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Ventral striatum

David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Martin J Bobak, Matthew W Weber, Melissa A Doellman, Douglas R Schuweiler, Jeana M Athens, Steven A Juliano, Paul A Garris
Modafinil (MOD) exhibits therapeutic efficacy for treating sleep and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism is incompletely understood. Compared to other psychostimulants inhibiting dopamine (DA) uptake, MOD weakly interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modestly elevates striatal dialysate DA, suggesting additional targets besides DAT. However, the ability of MOD to induce wakefulness is abolished with DAT knockout, conversely suggesting that DAT is necessary for MOD action. Another psychostimulant target, but one not established for MOD, is activation of phasic DA signaling...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Carien S Lansink, Guido T Meijer, Jan V Lankelma, Martin A Vinck, Jadin C Jackson, Cyriel M A Pennartz
: The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A-M D'Cruz, M W Mosconi, M E Ragozzino, E H Cook, J A Sweeney
Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Sangwon Han, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Hee Kyung Park, Jae Seung Kim
Importance: Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by freezing of gait, handwriting, and speech without abnormal eye movement or cognitive impairment. Several studies have suggested that PAGF may be a variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the characteristics of striatal dopamine transporter loss in PAGF are unknown. Objective: To investigate the subregional pattern of striatal dopamine transporter loss in patients with PAGF in comparison with patients with PSP and those with Parkinson disease (PD)...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Vincent D Costa, Olga Dal Monte, Daniel R Lucas, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task...
September 28, 2016: Neuron
Nadine Schweizer, Thomas Viereckel, Casey J A Smith-Anttila, Karin Nordenankar, Emma Arvidsson, Souha Mahmoudi, André Zampera, Hanna Wärner Jonsson, Jonas Bergquist, Daniel Lévesque, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Malin Andersson, Sylvie Dumas, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN...
September 2016: ENeuro
A Schmidt, M Antoniades, P Allen, A Egerton, C A Chaddock, S Borgwardt, P Fusar-Poli, J P Roiser, O Howes, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: Impairments in the attribution of salience are thought to be fundamental to the development of psychotic symptoms and the onset of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore longitudinal alterations in salience processing in ultra-high-risk subjects for psychosis. METHOD: A total of 23 ultra-high-risk subjects and 13 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at two time points (mean interval of 17 months) while performing the Salience Attribution Test to assess neural responses to task-relevant (adaptive salience) and task-irrelevant (aberrant salience) stimulus features...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Yu-Chen Chan
Gelotophobics have social deficits in the form of relative humorlessness and heightened sensitivity to aggressive humor; however, little is known about the neural reward mechanisms for this group. The present study attempted to identify the neural substrates of responses to hostile and non-hostile jokes in gelotophobics and non-gelotophobics. Gelotophobics showed greater activation than did non-gelotophobics in the dorsal corticostriatal system, which comprises the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, suggesting a higher degree of voluntary top-down cognitive control of emotion...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nathalie E Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Sarah Baumeister, Michael M Plichta, Anna Cattrell, Gunter Schumann, Günter Esser, Martin Schmidt, Jan Buitelaar, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Laucht
Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth...
October 2, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Zengjian Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jian Liu, Jun Chen, Xian Liu, Guangning Nie, Kristen Jorgenson, Ki Cheul Sohn, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu, Bo Liu, Jian Kong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a high prevalence and significant social and economic impacts. Nevertheless, the treatment of MDD is far from satisfactory. Acupuncture treatment has emerged as a promising method for treating MDD. However, the neural mechanism by which acupuncture reduces depressive symptoms is not fully understood. Studies have shown that the corticostriatal reward circuitry is associated with the pathophysiology of MDD; thus, we investigated the corticostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before and after real and sham acupuncture treatments combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Na Hyea Kang, Candace H Carriere, Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
The indoleamine hormone melatonin protects dopamine neurons in the rat nigrostriatal pathway following 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning, and an increase in striatal melatonin levels has been detected in this model of Parkinson's disease. Melatonin induces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, in the ventral midbrain, where G protein-coupled melatonin receptors are present. Based on the interaction between the melatonergic and dopaminergic systems, we hypothesized that 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of dopamine neurons would affect the expression of melatonin receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
J Faber, E A Wilde, G Hanten, L Ewing-Cobbs, M E Aitken, R Yallampalli, M C MacLeod, S H Mullins, Z D Chu, X Li, J V Hunter, L Noble-Haeusslein, H S Levin
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects of TBI on verbal fluency and related structures, as well as the relation between cognition and structural integrity, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the group with TBI would evidence poorer performance on cognitive measures and a decrease in structural integrity. RESEARCH DESIGN: Between a paediatric group with TBI and a group of typically-developing children, the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury were investigated in relation to both structural integrity and cognition...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Alexander Niklas Häusler, Sergio Oroz Artigas, Peter Trautner, Bernd Weber
People differ in the way they approach and handle choices with unsure outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that individual differences in the neural processing of gains and losses relates to attentional differences in the way individuals search for information in gambles. Fifty subjects participated in two independent experiments. Participants first completed an fMRI experiment involving financial gains and losses. Subsequently, they performed an eye-tracking experiment on binary choices between risky gambles, each displaying monetary outcomes and their respective probabilities...
September 2016: ENeuro
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Dienke J Bos, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to more effective treatment options. However, differences in reward processing may not be specific to ADHD, but may be a trans-diagnostic feature of disorders that involve ADHD-like symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
E A Evers, P Stiers, J G Ramaekers
Dopamine plays an important role in goal-directed behavior, through its modulatory influence on striatal neurons. It is unclear whether tonic dopamine levels, which regulate the vigor of acting, interact with the phasic dopamine response to reward that drives instrumental behavior.In a randomized placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers, we show that methylphenidate, a drug that increases tonic dopamine levels, systematically reduced striatal phasic BOLD responses to gain and loss in a gambling task as measured with fMRI...
September 27, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Susana S Correia, Anna G McGrath, Allison Lee, Ann M Graybiel, Ki A Goosens
In humans, activation of the ventral striatum, a region associated with reward processing, is associated with the extinction of fear, a goal in the treatment of fear-related disorders. This evidence suggests that extinction of aversive memories engages reward-related circuits, but a causal relationship between activity in a reward circuit and fear extinction has not been demonstrated. Here, we identify a basolateral amygdala (BLA)-ventral striatum (NAc) pathway that is activated by extinction training. Enhanced recruitment of this circuit during extinction learning, either by pairing reward with fear extinction training or by optogenetic stimulation of this circuit during fear extinction, reduces the return of fear that normally follows extinction training...
2016: ELife
Cynthia S Kubu, Tim Brelje, Meryl A Butters, Thilo Deckersbach, Paul Malloy, Paul Moberg, Alexander I Tröster, Eric Williamson, Gordon H Baltuch, Mahendra T Bhati, Linda L Carpenter, Darin D Dougherty, Robert H Howland, Ali R Rezai, Donald A Malone
BACKGROUND: We report the neuropsychological outcome of 25 patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD) who participated in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved randomised double-blind trial comparing active to sham deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the anterior limb of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS). METHODS: Participants were randomised to active (n=12) versus sham (n=13) DBS for 16 weeks. Data were analysed at the individual and group levels...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Juan Verdejo-Román, Raquel Vilar-López, Juan F Navas, Carles Soriano-Mas, Antonio Verdejo-García
The brain's reward system is crucial to understand obesity in modern society, as increased neural responsivity to reward can fuel the unhealthy food choices that are driving the growing obesity epidemic. Brain's reward system responsivity to food and monetary rewards in individuals with excessive weight (overweight and obese) versus normal weight controls, along with the relationship between this responsivity and body mass index (BMI) were tested. The sample comprised 21 adults with obesity (BMI > 30), 21 with overweight (BMI between 25 and 30), and 39 with normal weight (BMI < 25)...
September 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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