styles...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785874/-because-the-baby-asks-for-it-a-mixed-methods-study-on-local-perceptions-toward-nutrition-during-pregnancy-among-marginalised-migrant-women-along-the-myanmar-thailand-border
#4
Ahmar H Hashmi, Moo Kho Paw, Suphak Nosten, Mu Chae Darakamon, Mary Ellen Gilder, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Verena I Carrara, Kremlin Wickramasinghe, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Emma Plugge, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Under- and over-nutrition during pregnancy are known risk factors for pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Understanding perceptions around nutrition in pregnancy can create culturally appropriate interventions for improved health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: A mixed-methods study was performed to explore local perceptions and practices of diet and physical activity in pregnancy in a marginalised population along the Myanmar-Thailand border...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785624/longitudinal-neuroimaging-hippocampal-markers-for-diagnosing-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Carlos Platero, Lin Lin, M Carmen Tobar
Hippocampal atrophy measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are powerful tools for monitoring Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this paper, we introduce a longitudinal image analysis framework based on robust registration and simultaneous hippocampal segmentation and longitudinal marker classification of brain MRI of an arbitrary number of time points. The framework comprises two innovative parts: a longitudinal segmentation and a longitudinal classification step. The results show that both steps of the longitudinal pipeline improved the reliability and the accuracy of the discrimination between clinical groups...
May 21, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785609/evaluation-of-focei-and-saem-estimation-methods-in-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-using-nonmem-%C3%A2-across-rich-medium-and-sparse-sampling-data
#6
Waroonrat Sukarnjanaset, Thitima Wattanavijitkul, Sutep Jarurattanasirikul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: First-order conditional estimation with interaction (FOCEI) is one of the most commonly used estimation methods in nonlinear mixed effects modeling, while the stochastic approximation expectation maximization (SAEM) is the newer estimation algorithm. This work aimed to compare the performance of FOCEI and SAEM methods when using NONMEM® with the classical one- and two-compartment models across rich, medium, and sparse data. METHODS: One- and two-compartment models of the previous studies were used to simulate data in three scenarios: rich, medium, and sparse data...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785569/association-between-firearm-laws-and-homicide-in-urban-counties
#7
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Alex McCourt, Jon S Vernick, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel W Webster
Laws related to the sale, use, and carrying of firearms have been associated with differences in firearm homicide rates at the state level. Right-to-carry (RTC) and stand your ground (SYG) laws are associated with increases in firearm homicide; permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws and those prohibiting individuals convicted of violent misdemeanors (VM) have been associated with decreases in firearm homicide. Evidence for the effect of comprehensive background checks (CBC) not tied to PTP is inconclusive. Because firearm homicide tends to concentrate in urban areas, this study was designed to test the effects of firearm laws on homicide in large, urban U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785539/the-effect-of-spironolactone-on-the-incidence-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-catheterization-study-design-and-rationale
#8
Alhasan Mujtaba, Mohammed A Taher, Mazin A Hazza, Hassan M Al-Rubaye, Asaad H Kata, Hamid AbdulWahab, AbdulAmeer AbdulBari, Hayder K AlRubay
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing coronary catheterization are at high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) acute kidney injury (AKI). Several approaches have been supposed to limit such an effect but with mixed results or non-practical methods. Spironolactone is supposed to be effective as a nephroprotective agent in animal studies. This study will try to measure the effect of spironolactone on the incidence of CIN-AKI in patients undergoing coronary catheterization (angiography angioplasty)...
May 21, 2018: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#9
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785169/self-reported-functional-communicative-and-critical-health-literacy-on-foodborne-diseases-in-accra-ghana
#10
Sangeeta Gupta, Raymond Asare Tutu, John Boateng, Janice Desire Busingye, Sathya Elavarthi
Background: Although substantial progress has been made in reducing total mortality resulting from foodborne diseases, diarrheal illness are still the second most common illnesses among children. In Ghana, foodborne diseases have consistently been among the top 20 causes of outpatient illness over the last couple of decades. This study, therefore, examines health literacy on foodborne diseases and the relative effects of health literacy on self-rated health. Methods: Foodborne diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784549/cost-implications-of-varying-the-surgical-technique-surgical-setting-and-anesthesia-type-for-carpal-tunnel-release-surgery
#11
Nikolas H Kazmers, Angela P Presson, Yizhe Xu, Abby Howenstein, Andrew R Tyser
PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel release (CTR) is a common surgical procedure, representing a financial burden to the health care system. The purpose of this study was to test whether the choice of CTR technique (open carpal tunnel release [OCTR] vs endoscopic carpal tunnel release [ECTR]), surgical setting (operating room vs procedure room [PR]), and anesthetic type (local, monitored anesthesia care [MAC], Bier block, general) affected costs or payments. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients undergoing isolated unilateral CTR between July 2014, and October 2017, at a single academic medical center were identified...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784521/breaking-down-barriers-to-tell-a-mixed-methods-study-of-health-worker-involvement-in-disclosing-to-children-that-they-are-living-with-hiv-in-rural-south-africa
#12
Hanlie Myburgh, Esmé Calitz, Jean P Railton, Christina Maluleke, Elizabeth Mashao, Patiswa Ketelo, Geoff Jobson, Cornelius J Grobbelaar, Helen E Struthers, Remco P H Peters
Disclosing to a child that s/he is living with HIV is necessary to promote adherence to treatment and improve health outcomes. Facilitating disclosure between caregivers and children remains a challenge for health workers. Understanding how health workers are involved in and perceive the disclosure process is integral to engaging with such challenges. We held group discussions with and surveyed 73 physicians, nurses, and counselors across 16 randomly selected facilities in two rural South African health districts, exploring their experiences of supporting disclosure between caregivers and children...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784367/one-step-synthesis-of-fluorescent-carbon-dots-for-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-hyperin
#13
Lizhen Liu, Zhi Mi, Qin Hu, Caiqing Li, Xiaohua Li, Feng Feng
In this article, we presented a new rapid, sensitive and selective method for the determination of hyperin (Hyp) based on the fluorescence quenching of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The CDs were prepared by simply mixing an aqueous solution of citric acid with diphosphorus pentoxide. This one-step synthetic route is fast and simple with neither high temperature nor complicated synthesis steps is involved. When Hyp was added to CDs solution, the fluorescence intensity of the CDs significantly decreased. The CDs display high selectivity for Hyp over many potentially interfering substances...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784362/programmable-electrochemical-flow-system-for-high-throughput-determination-of-total-antioxidant-capacity
#14
Kornautchaya Veenuttranon, Loc Thai Nguyen
The aim of this work was to develop a programmable flow system for rapid assessment of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Novel features of the prototype include a single pressure-driven source, versatile manipulation of fluid flows, ability to adapt to different TAC assays, and compatibility with microfluidic design. Antioxidant activity was determined by electrochemical measurement of residual 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrayl hydrate (DPPH•) free radicals in the solution. The overall performance of the device was validated by the spectrophotometric method...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784347/simultaneous-sampling-of-dissolved-orthophosphate-and-ammonium-in-freshwaters-using-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-with-a-mixed-binding-phase
#15
Zhongmin Feng, Ni Wang, Manli He, Lan Yang, Yun Wang, Ting Sun
A new diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique with a micro-sized biochar-zeolite-zirconium oxide mixed binding phase is described for simultaneous sampling of dissolved orthophosphate and ammonium in freshwaters. The performance of mixed binding layer (MBL) DGT technique was characterized by evaluation of the following parameters: (1) the adsorption efficiency of phosphate and ammonium by the mixed binding phase, (2) the elution efficiency, (3) the time-series accumulation, and (4) the influences of pH, coexisting cations and DOC on DGT uptake...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784330/risk-assessment-model-for-different-foodstuff-drying-methods-via-ahp-fce-method-a-case-study-of-coal-burning-fluorosis-area-of-yunan-and-guizhou-province-china
#16
Haixia Pu, Kunli Luo, Shixi Zhang
Fluorosis is still a serious public health problem in China according to our field investigation. Current foodstuff drying methods were studied to evaluate the state of foodstuff contamination, including burning mixed coal (MC)/coal washing wastes (CWWs)/lump coal (LC)/fuelwood/fine coal + fixing materials (FCFM)/CWWs + fixing materials (CFM) in open stove (OS), honeycomb briquettes (HB) in improved stove (IS), sun-drying. The results demonstrate that elemental contents of F, As, Cd, Cr and Pb in roasted grain were 1...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784136/a-nursing-intervention-aimed-at-reducing-symptom-burden-during-chemotherapy-chemo-support-a-mixed-methods-study-of-the-patient-experience
#17
Annemarie Coolbrandt, Koen Milisen, Hans Wildiers, Bert Aertgeerts, Theo van Achterberg, Elisa Van der Elst, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé
PURPOSE: CHEMO-SUPPORT is a nursing intervention that supports cancer patients in dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms at home. The aims of the current study were (1) to determine how patients had experienced the intervention, and (2) to identify and better understand the mechanisms underlying CHEMO-SUPPORT's effects, its essential elements and possible pitfalls. METHODS: All 71 patients who had received the CHEMO-SUPPORT intervention completed a questionnaire, asking their opinion on the helpfulness, strengths, and weaknesses of the individual components of the intervention...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784016/goactive-a-protocol-for-the-mixed-methods-process-evaluation-of-a-school-based-physical-activity-promotion-programme-for-13-14year-old-adolescents
#18
Stephanie T Jong, Helen Elizabeth Brown, Caroline H D Croxson, Paul Wilkinson, Kirsten L Corder, Esther M F van Sluijs
BACKGROUND: Process evaluations are critical for interpreting and understanding outcome trial results. By understanding how interventions function across different settings, process evaluations have the capacity to inform future dissemination of interventions. The complexity of Get others Active (GoActive), a 12-week, school-based physical activity intervention implemented in eight schools, highlights the need to investigate how implementation is achieved across a variety of school settings...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783972/major-dietary-patterns-in-relation-to-menstrual-pain-a-nested-case-control-study
#19
Nastaran Najafi, Hamidreza Khalkhali, Fatemeh Moghaddam Tabrizi, Rasoul Zarrin
BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most prevalent gynecological disorders, experienced by approximately two third of young women during menstruation. According to literature, nutrition can play a key role in the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea. This study aims to investigate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of dysmenorrhea among university students. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among 293 students of Urmia University of Medical Sciences who were randomly recruited via a proportional cluster sampling method...
May 21, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783799/-primary-carcinoid-of-ovary-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-17-cases
#20
R Zhu, X W Xue, Y F Luo, H W Wu, Z Huo
Objective: To study the clinicopathologic feature, diagnostic strategy and prognostic significance of primary carcinoid of the ovary (PCOTO). Methods: A series of 17 patients previously diagnosed as PCOTO at Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the period from 2002 to 2017 were evaluated with clinical data analysis, histopathology and immunohistochemistry, and the patients were followed up and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: The age of patients ranged from 24 to 64 years (mean, 42 years)...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
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