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Ventral striatum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165901/influence-of-ventral-tegmental-area-input-on-cortico-subcortical-networks-underlying-action-control-and-decision-making
#1
Anja Richter, Oliver Gruber
It is argued that the mesolimbic system has a more general function in processing all salient events, including and extending beyond rewards. Saliency was defined as an event that is unexpected due to its frequency of occurrence and elicits an attentional-behavioral switch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), signals were measured in response to the modulation of salience of rewarding and nonrewarding events during a reward-based decision making task, the so called desire-reason dilemma paradigm (DRD)...
November 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163035/npas2-regulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior-and-gabaa-receptors
#2
Angela R Ozburn, Joseph Kern, Puja K Parekh, Ryan W Logan, Zheng Liu, Edgardo Falcon, Darius Becker-Krail, Kush Purohit, Nicole M Edgar, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung
Abnormal circadian rhythms and circadian genes are strongly associated with several psychiatric disorders. Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2 (NPAS2) is a core component of the molecular clock that acts as a transcription factor and is highly expressed in reward- and stress-related brain regions such as the striatum. However, the mechanism by which NPAS2 is involved in mood-related behaviors is still unclear. We measured anxiety-like behaviors in mice with a global null mutation in Npas2 (Npas2 null mutant mice) and found that Npas2 null mutant mice exhibit less anxiety-like behavior than their wild-type (WT) littermates (in elevated plus maze, light/dark box and open field assay)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163018/brain-networks-implicated-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-a-neuroimaging-pet-study-of-the-serotonin-transporter
#3
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162189/altered-ventral-striatal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-resting-state-connectivity-mediates-adolescent-social-problems-after-early-institutional-care
#4
Dominic S Fareri, Laurel Gabard-Durnam, Bonnie Goff, Jessica Flannery, Dylan G Gee, Daniel S Lumian, Christina Caldera, Nim Tottenham
Early caregiving adversity is associated with increased risk for social difficulties. The ventral striatum and associated corticostriatal circuitry, which have demonstrated vulnerability to early exposures to adversity, are implicated in many aspects of social behavior, including social play, aggression, and valuation of social stimuli across development. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the degree to which early caregiving adversity was associated with altered coritocostriatal resting connectivity in previously institutionalized youth (n = 41) relative to youth who were raised with their biological families from birth (n = 47), and the degree to which this connectivity was associated with parent-reported social problems...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161352/delta-rhythm-orchestrates-the-neural-activity-underlying-the-resting-state-bold-signal-via-phase-amplitude-coupling
#5
Saul Jaime, Hong Gu, Brian F Sadacca, Elliot A Stein, Jose E Cavazos, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
Spontaneous ongoing neuronal activity is a prominent feature of the mammalian brain. Temporal and spatial patterns of such ongoing activity have been exploited to examine large-scale brain network organization and function. However, the neurophysiological basis of this spontaneous brain activity as detected by resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) remains poorly understood. To this end, multi-site local field potentials (LFP) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI were simultaneously recorded in the rat striatum along with local pharmacological manipulation of striatal activity...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161340/prefrontal-executive-control-rescues-risk-for-anxiety-associated-with-high-threat-and-low-reward-brain-function
#6
Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Compared with neural biomarkers of risk for mental illness, little is known about biomarkers of resilience. We explore if greater executive control-related prefrontal activity may function as a resilience biomarker by "rescuing" risk associated with higher threat-related amygdala and lower reward-related ventral striatum activity. Functional MRI was used to assay baseline threat-related amygdala, reward-related ventral striatum, and executive control-related prefrontal activity in 120 young adult volunteers...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158879/changes-in-effective-connectivity-network-patterns-in-drug-abusers-treated-with-different-methods
#7
Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari
Introduction: Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods. Methods: We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158359/are-cocaine-seeking-habits-necessary-for-the-development-of-addiction-like-behavior-in-rats
#8
Bryan F Singer, Monica Fadanelli, Alex B Kawa, Terry E Robinson
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit", and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, often requires considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155279/scalar-timing-in-memory-a-temporal-map-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Sorinel A Oprisan, Tristan Aft, Mona Buhus, Catalin V Buhusi
Decision making, rate calculation, and planning are examples of daily tasks we perform. They require accurate timing and involve many cortical areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although the neurobiological origin and the mechanisms of interval timing are largely unknown, we developed increasingly accurate mathematical and computational models that can mimic some properties of time perception. The accepted paradigm of temporal durations storage is that the objective elapsed time from the short-term memory is transferred to the reference memory using a multiplicative "memory translation constant" K*...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#10
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152502/target-specific-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-ventral-capsule-ventral-striatum-for-the-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disease
#11
Chencheng Zhang, Dianyou Li, Haiyan Jin, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. An accumulating body of evidence supports the extension of DBS application for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. The ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is the most common anatomical target for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and depression. However, no specific electrode is available for the clinical targeting of these areas for DBS. According to the anatomical features of the VC/VS, a novel electrode was developed for simultaneous and independently programmed stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC)...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146474/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#12
Chanjuan Zhou, Hanping Zhang, Yinhua Qin, Tian Tian, Bing Xu, Jianjun Chen, Xinyu Zhou, Li Zeng, Liang Fang, Xunzhong Qi, Bin Lian, Haiyang Wang, Zicheng Hu, Peng Xie
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) as a putative intervention targeting different brain regions. However, the antidepressant effects of DBS for TRD in recent clinical trials remain controversial. METHODS: We searched Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO for all published studies investigating the efficacy of DBS in TRD up to Feb 2017. Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) scores and Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MARDS) scores were compared between baseline levels and those after DBS using the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
November 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146290/sustained-opioid-antagonism-modulates-striatal-sensitivity-to-baby-schema-in-opioid-use-disorder
#13
An-Li Wang, Steven B Lowen, Igor Elman, Zhenhao Shi, Victoria P Fairchild, Alexander Bouril, Ruben C Gur, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards and social motivation deficits that include impaired caregiving. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits and their response to treatment are not well understood. Baby schema (Kindchenschema) is a set of juvenile physical features, which is perceived as "cute" and triggers motivation for caregiving. Recent studies suggest that the "baby schema effect" is mediated by the brain "reward" network...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142121/the-role-of-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-glutamate-input-selection-in-the-ventral-striatum
#14
Angelica P Escobar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139159/syntaxin1b-contributes-to-regulation-of-the-dopaminergic-system-through-gaba-transmission-in-the-cns
#15
Tomonori Fujiwara, Takefumi Kofuji, Tatsuya Mishima, Kimio Akagawa
In neuronal plasma membrane, two syntaxin isoforms, HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) and syntaxin1B (STX1B), are predominantly expressed as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors, also known as t-SNAREs. We previously reported that glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission is impaired in Stx1b null mutant (Stx1b(-/-) ) mice, but is almost normal in Stx1a null mutant (Stx1a(-/-) ) mice. These observations suggested that STX1A and STX1B have distinct functions in fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129597/cocaine-and-desipramine-elicit-distinct-striatal-noradrenergic-and-behavioral-responses-in-selectively-bred-obesity-resistant-and-obesity-prone-rats
#16
Peter J Vollbrecht, Kathryn M Nesbitt, Omar S Mabrouk, Aaron M Chadderdon, Emily M Jutkiewicz, Robert T Kennedy, Carrie R Ferrario
Previous studies have demonstrated a role for norepinephrine (NE) in energy regulation and feeding, and basal differences have been observed in hypothalamic NE systems in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant rats. Differences in the function of brain reward circuits, including in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been shown in obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant populations, leading many researchers to explore the role of striatal dopamine in obesity. However, alterations in NE transmission also affect NAc mediated behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125397/oxytocin-receptor-genotype-and-low-economic-privilege-reverses-ventral-striatum-social-anxiety-association
#17
Marlen Z Gonzalez, Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms, lower ventral striatum (VS) response to social stimuli, and lower economic privilege have been independently associated with depression and anxiety. However, the interactions between these risk factors are unknown. One hundred and fifty-seven healthy adult participants genotyped for OXTR rs237915 completed a common emotion-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Past economic privilege and depression and anxiety symptoms were concurrently assessed through validated self-report measures...
November 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#18
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113897/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-win55-212-2-treatment-on-mesostriatal-dopaminergic-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-rat-brain
#19
Panagiotis Perdikaris, Martha Tsarouchi, Eleni Fanarioti, Evangelos Natsaridis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cannabinoid administration modulates dopamine transmission via an indirect, multisynaptic mechanism that includes the activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The present study evaluated in rodents, the effects of acute and chronic (20 days) WIN55,212-2 administration, a non-selective CB1R agonist, on dopamine uptake and synthesis in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and associate them to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. The effect of spontaneous withdrawal, after different abstinence periods (7 days, 20 days), was also assessed...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112719/a-lesion-model-of-envy-and-schadenfreude-legal-deservingness-and-moral-dimensions-as-revealed-by-neurodegeneration
#20
Hernando Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez, Pablo Reyes, José A Santamaría-García, José M Santacruz-Escudero, Diana Matallana, Analía Arévalo, Mariano Sigman, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
The study of moral emotions (i.e. Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as unified and monolithic emotional domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality...
November 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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