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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919158/a-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-in-the-expression-but-not-the-induction-of-behavioural-sensitization-to-ethanol
#1
Christina N Nona, José N Nobrega
Mechanisms underlying differential sensitivity to behavioural sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood, although accumulating evidence suggests a role for glutamatergic processes in the ventral striatum. Efforts to address this issue can benefit from the well-documented fact that in any given cohort, some of the mice (High sensitized; HS) show robust sensitization, while others (Low sensitized; LS) show little, if any, sensitization. Here, we examined whether this variability might be differentially associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamate processes...
September 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918269/excess-social-media-use-in-normal-populations-is-associated-with-amygdala-striatal-but-not-with-prefrontal-morphology
#2
Qinghua He, Ofir Turel, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
This study aims to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) of key neural systems possibly associated with Excess Social Media Use (ESMU) in the general user population. It employs a sex-balanced case (relatively high ESMU scores) - control (relatively low ESMU scores) design with 50 random university students who have reported varying levels of ESMU. The case and control groups included 25 subjects each. Brain volumes were calculated with Voxel-Based Morphometry techniques applied to structural MRI scans. Results based on voxel-wise and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses showed that the case group had reduced GMV in the bilateral amygdala and right ventral striatum...
September 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918253/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-elevates-striatal-dopamine-concentration-without-affecting-spontaneous-or-reward-induced-phasic-release
#3
Marianne Klanker, Matthijs Feenstra, Ingo Willuhn, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) induces rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. It has been hypothesized that activation of the dopamine (DA) system contributes to this effect. To investigate whether DBS in the MFB affects DA release in the striatum, we combined DBS with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in freely moving rats. Animals were implanted with a stimulating electrode at the border of the MFB and the ventral tegmental area, and a FSCV microelectrode in the ventromedial striatum to monitor extracellular DA during the acute onset of DBS and subsequent continued stimulation...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917135/failing-to-learn-from-negative-prediction-errors-obesity-is-associated-with-alterations-in-a-fundamental-neural-learning-mechanism
#4
David Mathar, Jane Neumann, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann
Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914738/age-related-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-olfactory-and-trigeminal-networks
#5
Prasanna Karunanayaka, Michael J Tobia, Qing X Yang
Brain networks for intranasal chemosensation have been shown to be intrinsically organized in humans . However, little is known about how changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in chemosensory networks are related to aging. We, therefore, investigated the impact of age on resting-state FC in the olfactory and trigeminal networks (ON and TN) by combining two freely available resting-state fMRI data sets (obtained from the NITRC.org; Atlanta and New York) with data collected in our lab to generate a large sample size (N=103; 51 women) spanning the age range of 20-61 years...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912301/early-onset-drug-induced-parkinsonism-after-exposure-to-offenders-implies-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction
#6
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Hyojeong Moon, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Hee Park, Jin Yong Hong, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
OBJECTIVES: The onset of parkinsonism in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) exhibits extensive individual variability following exposure to offending drugs. We investigated whether the individual variations in the onset time of parkinsonism reflected the underlying subtle dopaminergic dysfunction in DIP. METHODS: We enrolled 71 patients with DIP who had visually normal striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in (18)F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography scans...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900267/investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-smoking-feasibility-and-results-of-combining-electronic-cigarettes-with-fmri
#7
Matthew B Wall, Alexander Mentink, Georgina Lyons, Oliwia S Kowalczyk, Lysia Demetriou, Rexford D Newbould
Cigarette addiction is driven partly by the physiological effects of nicotine, but also by the distinctive sensory and behavioural aspects of smoking, and understanding the neural effects of such processes is vital. There are many practical difficulties associated with subjects smoking in the modern neuroscientific laboratory environment, however electronic cigarettes obviate many of these issues, and provide a close simulation of smoking tobacco cigarettes. We have examined the neural effects of 'smoking' electronic cigarettes with concurrent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889008/the-interplay-between-ventro-striatal-bdnf-levels-and-the-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-the-acquisition-of-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#8
Manuel Alves Dos Santos, Sarah Sousa Escudeiro, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Marcos Romário Matos de Souza, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Leonardo Pimentel Dantas, Danielle Macêdo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Alcohol addiction is a chronic, relapsing and progressive brain disease with serious consequences for health. Compulsive use of alcohol is associated with the capacity to change brain structures involved with the reward pathway, such as ventral striatum. Recent evidence suggests a role of chromatin remodeling in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and addictive-like behaviors. In addition, neuroadaptive changes mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be an interesting pharmacological target for alcoholism treatment...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888770/test-retest-reliability-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-healthy-individuals-using-arterial-spin-labeling-findings-from-the-embarc-study
#9
Jorge R C Almeida, Tsafrir Greenberg, Hanzhang Lu, Henry W Chase, Jay Fournier, Crystal M Cooper, Thilo Deckersbach, Phil Adams, Thomas Carmody, Mauricio Fava, Benji Kurian, Patrick J McGrath, Melvin McInnis, Maria A Oquendo, Ramin Parsey, Myrna Weissman, Madhukar Trivedi, Mary L Phillips
INTRODUCTION: Previous investigations of test-retest reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest measured with pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) demonstrated good reliability, but are limited by the use of similar scanner platforms. In the present study we examined test-retest reliability of CBF in regions implicated in emotion and the default mode network. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured absolute and relative CBF at rest in thirty-one healthy subjects in two scan sessions, one week apart, at four different sites and three different scan platforms...
September 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885367/compulsive-skin-picking-behavior-after-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report
#10
Chun-Hung Chang, Shin-Yuan Chen, Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsin-Chi Tsai
RATIONAL: The therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been studied, but complications after this treatment have rarely been noted. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old man with treatment-resistant OCD received bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum stimulation for 12 months. DIAGNOSIS: Compulsive skin-picking behavior and infection were noted following 12-month DBS treatment...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883019/suppression-of-striatal-prediction-errors-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-placebo-hypoalgesia
#11
Lieven A Schenk, Christian Sprenger, Selim Onat, Luana Colloca, Christian Büchel
Classical learning theories predict extinction after discontinuation of reinforcement through prediction errors. However, placebo hypoalgesia, although mediated by associative learning, has been shown to be resistant to extinction. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by suppression of prediction error processing through the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We compared pain modulation through treatment cues (placebo hypoalgesia, treatment context) with pain modulation through stimulus intensity cues (stimulus context) during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 48 male and female healthy volunteers...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882695/effects-of-an-acute-therapeutic-or-rewarding-dose-of-amphetamine-on-acquisition-of-pavlovian-autoshaping-and-ventral-striatal-dopamine-signaling
#12
D R Schuweiler, J M Athens, J M Thompson, S T Vazhayil, P A Garris
Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879197/a-preliminary-study-of-the-opioid-system-and-personality-traits-using-positron-emission-tomography
#13
Alexandra M Rodman, Thilo Deckersbach, Tina Chou, Jian Kong, Randy L Gollub, Darin D Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Personality traits, such as Neuroticism and Extraversion, have been implicated in the processing of emotion. The neural correlates most often associated with Neuroticism and Extraversion are the insular cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and ventral striatum. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to explore neurotransmitter systems underlying those neural correlates and investigate the relationship between personality traits and opioid receptor binding potential...
July 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877410/neural-correlates-of-tobacco-cue-reactivity-predict-duration-to-lapse-and-continuous-abstinence-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#14
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Steven R H Beach, Michael D Stein, Raymond S Niaura, Lawrence H Sweet
It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances...
September 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870852/independent-circuits-in-basal-ganglia-and-cortex-for-the-processing-of-reward-and-precision-feedback
#15
David Pascucci, Clayton Hickey, Jorge Jovicich, Massimo Turatto
In order to understand human decision making it is necessary to understand how the brain uses feedback to guide goal-directed behavior. The ventral striatum (VS) appears to be a key structure in this function, responding strongly to explicit reward feedback. However, recent results have also shown striatal activity following correct task performance even in the absence of feedback. This raises the possibility that, in addition to processing external feedback, the dopamine-centered "reward circuit" might regulate endogenous reinforcement signals, like those triggered by satisfaction in accurate task performance...
September 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870407/striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-mediated-neurotransmission-in-major-depression-implications-for-anhedonia-anxiety-and-treatment-response
#16
Marta Peciña, Magdalena Sikora, Erich T Avery, Joseph Heffernan, Susana Peciña, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuit has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and in both, cognitive and pharmacological mechanisms of treatment response. Still, a direct relationship between measures of DA neurotransmission and reward-related deficits in patients with depression has not been demonstrated. To gain insight into the symptom-specific alterations in the DA system in patients with depression, we used positron emission tomography (PET) and the D2/3 receptor-selective radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride in twenty-three non-smoking un-medicated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and sixteen healthy controls (HC)...
September 1, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867519/striatal-dysfunction-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#17
Zhi Li, Chao Yan, Qin-Yu Lv, Zheng-Hui Yi, Jian-Ye Zhang, Jin-Hong Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Yi-Feng Xu, Eric F C Cheung, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Raymond C K Chan
Despite empirical findings showing that patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives have deficits in processing monetary incentives, it is unclear whether similar deficits could be demonstrated for affective incentives. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age and gender matched healthy controls; 23 unaffected first-degree relatives and 23 matched healthy controls were recruited to complete a Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task and an Affective Incentive Delay (AID) task in a 3-Tesla MRI scanner...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#18
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861340/multivariate-pattern-analysis-strategies-in-detection-of-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-using-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#19
Runa Bhaumik, Lisanne M Jenkins, Jennifer R Gowins, Rachel H Jacobs, Alyssa Barba, Dulal K Bhaumik, Scott A Langenecker
Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r) population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM) classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs) in a narrow early-adult age range...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859110/junk-food-diet-induced-obesity-increases-d2-receptor-autoinhibition-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-reduces-ethanol-drinking
#20
Jason B Cook, Linzy M Hendrickson, Grant M Garwood, Kelsey M Toungate, Christina V Nania, Hitoshi Morikawa
Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility...
2017: PloS One
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