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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#1
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094034/dynamical-representation-of-dominance-relationships-in-the-human-rostromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Romain Ligneul, Ignacio Obeso, Christian C Ruff, Jean-Claude Dreher
Humans and other primates have evolved the ability to represent their status in the group's social hierarchy, which is essential for avoiding harm and accessing resources. Yet it remains unclear how the human brain learns dominance status and adjusts behavior accordingly during dynamic social interactions. Here we address this issue with a combination of fMRI and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In a first fMRI experiment, participants learned an implicit dominance hierarchy while playing a competitive game against three opponents of different skills...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093022/blunted-neural-response-to-anticipation-effort-and-consummation-of-reward-and-aversion-in-adolescents-with-depression-symptomatology
#3
Ewelina Rzepa, Jennifer Fisk, Ciara McCabe
Neural reward function has been proposed as a possible biomarker for depression. However, how the neural response to reward and aversion might differ in young adolescents with current symptoms of depression is as yet unclear. Thirty-three adolescents were recruited, 17 scoring low on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (low risk group) and 16 scoring high (high risk group). Our functional magnetic resonance imaging task measured; anticipation (pleasant/unpleasant cue), effort (achieve a pleasant taste or avoid an unpleasant taste) and consummation (pleasant/unpleasant tastes) in regions of interest; ventral medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual cingulate cortex, the insula and ventral striatum...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092323/brain-substrates-of-reward-processing-and-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-a-pathway-into-pain
#4
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker, Sabina Millenet, Tobias Banaschewski, Luise Poustka, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Rob Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Herta Flor
The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain, to this prediction...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088642/anti-rage-antibody-selectively-blocks-acute-systemic-inflammatory-responses-to-lps-in-serum-liver-csf-and-striatum
#5
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Henrique Schaan Fernandes, Alexsander Alves Teixeira, Marcelo Otavio Rodrigues Guasselli, Crepin Aziz Jose O Agani, Natália Cabral Souza, Mateus Grings, Guilhian Leipnitz, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Systemic inflammation induces transient or permanent dysfunction in the brain by exposing it to soluble inflammatory mediators. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to distinct ligands mediating and increasing inflammatory processes. In this study we used an LPS-induced systemic inflammation model in rats to investigate the effect of blocking RAGE in serum, liver, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra). Intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50 μg/kg) was followed after 1h by a single LPS (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054919/opposite-initialization-to-novel-cues-in-dopamine-signaling-in-ventral-and-posterior-striatum-in-mice
#6
William Menegas, Benedicte M Babayan, Naoshige Uchida, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine neurons are thought to encode novelty in addition to reward prediction error (the discrepancy between actual and predicted values). In this study, we compared dopamine activity across the striatum using fiber fluorometry in mice. During classical conditioning, we observed opposite dynamics in dopamine axon signals in the ventral striatum ('VS dopamine') and the posterior tail of the striatum ('TS dopamine'). TS dopamine showed strong excitation to novel cues, whereas VS dopamine showed no responses to novel cues until they had been paired with reward...
January 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053019/biological-mechanisms-whereby-social-exclusion-may-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-psychosis-a-narrative-review
#7
Jean-Paul Selten, Jan Booij, Bauke Buwalda, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
January 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#8
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045460/neural-substrates-of-cue-reactivity-and-craving-in-gambling-disorder
#9
E H Limbrick-Oldfield, I Mick, R E Cocks, J McGonigle, S P Sharman, A P Goldstone, P R A Stokes, A Waldman, D Erritzoe, H Bowden-Jones, D Nutt, A Lingford-Hughes, L Clark
Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in gambling disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with gambling disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan performed ~2-3 h after a usual meal...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040671/decisional-impulsivity-and-the-associative-limbic-subthalamic-nucleus-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-stimulation-and-connectivity
#10
Valerie Voon, Fabien Droux, Laurel Morris, Stephan Chabardes, Thierry Bougerol, Olivier David, Paul Krack, Mircea Polosan
Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting...
December 31, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040541/cognitive-emotion-regulation-modulates-the-balance-of-competing-influences-on-ventral-striatal-aversive-prediction-error-signals
#11
Satja Mulej Bratec, Xiyao Xie, Yijun Wang, Leonhard Schilbach, Claus Zimmer, Afra M Wohlschläger, Valentin Riedl, Christian Sorg
Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is a critical human ability to face aversive emotional stimuli in a flexible way, via recruitment of specific prefrontal brain circuits. Animal research reveals a central role of ventral striatum in emotional behavior, for both aversive conditioning, with striatum signaling aversive prediction errors (aPE), and for integrating competing influences of distinct striatal inputs from regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035181/functional-connectivity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-carrying-orexin-receptors-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptors-in-regulating-sociability-and-mood-related-behaviors
#12
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017917/intrinsic-inter-network-brain-dysfunction-correlates-with-symptom-dimensions-in-late-life-depression
#14
Wenjun Li, Yang Wang, B Douglas Ward, Piero G Antuono, Shi-Jiang Li, Joseph S Goveas
Prior studies have demonstrated dysfunctions within the core neurocognitive networks (the executive control [ECN], default mode [DMN] and salience [SN] networks) in late-life depression (LLD). Whether inter-network dysfunctional connectivity is present in LLD, and if such disruptions are associated with core symptom dimensions is unknown. A cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging investigation was conducted of LLD (n = 39) and age- and gender-equated healthy comparison (HC) (n = 29) participants...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002166/the-analgesic-effects-of-5r-6r-6-3-propylthio-1-2-5-thiadiazol-4-yl-1-azabicyclo-3-2-1-octane-on-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#15
Yong-Jie Wang, Zhen-Xing Zuo, Mei Zhang, Zhi-Hui Feng, Min Yan, Xiang-Yao Li
BACKGROUND: Both pharmacologic and genetic approaches have been used to study the involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine system in the regulation of chronic pain. Previous studies suggest that the M2 and M4 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are important targets for the development of chronic pain. (5R,6R)6-(3-Propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane (PTAC) has agonist effects on muscarinic M2 and M4 receptors and antagonist effects on muscarinic M1, M3, and M5 receptors...
December 19, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992092/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-perspectives-for-the-use-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#16
REVIEW
Roman Reznikov, Clement Hamani
OBJECTIVES: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been either approved or is currently under investigation for a number of psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We review clinical and preclinical concepts as well as the neurocircuitry that may be of relevance for the implementation of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: PTSD is a chronic and debilitating illness associated with dysfunction in well-established neural circuits, including the amygdala and prefrontal cortex...
January 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989778/modulation-of-ventral-striatal-activity-by-cognitive-effort
#17
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Ryan K Jessup, Elizabeth Tricomi
Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant...
December 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986925/contributions-of-the-ventral-striatum-to-conscious-perception-an-intracranial-eeg-study-of-the-attentional-blink
#18
Heleen A Slagter, Ali Mazaheri, Leon C Reteig, Ruud Smolders, Martijn Figee, Mariska Mantione, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
: The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined if the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986497/regional-differences-in-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-modulation-of-basal-dopamine-transmission-in-rat-striatum
#19
Y Campos-Jurado, L Martí-Prats, T Zornoza, A Polache, L Granero, M J Cano-Cebrián
The nigrostriatal dopamine system is implicated in the regulation of reward and motor activity. Dopamine (DA) release in dorsal striatum (DS) is controlled by the firing rate of DA neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. However, influences at terminal level, such as those involving activation of mu opioid receptors (MORs), can play a key role in determining DA levels in striatum. Nonetheless, published data also suggest that the effect of opioid drugs on DA levels may differ depending on the DS subregion analyzed...
December 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984200/multi-system-state-shifts-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-morphine-during-abstinence
#20
Haichen Niu, Guanqun Zhang, Haiying Li, Qiang Zhang, Tongzhou Li, Sheng Ding, Lei Wang, Zhonghai Zhang, Yuehua Qiao, Min Hu
Chronic morphine administration induces neural plasticity followed by withdraw. And clinic observation indicates that obvious cognitive deficits are found during withdrawal. However, current neural substrates that regulate dysfunction in withdrawal are unknown. In our studies, chronic morphine administration was used to induce the spontaneous withdrawal model in rats. A series of cognitive abilities was tested to explore brain function. To further evaluate the neural substrates of dysfunction, Manganese-enhanced MRI(MEMRI) was used to map the dysfunctional regions in vivo...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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