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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777595/a-ring-based-compensator-imrt-system-optimized-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-design-and-treatment-planning-study
#1
Jonathon Van Schelt, Daniel Smith, Nicholas Fong, Dolla Toomeh, Patricia A Sponseller, Derek W Brown, Meghan W Macomber, Nina A Mayr, Shilpen Patel, Adam Shulman, G V Subrahmanyam, K Govindarajan, Eric C Ford
PURPOSE: We propose a novel compensator-based IMRT system designed to provide a simple, reliable, and cost-effective adjunct technology, with the goal of expanding global access to advanced radiotherapy techniques. The system would employ easily-reusable tungsten bead compensators that operate independent of a gantry (e.g. mounted in a ring around the patient). Thereby the system can be retrofitted to existing linac and cobalt teletherapy units. This study explores the quality of treatment plans from the proposed system and the dependence on associated design parameters...
May 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#2
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#3
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764449/primo-software-as-a-tool-for-monte-carlo-simulations-of-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#4
Alessandro Esposito, Sofia Silva, Jorge Oliveira, Joana Lencart, João Santos
BACKGROUND: IMRT provides higher dose conformation to the target and dose sparing to surrounding tissues than 3DCRT. Monte Carlo method in Medical Physics is not a novelty to approach dosimetric problems. A new PENELOPE based code named PRIMO recently was published. The most intriguing features of PRIMO are the user-friendly approach, the stand-alone property and the built-in definition of different linear accelerators models. Nevertheless, IMRT simulations are not yet implemented. METHODS: A Varian Trilogy with a Millennium120 MLC and a Varian Novalis with 120HD MLC were studied...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764209/next-gen-therapeutics-for-skin-cancer-nutraceuticals
#5
Annapoorna Sreedhar, Jun Li, Yunfeng Zhao
Growing modernization and lifestyle changes with limited physical activity have impacted diet and health, leading to an increased cancer mortality rate worldwide. As a result, there is a greater need than before to develop safe and novel anticancer drugs. Current treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, induce unintended side effects, compromising patient's quality of life, and physical well-being. Therefore, there has been an increased global interest in the use of dietary supplements and traditional herbal medicines for treatment of cancer...
May 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760046/dual-hdac-and-pi3k-inhibition-abrogates-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-foxm1-mediated-dna-damage-response-to-radiosensitize-pediatric-high-grade-gliomas
#6
Sharmistha Pal, David Kozono, Xiaodong Yang, Wojciech Fendler, Whitney Fitts, Jing Ni, John A Alberta, Jean Zhao, Kevin X Liu, Jie Bian, Nathalene Truffaux, William A Weiss, Adam C Resnick, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Keith L Ligon, Steven G Dubois, Sabine Mueller, Dipanjan Chowdhury, Daphne A Haas-Kogan
Aberrant chromatin remodeling and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway have been identified as important mediators of pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) pathogenesis. As inhibition of these pathways are promising therapeutic avenues and radiation is the only modality to prolong survival of DIPG patients, we sought to explore radiosensitizing functions of such inhibition and explore mechanisms of action of such agents. Here we demonstrate that combined treatment with radiotherapy and CUDC-907, a novel first-in-class dual inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and PI3K, evokes a potent cytotoxic response in pHGG and DIPG models...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750673/quality-of-life-perception-cognitive-function-and-psychological-status-in-a-real-world-population-of-glioblastoma-patients-treated-with-radiotherapy-and-temozolomide-a-single-center-prospective-study
#7
Giuseppe Lombardi, Eleonora Bergo, Paola Del Bianco, Luisa Bellu, Ardi Pambuku, Mario Caccese, Leonardo Trentin, Vittorina Zagonel
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive function, and psychological status represent an important focus during the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Nevertheless, few randomized, prospective clinical trials have analyzed these factors, and very little is known in the real-clinical world. We evaluated these characteristics in glioblastoma patients treated with standard first-line therapy outside clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 111 newly, histologically diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated at our oncology center with radiotherapy and temozolomide were prospectively enrolled...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731428/three-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-following-pelvic-radiation-technical-considerations-and-contemporary-outcomes
#8
Jeffrey Loh-Doyle, Mukul B Patil, Zein Nakhoda, Nima Nassiri, Wesley Yip, Kevin Wayne, Leo Doumanian, Stuart D Boyd
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiation is a known risk factor for the development and progression of erectile dysfunction. When medical therapy fails, the 3-piece inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) can offer patients a definitive treatment option. Because of radiation-induced vascular changes and tissue fibrosis, a careful surgical approach is necessary to avoid intraoperative complications and attain successful outcomes. Despite its widespread use in prostate cancer treatment, there are no contemporary studies examining the effects that pelvic radiation can have on 3-piece IPP placement and device survival...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725861/ellagic-acid-sulforaphane-and-ursolic-acid-in-the-prevention-and-therapy-of-breast-cancer-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Md Sadikuj Jaman, Md Abu Sayeed
Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are currently available treatment options for breast cancer therapy. However, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are often associated with side effects and multidrug resistance, recurrence, and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Recently, dietary phytochemicals have emerged as advantageous agents for the prevention and therapy of cancer due to their safe nature...
May 3, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721083/targeting-cpt1a-mediated-fatty-acid-oxidation-sensitizes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-to-radiation-therapy
#10
Zheqiong Tan, Lanbo Xiao, Min Tang, Fang Bai, Jiangjiang Li, Liling Li, Feng Shi, Namei Li, Yueshuo Li, Qianqian Du, Jingchen Lu, Xinxian Weng, Wei Yi, Hanwen Zhang, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Qiang Gao, José N Onuchic, Ann M Bode, Xiangjian Luo, Ya Cao
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a particularly high prevalence in southern China, southeastern Asia and northern Africa. Radiation resistance remains a serious obstacle to successful treatment in NPC. This study aimed to explore the metabolic feature of radiation-resistant NPC cells and identify new molecular-targeted agents to improve the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy in NPC. Methods : Radiation-responsive and radiation-resistant NPC cells were used as the model system in vitro and in vivo . Metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the global metabolic changes...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697392/line-1-methylation-in-blood-and-tissues-of-patients-with-breast-cancer
#11
K Kankava, E Kvaratskhelia, G Burkadze, I Kokhreidze, N Gogokhia, E Abzianidze
Methylation is an epigenetic alteration proved to be involved in many disease processes including cancer. This change affects mainly gene promoters and repetitive sequences in genome. Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) is a family of retrotransposons - repetitive elements that modify gene activity and can themselves be targeted by epigenetic mechanisms. LINE-1 methylation level is a surrogate marker for global methylation. In many conditions this parameter is found to be altered not only in affected cell groups, but also throughout other tissues...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695348/quality-of-life-results-for-accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation-with-interstitial-brachytherapy-versus-whole-breast-irradiation-in-early-breast-cancer-after-breast-conserving-surgery-gec-estro-5-year-results-of-a-randomised-phase-3-trial
#12
Rebekka Schäfer, Vratislav Strnad, Csaba Polgár, Wolfgang Uter, Guido Hildebrandt, Oliver J Ott, Daniela Kauer-Dorner, Hellen Knauerhase, Tibor Major, Jaroslaw Lyczek, Jose Luis Guinot, Jürgen Dunst, Cristina Gutierrez Miguelez, Pavel Slampa, Michael Allgäuer, Kristina Lössl, György Kovács, Arnt-René Fischedick, Rainer Fietkau, Alexandra Resch, Anna Kulik, Leo Arribas, Peter Niehoff, Ferran Guedea, Annika Schlamann, Christine Gall, Bülent Polat
BACKGROUND: Previous results from the GEC-ESTRO trial showed that accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multicatheter brachytherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery was non-inferior to whole-breast irradiation in terms of local control and overall survival. Here, we present 5-year results of patient-reported quality of life. METHODS: We did this randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 16 hospitals and medical centres in seven European countries...
April 20, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692656/biomarkers-could-facilitate-prediction-of-worse-clinical-outcome-of-cancer-with-special-insight-to-cervical-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Bartosz Czerniak, Dorota Olszewska-Słonina
Cervical cancer incidence, globally, is second only to malignant breast cancer. The main causative factor is thought to be human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a result of many sexual partners. Despite radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical treatment, the survival rate of patients with advanced disease is low. Metastasis is one of the stages of cancerogenesis in which tumour cells acquire the ability to migrate and create tumour secondary foci. Tumour biomarkers, proteins produced by neoplastic cells, quantified in body fluids or in tissues, play a key role in treatment monitoring and in determining the prognosis for further years of life...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685425/pre-treatment-verification-of-lung-sbrt-vmat-plans-with-delivery-errors-toward-a-better-understanding-of-the-gamma-index-analysis
#14
Thahabah Alharthi, Elise M Pogson, Sankar Arumugam, Lois Holloway, David Thwaites
PURPOSE: To study the sensitivity of the ArcCHECK in detecting delivery errors for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) technique and to evaluate the sensitivity of eight global and local gamma tolerances with different cut-off percentages. METHODS: Baseline VMAT plans were generated for 15 lung SBRT patients. We delivered the smallest errors(gantry, collimator, and multileaf collimator MLC) which had ≥ ±2% dose difference in the modified treatment plans compared to the baseline plan (the clinical significance of those errors were assessed in our previous study...
April 20, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679514/dutch-validation-of-the-low-anterior-resection-syndrome-score
#15
Britt Jp Hupkens, Stéphanie O Breukink, Carlijn Olde Reuver Of Briel, Pieter J Tanis, Mirre E de Noo, Peter van Duijvendijk, Henderik L van Westreenen, Jan Willem T Dekker, Tina Yt Chen, Therese Juul
AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch translation of the Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) score in a population of Dutch rectal cancer patients. METHOD: Patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer received the LARS score questionnaire, a single quality of life category question and the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score twice to assess the test-retest reliability. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, identified in six Dutch centres...
April 21, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678980/health-related-quality-of-life-in-asian-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#16
Peh Joo Ho, Sofie A M Gernaat, Mikael Hartman, Helena M Verkooijen
OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence on determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in Asian patients with breast cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015032468). METHODS: According to the PRISMA guidelines, databases of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and PsycINFO were systematically searched using the following terms and synonyms: breast cancer, quality of life and Asia...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678514/effect-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-and-rectal-surgery-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-the-first-2-years-after-diagnosis
#17
Alice M Couwenberg, Johannes P M Burbach, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Anke B Smits, Esther C J Consten, Anandi H W Schiphorst, Niels A T Wijffels, Joost T Heikens, Martijn P W Intven, Helena M Verkooijen
INTRODUCTION: Rectal cancer surgery with neoadjuvant therapy is associated with substantial morbidity. The present study describes the course of quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients in the first 2 years after the start of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study within a colorectal cancer cohort including rectal cancer patients who were referred for neoadjuvant chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and underwent rectal surgery...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665980/quality-of-life-and-anterior-resection-syndrome-after-surgery-for-mid-to-low-rectal-cancer-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Loris Trenti, Ana Galvez, Sebastiano Biondo, Alejandro Solis, Francesc Vallribera-Valls, Eloy Espin-Basany, Alvaro Garcia-Granero, Esther Kreisler
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life (QoL), low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) and fecal incontinence after surgery for mid to low rectal cancer and its relationship with the type of surgical procedure performed. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort survey study of 358 patients operated on for mid to low rectal cancer. Patients were included in three groups: abdominoperineal resection (APR), low mechanical colorectal anastomosis (CRA) and hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA)...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644477/the-selective-use-of-radiation-therapy-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#19
REVIEW
Andrew Martella, Christopher Willett, Manisha Palta, Brian Czito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colorectal cancer has a high global incidence, and standard treatment employs a multimodality approach. In addition to cure, minimizing treatment-related toxicity and improving the therapeutic ratio is a common goal. The following article addresses the potential of omitting radiotherapy in select rectal cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Omission of radiotherapy in rectal cancer is analyzed in the context of historical findings, as well as more recent data describing risk stratification of stage II-III disease, surgical optimization, imaging limitations, improvement in systemic chemotherapeutic agents, and contemporary studies evaluating selective omission of radiotherapy...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616822/the-future-of-image-guided-radiotherapy-is-image-everything
#20
David J Noble, Neil G Burnet
MR-based image-guided radiotherapy via all-in-one MR treatment units (MR-linacs) is one of the hottest topics in contemporary radiotherapy research. By ingenious engineering solutions to complex physical problems, researchers have developed machines with the promise of superior image quality, and all the advantages this may confer. Benefits include better tumour visualisation, on-line adaptation and the potential for image biomarker-based personalised RT. However, it is important to remember that the technical challenges are real...
April 4, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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