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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#1
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335427/chronic-alcohol-exposure-disrupts-top-down-control-over-basal-ganglia-action-selection-to-produce-habits
#2
Rafael Renteria, Emily T Baltz, Christina M Gremel
Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330483/neural-correlates-of-sexual-orientation-in-heterosexual-bisexual-and-homosexual-women
#3
Adam Safron, Victoria Klimaj, David Sylva, A M Rosenthal, Meng Li, Martin Walter, J Michael Bailey
We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual (N = 26), bisexual (N = 26), and homosexual (N = 24) women, ages 25-50. We focused on the ventral striatum, an area of the brain associated with desire, extending previous findings from the sexual psychophysiology literature in which homosexual women had greater category specificity (relative to heterosexual and bisexual women) in their responses to male and female erotic stimuli. We found that homosexual women's subjective and neural responses reflected greater bias towards female stimuli, compared with bisexual and heterosexual women, whose responses did not significantly differ...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319607/longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-in-a-mouse-model-of-metastatic-bone-cancer-reveals-distinct-functional-reorganizations-along-a-developing-chronic-pain-state
#4
David Buehlmann, Joanes Grandjeanc, Jael Xandryd, Markus Rudin
Functional neuroimaging has emerged as attractive option for characterizing pain states complementing behavioral readouts or clinical assessment. In particular resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) enables monitoring of functional adaptations across the brain, e.g. in response to chronic nociceptive input. We have used rs-fMRI in a mouse model of chronic pain from breast cancer derived tibial bone metastases to identify pain-induced alterations in functional connectivity (FC). Combined assessment of behavioral readouts allowed defining a trajectory as model function for extracting pain-specific FC changes from the fMRI data reflective of a chronic pain state...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317597/preliminary-evidence-for-genetic-overlap-between-body-mass-index-and-striatal-reward-response
#5
T M Lancaster, I Ihssen, L M Brindley, D E Linden
The reward-processing network is implicated in the aetiology of obesity. Several lines of evidence suggest obesity-linked genetic risk loci (such as DRD2 and FTO) may influence individual variation in body mass index (BMI) through neuropsychological processes reflected in alterations in activation of the striatum during reward processing. However, no study has tested the broader hypotheses that (a) the relationship between BMI and reward-related brain activation (measured through the blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) signal) may be observed in a large population study and (b) the overall genetic architecture of these phenotypes overlap, an assumption critical for the progression of imaging genetic studies in obesity research...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313253/the-neural-correlates-of-alcohol-related-aggression
#6
Thomas F Denson, Kate A Blundell, Timothy P Schofield, Mark M Schira, Ulrike M Krämer
Alcohol intoxication is implicated in approximately half of all violent crimes. Over the past several decades, numerous theories have been proposed to account for the influence of alcohol on aggression. Nearly all of these theories imply that altered functioning in the prefrontal cortex is a proximal cause. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, 50 healthy young men consumed either a low dose of alcohol or a placebo and completed an aggression paradigm against provocative and nonprovocative opponents...
January 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307561/reward-processing-dysfunction-in-ventral-striatum-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Stéfan du Plessis, Meija Bossert, Matthijs Vink, Leigh van den Heuvel, Soraya Bardien, Robin Emsley, Chanelle Buckle, Soraya Seedat, Jonathan Carr
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a growing concern as the longevity of the world's population steadily increases. Both ageing and Parkinson's disease have an impact on dopamine neurotransmission. It is therefore important to investigate their relative impact on the fronto-striatal reward system. There has been little investigation of reward processing in terms of anticipation and reward outcome in Parkinson's disease. Abnormal responses during reward processing have previously been demonstrated in whole-brain analysis of Parkinson's patients with mild lateralized disease, but the exact impact in regions specific to reward processing is still unknown...
December 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305898/tyrosine-hydroxylase-afferents-to-the-interstitial-nucleus-of-the-posterior-limb-of-the-anterior-commissure-are-neurochemically-distinct-from-those-projecting-to-neighboring-nuclei
#8
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda
The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to neurodegeneration in zitter mutant rats, whereas almost all TH-IR afferents fibers to the dorsolateral striatum were lost, indicating that these two groups of TH-IR afferents have distinct neurochemical properties...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#9
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287910/ventral-tegmental-area-d2-receptor-knockdown-enhances-choice-impulsivity-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats
#10
Kimberly A Bernosky-Smith, Yan-Yan Qiu, Malte Feja, Yun Beom Lee, Brian Loughlin, Jun-Xu Li, Caroline E Bass
Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the brain, in many types of neurons and neuronal subcompartments...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286334/a-single-neonatal-exposure-to-bmaa-in-a-rat-model-produces-neuropathology-consistent-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
Laura Louise Scott, Timothy Grant Downing
Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure...
December 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285721/altered-monetary-loss-processing-and-reinforcement-based-learning-in-individuals-with-obesity
#12
Jana Kube, David Mathar, Annette Horstmann, Sonja A Kotz, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Individuals with obesity are often characterized by alterations in reward processing. This may affect how new information is used to update stimulus values during reinforcement-based learning. Here, we investigated obesity-related changes in non-food reinforcement processing, their impact on learning performance as well as the neural underpinnings of reinforcement-based learning in obesity. Nineteen individuals with obesity (BMI > = 30 kg/m2, 10 female) and 23 lean control participants (BMI 18.5-24...
December 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282834/mother-still-knows-best-maternal-influence-uniquely-modulates-adolescent-reward-sensitivity-during-risk-taking
#13
João F Guassi Moreira, Eva H Telzer
Adolescent decision-making is highly sensitive to input from the social environment. In particular, adult and maternal presence influence adolescents to make safer decisions when encountered with risky scenarios. However, it is currently unknown whether maternal presence confers a greater advantage than mere adult presence in buffering adolescent risk taking. In the current study, 23 adolescents completed a risk-taking task during an fMRI scan in the presence of their mother and an unknown adult. Results reveal that maternal presence elicits greater activation in reward-related neural circuits when making safe decisions but decreased activation following risky choices...
January 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279863/combinatorial-inputs-to-the-ventral-striatum-from-the-temporal-cortex-frontal-cortex-and-amygdala-implications-for-segmenting-the-striatum
#14
Eun Young Choi, Song-Lin Ding, Suzanne N Haber
The canonical striatal map, based predominantly on frontal corticostriatal projections, divides the striatum into ventromedial-limbic, central-association, and dorsolateral-motor territories. While this has been a useful heuristic, recent studies indicate that the striatum has a more complex topography when considering converging frontal and nonfrontal inputs from distributed cortical networks. The ventral striatum (VS) in particular is often ascribed a "limbic" role, but it receives diverse information, including motivation and emotion from deep brain structures, cognition from frontal cortex, and polysensory and mnemonic signals from temporal cortex...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#15
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274878/immunochemical-analysis-of-the-expression-of-sv2c-in-mouse-macaque-and-human-brain
#16
Amy R Dunn, Carlie A Hoffman, Kristen A Stout, Minagi Ozawa, Rohan K Dhamsania, Gary W Miller
The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) is an undercharacterized protein with enriched expression in phylogenetically old brain regions. Its precise role within the brain is unclear, though various lines of evidence suggest that SV2C is involved in the function of synaptic vesicles through the regulation of vesicular trafficking, calcium-induced exocytosis, or synaptotagmin function. SV2C has been linked to multiple neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and psychiatric conditions. SV2C is expressed in various cell types-primarily dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic cells...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259152/neural-computations-underpinning-the-strategic-management-of-influence-in-advice-giving
#17
Uri Hertz, Stefano Palminteri, Silvia Brunetti, Cecilie Olesen, Chris D Frith, Bahador Bahrami
Research on social influence has focused mainly on the target of influence (e.g., consumer and voter); thus, the cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings of the source of the influence (e.g., politicians and salesmen) remain unknown. Here, in a three-sided advice-giving game, two advisers competed to influence a client by modulating their own confidence in their advice about which lottery the client should choose. We report that advisers' strategy depends on their level of influence on the client and their merit relative to one another...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249930/effects-of-field-map-distortion-correction-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-mri
#18
Hiroki Togo, Jaroslav Rokicki, Kenji Yoshinaga, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune, Hiroshi Matsuda, Nobuhiko Haga, Takashi Hanakawa
Magnetic field inhomogeneities cause geometric distortions of echo planar images used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To reduce this problem, distortion correction (DC) with field map is widely used for both task and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Although DC with field map has been reported to improve the quality of task fMRI, little is known about its effects on rs-fMRI. Here, we tested the influence of field-map DC on rs-fMRI results using two rs-fMRI datasets derived from 40 healthy subjects: one with DC (DC+) and the other without correction (DC-)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248021/heightened-connectivity-between-the-ventral-striatum-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-as-a-biomarker-for-stress-related-psychopathology-understanding-interactive-effects-of-early-and-more-recent-stress
#19
Jamie L Hanson, Annchen R Knodt, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: The experience of childhood maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for this relation, little is known about biological correlates of these stress interactions. Identifying such correlates may provide biomarkers of risk for later depression. METHODS: Here, we leverage behavioral, experiential, and neuroimaging data from the Duke Neurogenetics Study to identify potential biomarkers of stress exposure...
December 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246748/impact-of-brain-shift-on-subcallosal-cingulate-deep-brain-stimulation
#20
Ki Sueng Choi, Angela M Noecker, Patricio Riva-Posse, Justin K Rajendra, Robert E Gross, Helen S Mayberg, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is an emerging experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. New developments in SCC DBS surgical targeting are focused on identifying specific axonal pathways for stimulation that are estimated from preoperatively collected diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. However, brain shift induced by opening burr holes in the skull may alter the position of the target pathways. OBJECTIVES: Quantify the effect of electrode location deviations on tractographic representations for stimulating the target pathways using longitudinal clinical imaging datasets...
December 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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