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Global radiotherapy

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The use of proton beam therapy (PBT) offers the opportunity to improve greater conformality of radiotherapy treatment delivery in some patients. However, it is associated with a high capital cost and the need to build new dedicated facilities. We discuss how the global radiotherapy community can respond to the challenge of producing high-quality evidence of clinical benefit from PBT in adult patients. In the UK, the National Cancer Research Institute-funded Clinical and Radiotherapy Translational group has established the PBT Clinical Trial Strategy Group...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Laura Curr Beamer, Marcia Grant
PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the relationship between skin-related quality of life (SR-QOL) and global quality of life (G-QOL) among women experiencing breast radiodermatitis, measure change in SR-QOL and G-QOL between the start and fifth week on radiotherapy, and examine the trend in SR-QOL and severity of radiodermatitis over time on treatment. METHODS: A descriptive longitudinal study using repeated measurements was implemented. Forty women undergoing whole breast 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at a comprehensive community cancer center completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) weekly and Quality of Life-Breast Cancer Patient Version at baseline before and at five weeks on radiotherapy...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Partha Basu, Ajay Mehta, Minish Jain, Sudeep Gupta, Rajnish V Nagarkar, Subhashini John, Robert Petit
OBJECTIVES: A global unmet medical need exists for effective treatments for persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer, as patients have a short life expectancy. Recently, immunotherapies have shown promising survival benefits for patients with advanced forms of cancer. Axalimogene filolisbac (ADXS11-001), a Listeria monocytogenes immunotherapy with a broad effect on the immune system, is under investigation for treatment of human papillomavirus-associated cancers including cervical cancer...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Anussara Prayongrat, Kikuo Umegaki, Arjen van der Schaaf, Albert C Koong, Steven H Lin, Thomas Whitaker, Todd McNutt, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Edward Graves, Masahiko Mizuta, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Hiroyuki Date, Kensuke Moriwaki, Yoichi M Ito, Keiji Kobashi, Yasuhiro Dekura, Shinichi Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato
Particle beam therapy (PBT), including proton and carbon ion therapy, is an emerging innovative treatment for cancer patients. Due to the high cost of and limited access to treatment, meticulous selection of patients who would benefit most from PBT, when compared with standard X-ray therapy (XRT), is necessary. Due to the cost and labor involved in randomized controlled trials, the model-based approach (MBA) is used as an alternative means of establishing scientific evidence in medicine, and it can be improved continuously...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Parag Sayal, Arif Zafar, Robin Highley
Herpes encephalitis superimposed on an intracranial malignancy has previously been described mainly in the context of malignancy imitating infection or in the postoperative setting after neurosurgical intervention. We report a rare case of de novo presentation of concurrent herpes encephalitis and glioblastoma. A 63-year-old man presented with status epilepticus and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed a right temporal enhancing lesion with mass effect. He underwent a craniotomy and debulking of this lesion, which on subsequent histology was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens and HSV DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Agnieszka Żyromska, Bogdan Małkowski, Tomasz Wiśniewski, Karolina Majewska, Joanna Reszke, Roman Makarewicz
OBJECTIVE: Studies examining radiation-induced heart toxicity in breast cancer patients are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively and quantitatively asses myocardial blood flow (MBF) with, for the first time, 15O-H2O PET/CT as a marker of heart damage in irradiated breast cancer patients. METHODS: Fifteen breast cancer patients receiving intact breast or chest wall irradiation were included in the analysis (six with right-sided and nine with left-sided breast cancer)...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
P Sakthivel, D V K Irugu, C A Singh, H Verma, R Yogal, B Jat, A Chadran, K Sikka, A Thakar, S C Sharma
CONTEXT: To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) outcome measures in disease-free survivors of pathological T1/T2 tongue cancers and to compare QOL in patients treated with only surgery and with adjuvant treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All pathological T1/T2 anterior tongue cancer cases with follow-up from January 2011 till December 2015, who had locoregionally controlled disease with a minimum disease-free survival period of 1 year, were included in the study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
A Bowzyk Al-Naeeb, M Murray, G Horan, F Harris, R-D Kortmann, J Nicholson, T Ajithkumar
Intracranial germ cell tumours (icGCTs) are uncommon tumours occurring in children and young adults. They are usually segregated into germinomas and non-germinomatous tumours (NGGCTs) in most classifications. Germinomas are highly curable tumours with multimodality treatment, but NGGCTs are associated with poorer survival outcomes. There are some differences in the approach to the management of icGCTs globally. Current research generally focuses on reducing treatment intensity, particularly the dose and volume of radiotherapy, in order to minimise the risks of late sequelae while maintaining high cure rates in icGCTs...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Kazuhiro Daino, Mayumi Nishimura, Tatsuhiko Imaoka, Masaru Takabatake, Takamitsu Morioka, Yukiko Nishimura, Yoshiya Shimada, Shizuko Kakinuma
With the increase in the number of long-term cancer survivors worldwide, there is a growing concern about the risk of secondary cancers induced by radiotherapy. Epigenetic modifications of genes associated with carcinogenesis are attractive targets for the prevention of cancer owing to their reversible nature. To identify genes with possible changes in functionally relevant DNA methylation patterns in mammary carcinomas induced by radiation exposure, we performed microarray-based global DNA methylation and expression profiling in γ-ray-induced rat mammary carcinomas and normal mammary glands...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Santanu Maji, Sanjay Panda, Sabindra K Samal, Omprakash Shriwas, Rachna Rath, Maurizio Pellecchia, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Paul B Fisher, Rupesh Dash
Cancer is a daunting global problem confronting the world's population. The most frequent therapeutic approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more recently immunotherapy. In the case of chemotherapy, patients ultimately develop resistance to both single and multiple chemotherapeutic agents, which can culminate in metastatic disease which is a major cause of patient death from solid tumors. Chemoresistance, a primary cause of treatment failure, is attributed to multiple factors including decreased drug accumulation, reduced drug-target interactions, increased populations of cancer stem cells, enhanced autophagy activity, and reduced apoptosis in cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Shan-Shan Guo, Wen Hu, Qiu-Yan Chen, Jian-Mei Li, Shi-Heng Zhu, Yan He, Jia-Wen Li, Le Xia, Lu Ji, Cui-Ying Lin, Li-Ting Liu, Lin-Quan Tang, Ling Guo, Hao-Yuan Mo, Chong Zhao, Xiang Guo, Ka-Jia Cao, Chao-Nan Qian, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Ming-Huang Hong, Jian-Yong Shao, Ying Sun, Jun Ma, Yu-Ying Fan, Hai-Qiang Mai
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective, longitudinal study on 554 newly diagnosed patients with NPC from April 2011 to January 2015. A total of 501 consecutive NPC patients were included. Patients were asked to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before treatment...
January 31, 2018: BMC Cancer
Linda Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Ada Lo, Manoj Raval, Carl Brown, Ahmer Karimuddin, P Terry Phang
Pre-operative radiotherapy (PRT) and total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) for rectal cancer yield the lowest risk for local recurrence. However, both treatments negatively impact quality of life (QOL). To understand individual treatment effects, we ask whether PRT affects function and quality of life before TME. Function and QOL were prospectively assessed in 26 patients using EORTC QLQ-C30/-CR38, and Wexner scale at three time points: before PRT, 6 weeks after PRT and before TME, and one year after stoma closure...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Ali Adibi, Ehsan Salari
This paper aims at quantifying the extent of potential therapeutic gain, measured using biologically effective dose (BED), that can be achieved by altering the radiation dose distribution over treatment sessions in fractionated radiotherapy. To that end, a spatiotemporally integrated planning approach is developed, where the spatial and temporal dose modulations are optimized simultaneously. The concept of equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) is used to quantify and compare the clinical quality of spatiotemporally heterogeneous dose distributions in target and critical structures...
January 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Elisabetta Metafuni, Patrizia Chiusolo, Luca Laurenti, Federica Sorà, Sabrina Giammarco, Andrea Bacigalupo, Giuseppe Leone, Simona Sica
Background: Therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) occur due to direct mutational events of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. Disease latency, mutational events and prognosis vary with drugs categories. Methods: We describe a cohort of 30 patients, 18 females and 12 males, with median age of 52.5 years (range, 20 to 64), submitted to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our department between September 1999 and March 2017. Patients had a history of solid tumour in 14 cases, haematological disease in 15 cases and both of them in one case...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Melissa R Gaddy, Sercan Yıldız, Jan Unkelbach, Dávid Papp
Spatiotemporal fractionation schemes, that is, treatments delivering different dose distributions in different fractions, can potentially lower treatment side effects without compromising tumor control. This can be achieved by hypofractionating parts of the tumor while delivering approximately uniformly fractionated doses to the surrounding tissue. Plan optimization for such treatments is based on biologically effective dose (BED); however, this leads to computationally challenging nonconvex optimization problems...
January 5, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Marlene Hechtner, Mechthild Krause, Jochem König, Steffen Appold, Beate Hornemann, Susanne Singer, Michael Baumann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CF) vs. continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy weekend-less (CHARTWEL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The largest monocentric subgroup of the phase III CHARTWEL trial was analyzed up to three years after randomization. QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and lung cancer module (QLQ-LC13) and compared using linear mixed models...
December 19, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Philip Wong, Zahra Kassam, Amanda N Springer, Rebecca Gladdy, Peter Chung, Jolie Ringash, Charles Catton
PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) are connective tissue cancers that are often large and anatomically in close proximity to critical and radiation-sensitive normal structures and organs within the abdomen and pelvis. The management of RPS may include preoperative radiotherapy (RT) and surgery. We aimed to examine how treatment-related toxicities affect patient quality of life (QOL).  Methods and materials: Within two prospective cohort studies, 48 RPS patients who were treated with preoperative RT from 1998-2012 were recruited and assessed for QOL (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and to determine toxicities potentially related to RT and surgery (graded using CTCAE V...
October 11, 2017: Curēus
O Lauche, F Castan, H de Forges, C Guillaumon, S Gourgou, P Fenoglietto, N Aillères, D Azria, O Riou
PURPOSE: Radiation oncologists are responsible for deciding which day-to-day variations are acceptable or not in the treatment setup. However, properly qualified and trained radiation therapists might be capable to perform image registration. We evaluated in our centre the capability and accuracy of radiation therapists to validate positioning images in a prospective study. METHODS AND PATIENTS: A total of 84 patients treated for prostate, head and neck, lung or breast cancer was prospectively and randomly included from July 2011 to July 2013 in radiotherapy unit of our institution...
February 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Silvia Stacchiotti, Brian Andrew Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare sarcoma driven by a translocation between SS18 and SSX 1, 2, or 4. With approximately 800 to 1,000 cases a year in the United States, it most commonly affects young adults between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The resultant tumors are either monophasic (pure sarcomas), biphasic (a combination or epithelioid and sarcomatous components), or poorly differentiated. The hybrid transcription factor SS18:SSX alters SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling and global methylation patterns that may allow for future therapeutic opportunities...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Yuyan Han, Junfeng Xu, Jeri Kim, Xifeng Wu, Jian Gu
Global DNA methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) in leukocytes has been suggested to be a risk factor for a few cancers. There has been no report of LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes as a risk factor for aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis and prognosis after treatments. In this study, we measured the leukocyte DNA methylation of LINE-1 in 795 PCa patients and compared the methylation levels across different clinical subgroups. We then determined the association of LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes with clinicopathological variables at diagnosis using logistic regression analysis and biochemical recurrence in patients receiving active treatments (prostatectomy and radiotherapy) using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, pack year, D'Amico risk groups, and treatments...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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