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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791298/the-influence-of-dopamine-on-cognitive-flexibility-is-mediated-by-functional-connectivity-in-young-but-not-older-adults
#1
Anne S Berry, Vyoma D Shah, William J Jagust
Dopaminergic signaling in striatum is strongly implicated in executive functions including cognitive flexibility. However, there is a paucity of multimodal research in humans defining the nature of relationships between endogenous dopamine, striatal network activity, and cognition. Here, we measured dopamine synthesis capacity in young and older adults using the PET tracer 6-[18 F]fluoro-l- m-tyrosine and examined its relationship with cognitive performance and functional connectivity during an fMRI study of task switching...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788902/dystonia-deafness-syndrome-caused-by-actb-p-arg183trp-heterozygosity-shows-striatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-response-to-pallidal-stimulation
#2
Inger Marie Skogseid, Oddveig Røsby, Ane Konglund, James P Connelly, Bård Nedregaard, Greg Eigner Jablonski, Nadja Kvernmo, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Joel C Glover
BACKGROUND: Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787868/individualized-tractography-based-parcellation-of-the-globus-pallidus-pars-interna-using-7t-mri-in-movement-disorder-patients-prior-to-dbs-surgery
#3
Rémi Patriat, Scott E Cooper, Yuval Duchin, Jacob Niederer, Christophe Lenglet, Joshua Aman, Michael C Park, Jerrold Vitek, Noam Harel
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries for the treatment of movement disorders relies on the accurate placement of an electrode within the motor portion of subcortical brain targets. However, the high number of electrodes requiring relocation indicates that today's methods do not ensure sufficient accuracy for all patients. Here, with the goal of aiding DBS targeting, we use 7 T (T) MRI data to identify the functional territories and parcellate the globus pallidus interna (GPi) into motor, associative and limbic regions in individual subjects...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786871/gender-specific-effects-of-selection-for-drinking-in-the-dark-on-the-network-roles-of-coding-and-non-coding-rnas
#4
Ovidiu Dan Iancu, Alex Colville, Beth Wilmot, Robert Searles, Priscila Darakjian, Christina Zheng, Shannon McWeeney, Sunita Kawane, John C Crabbe, Pamela Metten, Denesa Oberbeck, Robert Hitzemann
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional differences between Heterogeneous stock (HS/NPT) mice and High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse lines have previously been described based on microarray technology coupled with network based analysis (Iancu et al., 2013b). The network changes were reproducible in two independent selections and largely confined to two distinct network modules; in contrast differential expression appeared more specific to each selected line. The current study extends these results by utilizing RNA-Seq technology, allowing evaluation of the relationship between genetic risk and transcription of non-coding RNA; we additionally evaluate sex-specific transcriptional effects of selection...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784814/distinct-encoding-of-decision-confidence-in-human-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Dan Bang, Stephen M Fleming
Our confidence in a choice and the evidence pertaining to a choice appear to be inseparable. However, an emerging computational consensus holds that the brain should maintain separate estimates of these quantities for adaptive behavioral control. We have devised a psychophysical task to decouple confidence in a perceptual decision from both the reliability of sensory evidence and the relation of such evidence with respect to a choice boundary. Using human fMRI, we found that an area in the medial prefrontal cortex, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), tracked expected performance, an aggregate signature of decision confidence, whereas neural areas previously proposed to encode decision confidence instead tracked sensory reliability (posterior parietal cortex and ventral striatum) or boundary distance (presupplementary motor area)...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782882/prolonged-increase-in-ser31-tyrosine-hydroxylase-phosphorylation-in-substantia-nigra-following-cessation-of-chronic-methamphetamine
#7
Michael F Salvatore, Vicki A Nejtek, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (MA) exposure may increase the risk of motor or cognitive impairments similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) by middle age. Although damage to nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) neurons may occur during or early after MA exposure, overt PD-like symptoms at a younger age may not manifest due to compensatory mechanisms to maintain DA neurotransmission. One possible compensatory mechanism is increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation. In the rodent PD 6-OHDA model, nigrostriatal lesion decreases TH protein in both striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778947/dissociable-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-striatal-regions-on-a-rodent-cost-benefit-decision-making-task-requiring-cognitive-effort
#8
Mason M Silveira, Melanie Tremblay, Catharine A Winstanley
Cognitive effort is a ubiquitous process, yet surprisingly little is known about the brain mechanisms responsible for evaluating it. Here, we utilize the rat Cognitive Effort Task (rCET) to probe the striatum's role in deciding between options that vary in the amount of cognitive effort required for success. In the rCET, animals choose to perform either an easy trial, in which the attentional demand is low but the potential reward is small, or a difficult trial which is more attentionally demanding but can yield twice the sugar pellets...
April 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778509/longitudinal-observations-using-simultaneous-fmri-multiple-channel-electrophysiology-recording-and-chemical-microiontophoresis-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Saul Jaime, Jose E Cavazos, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been widely used as a surrogate for neural activity. However, interpreting differences in BOLD fMRI based on underlying neuronal activity remains a challenge. Concurrent rsMRI data collection and electrophysiological recording in combination with microiontophoretically injected modulatory chemicals allows for improved understanding of the relationship between resting state BOLD and neuronal activity. NEW METHODS: Simultaneous fMRI, multi-channel intracortical electrophysiology and focal pharmacological manipulation data to be acquired longitudinally in rats for up to 2 months...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778276/dissociable-frontostriatal-connectivity-mechanism-and-predictor-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-capsulotomy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Dazhi Yin, ChenCheng Zhang, Qiming Lv, Xiaoyu Chen, Kristina Zeljic, Hengfen Gong, Shikun Zhan, Haiyan Jin, Zheng Wang, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural mechanism and response variability underlying neurosurgical interventions for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Of 81 OCD patients screened for capsulotomy identified in our institutional database, 36 patients with clinical assessment before and after capsulotomy and imaging data (9 of 36 patients without postoperative imaging data used as an independent test group), and 29 healthy control subjects were retrospectively recruited...
April 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#11
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761060/loss-anticipation-and-outcome-during-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task-a-neuroimaging-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Jules R Dugré, Alexandre Dumais, Nathalie Bitar, Stéphane Potvin
Background: Reward seeking and avoidance of punishment are key motivational processes. Brain-imaging studies often use the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) to evaluate motivational processes involved in maladaptive behavior. Although the bulk of research has been done on the MIDT reward events, little is known about the neural basis of avoidance of punishment. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain activations during anticipation and receipt of monetary losses in healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754307/effects-of-cocaine-self-administration-and-its-extinction-on-the-rat-brain-cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors
#13
Beata Bystrowska, Małgorzata Frankowska, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamioło, Małgorzata Filip
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptor proteins in several brain regions in rats undergoing cocaine self-administration and extinction training. We used a triad-yoked procedure to distinguish between the motivational and pharmacological effects of cocaine. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and the basolateral and basomedial amygdala following cocaine (0...
May 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751057/using-expectancy-theory-to-quantitatively-dissociate-the-neural-representation-of-motivation-from-its-influential-factors-in-the-human-brain-an-fmri-study
#14
Akshay Kohli, David N Blitzer, Ray W Lefco, Joseph W Barter, M Ryan Haynes, Sam A Colalillo, Martina Ly, Caroline F Zink
Researchers have yet to apply a formal operationalized theory of motivation to neurobiology that would more accurately and precisely define neural activity underlying motivation. We overcome this challenge with the novel application of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation to human fMRI to identify brain activity that explicitly reflects motivation. Expectancy Theory quantitatively describes how individual constructs determine motivation by defining motivation force as the product of three variables: expectancy - belief that effort will better performance; instrumentality - belief that successful performance leads to particular outcome, and valence - outcome desirability...
May 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749102/neural-mechanisms-of-the-link-between-giving-social-support-and-health
#15
REVIEW
Tristen K Inagaki
Giving social support to others has emerged as an additional route by which social ties influence health. Thus, giving support to others not only influences the health of the individual receiving support, but also the health of the individual giving the support. However, the neural mechanisms by which giving support leads to health are only beginning to be explored. In hopes of consolidating and guiding future research on giving support and health, the current review considers why, how, and when giving support is health promoting...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741803/modulating-emotional-experience-using-electrical-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-preliminary-tdcs-fmri-study
#16
Rany Abend, Roy Sar-El, Tal Gonen, Itamar Jalon, Sharon Vaisvaser, Yair Bar-Haim, Talma Hendler
OBJECTIVES: Implicit regulation of emotions involves medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions exerting regulatory control over limbic structures. Diminished regulation relates to aberrant mPFC functionality and psychopathology. Establishing means of modulating mPFC functionality could benefit research on emotion and its dysregulation. Here, we tested the capacity of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting mPFC to modulate subjective emotional states by facilitating implicit emotion regulation...
May 9, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#17
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737578/neuronal-connections-of-direct-and-indirect-pathways-for-stable-value-memory-in-caudal-basal-ganglia
#18
Hidetoshi Amita, Hyoung F Kim, Mitchell Smith, Atul Gopal, Okihide Hikosaka
Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736018/evaluation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-during-cognitive-control-in-unmedicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-medication
#19
Elyse J Cadena, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Adrienne C Lahti
To understand the mechanism of cognitive control dysfunction in schizophrenia, it is critical to characterize brain function without the confounding effect of medication. It is also important to establish the extent to which antipsychotic medication restores brain function and whether those changes are related to psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 healthy controls (HC) studied twice, 6 weeks apart, performed an fMRI task...
May 7, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735557/decomposing-gratitude-representation-and-integration-of-cognitive-antecedents-of-gratitude-in-the-brain
#20
Hongbo Yu, Xiaoxue Gao, Yuanyuan Zhou, Xiaolin Zhou
Gratitude is a typical social-moral emotion that plays a crucial role in maintaining human cooperative interpersonal relationship. Although neural correlates of gratitude have been investigated, the neurocognitive processes that lead to gratitude, namely the representation and integration of its cognitive antecedents, remain largely unknown. Here, we combined fMRI and a human social interaction task to investigate how benefactor's cost and beneficiary's benefit, two critical antecedents of gratitude, are encoded and integrated in beneficiary's brain, and how the neural processing of gratitude is converted to reciprocity...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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