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Ventral striatum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336394/ts1cje-down-syndrome-model-mice-exhibit-environmental-stimuli-triggered-locomotor-hyperactivity-and-sociability-concurrent-with-increased-flux-through-central-dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism
#1
Atsushi Shimohata, Keiichi Ishihara, Satoko Hattori, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Hiromasa Morishita, Guy Ornthanalai, Matthieu Raveau, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Kenji Amano, Kazuyuki Yamada, Haruhiko Sago, Satoshi Akiba, Nobuko Mataga, Niall P Murphy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#3
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300546/cocaine-self-administration-specifically-increases-a2ar-d2r-and-d2r-sigma1r-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-shell-relevance-for-cocaine-use-disorder
#4
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Julia Pintsuk, Luca Pinton, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Michael Di Palma, Joanna Jastrzębska, Malgorzata Filip, Kjell Fuxe
Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists were indicated to reduce cocaine reward and cocaine seeking mainly through activation of antagonistic allosteric A2AR-dopamine D2R (D2R) interactions in A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes. Furthermore, it was shown that modulation of cocaine reward involves antagonistic A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral but not the dorsal striatum in rats. In the current work the proximity ligation assay (PLA) was used to further study the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes in the nucleus accumbens shell and core as well as the dorsal striatum under the influence of cocaine self-administration in rats...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297663/disrupting-glutamate-co-transmission-does-not-affect-acquisition-of-conditioned-behavior-reinforced-by-dopamine-neuron-activation
#5
Dong V Wang, Thomas Viereckel, Vivien Zell, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Carl J Broker, Aleksandr Talishinsky, Ji Hoon Yoo, Melissa H Galinato, Emma Arvidsson, Andrew J Kesner, Thomas S Hnasko, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie, Satoshi Ikemoto
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). This capacity may play an important role in reinforcement learning. Although it is known that activation of the VTA-VStr dopamine system readily reinforces behavior, little is known about the role of glutamate co-transmission in such reinforcement. By combining electrode recording and optogenetics, we found that stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons in vivo evoked fast excitatory responses in many VStr neurons of adult mice...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291210/-long-association-tracts-of-the-human-white-matter-an-analysis-of-18-hemisphere-dissections-and-in-vivo-hardi-csd-tractography
#6
S A Goryainov, A V Kondrashov, M F Gol'dberg, A I Batalov, R A Sufianov, N E Zakharova, I N Pronin, D A Gol'bin, V Yu Zhukov, G F Dobrovol'sky, S Yu Shelyakin, V N Vorob'ev, S S Dadykin, A A Potapov
BACKGROUND: Anatomy of the conduction tracts of the cerebral cortex has been studied for a long time. Invention of diffusion tensor tractography renewed interest in this subject. The objectives of this work were to develop and improve protocols for dissection of the long association tracts of the human brain with studying the features of their segmentation, topography, and variability, compare the obtained data with the MR tractography data, and prepare for further clinical and anatomical studies...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280884/social-defeat-disrupts-reward-learning-and-potentiates-striatal-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-mrna-in-rats
#7
Andre Der-Avakian, Manoranjan S D'Souza, David N Potter, Elena H Chartoff, William A Carlezon, Diego A Pizzagalli, Athina Markou
RATIONALE: Mood disorders can be triggered by stress and are characterized by deficits in reward processing, including disrupted reward learning (the ability to modulate behavior according to past rewards). Reward learning is regulated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatal circuits, both of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. OBJECTIVES: Here, we assessed in rats the effects of a potent stressor (social defeat) on reward learning and gene expression in the ACC, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and striatum...
March 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273522/determination-of-catecholamines-and-endogenous-related-compounds-in-rat-brain-tissue-exploring-their-native-fluorescence-and-liquid-chromatography
#8
Beatriz M Fonseca, Márcio Rodrigues, Ana C Cristóvão, Daniela Gonçalves, Ana Fortuna, Liliana Bernardino, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
The profiling analysis of catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue offers a crucial key to understand their functions in the body and the opportunity to follow up neural diseases. A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method was developed and validated for simultaneously measuring several catecholamines and endogenous related compounds in the rat brain tissue samples. The target analytes measured in this bioanalytical assay were levodopa (L-DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 3-O-methyldopa (3-O-MD), and homovanillic acid (HVA), being the 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA) used as internal standard (IS)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#10
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267576/a-direct-comparison-of-appetitive-and-aversive-anticipation-overlapping-and-distinct-neural-activation
#11
Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, Mathias Weymar, Peter J Lang
fMRI studies of reward find increased neural activity in ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula, are activated when anticipating aversive exposure. Although these data suggest differential activation during anticipation of pleasant or of unpleasant exposure, they also arise in the context of different paradigms (e.g., preparation for reward vs. threat of shock) and participants...
March 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263831/involvement-of-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation-in-modulating-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-amygdala-neuronal-activation-during-novelty-exposure
#12
Mona El-Sayed Hervig, Nadja Cecilie Hvid Jensen, Nadja Bredo Rasmussen, Rasmus Rydbirk, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Anders Hay-Schmidt, Bente Pakkenberg, Susana Aznar
The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation...
March 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259781/evaluating-accuracy-of-striatal-pallidal-and-thalamic-segmentation-methods-comparing-automated-approaches-to-manual-delineation
#13
Carolina Makowski, Sophie Béland, Penelope Kostopoulos, Nikhil Bhagwat, Gabriel A Devenyi, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, M Mallar Chakravarty
Accurate automated quantification of subcortical structures is a greatly pursued endeavour in neuroimaging. In an effort to establish the validity and reliability of these methods in defining the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, we investigated differences in volumetry between manual delineation and automated segmentations derived by widely used FreeSurfer and FSL packages, and a more recent segmentation method, the MAGeT-Brain algorithm. In a first set of experiments, the basal ganglia and thalamus of thirty subjects (15 first episode psychosis [FEP], 15 controls) were manually defined and compared to the labels generated by the three automated methods...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258483/parasubthalamic-and-calbindin-nuclei-in-the-posterior-lateral-hypothalamus-are-the-major-hypothalamic-targets-for-projections-from-the-central-and-anterior-basomedial-nuclei-of-the-amygdala
#14
Marie Barbier, Sandrine Chometton, Yvan Peterschmitt, Dominique Fellmann, Pierre-Yves Risold
The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN) and the ventrally adjacent calbindin nucleus (CbN) form a nuclear complex in the posterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), recently characterized as connected with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA). The aim of the present work is to analyze in detail the projections from the amygdala into the PSTN/CbN, also focusing on pathways into the LHA. After fluorogold injections into the PSTN/CbN, the medial part of the CEA (CEAm) appears to be the main supplier of projections from the CEA...
March 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256044/striato-cortical-connections-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases-relation-to-cognition
#15
Lubomira Anderkova, Marek Barton, Irena Rektorova
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity is abnormal in PD and in early Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate resting-state striato-cortical connectivity in PD and Alzheimer's disease and assess their relation to cognitive outcomes. Groups with mild cognitive impairment as a result of different pathologies (PD vs. Alzheimer's disease) were also compared. METHODS: Seed-based connectivity of the dorsal, middle, and ventral striatum was analyzed in 111 patients using functional MRI...
March 3, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241047/hippocampal-ca3-activation-alleviates-fmri-bold-responses-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-electrical-vta-stimulation
#16
Thomas Scherf, Frank Angenstein
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain- wide networks that are activated by electrical stimulation of either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or hippocampal CA3 region. Stimulation of either one of these regions caused significant BOLD responses in common structures, such as the septum and left and right hippocampus, but also in unique structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex region/anterior cingulum region (mPFC/ACC) and striatum, which were only activated during VTA stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235565/neural-correlates-of-social-exclusion-across-ages-a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-mri-studies
#17
REVIEW
Nandita Vijayakumar, Theresa W Cheng, Jennifer H Pfeifer
Given the recent surge in functional neuroimaging studies on social exclusion, the current study employed activation likelihood estimation (ALE) based meta-analyses to identify brain regions that have consistently been implicated across different experimental paradigms used to investigate exclusion. We also examined the neural correlates underlying Cyberball, the most commonly used paradigm to study exclusion, as well as differences in exclusion-related activation between developing (7-18 years of age, from pre-adolescence up to late adolescence) and emerging adult (broadly defined as undergraduates, including late adolescence and young adulthood) samples...
February 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226198/olanzapine-induced-early-cardiovascular-effects-are-mediated-by-the-biological-clock-and-prevented-by-melatonin
#18
Francisco Romo-Nava, Frederik N Buijs, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Gloria Benítez-King, MariCarmen Basualdo, Mercedes Perusquía, Gerhard Heinze, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side-effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side-effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. Since one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225752/prefrontal-cortex-output-circuits-guide-reward-seeking-through-divergent-cue-encoding
#19
James M Otis, Vijay M K Namboodiri, Ana M Matan, Elisa S Voets, Emily P Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A McHenry, J Elliott Robinson, Shanna L Resendez, Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
The prefrontal cortex is a critical neuroanatomical hub for controlling motivated behaviours across mammalian species. In addition to intra-cortical connectivity, prefrontal projection neurons innervate subcortical structures that contribute to reward-seeking behaviours, such as the ventral striatum and midline thalamus. While connectivity among these structures contributes to appetitive behaviours, how projection-specific prefrontal neurons encode reward-relevant information to guide reward seeking is unknown...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223145/rapid-induction-of-dopamine-sensitization-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-cocaine
#20
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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