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Steffen Schulz, Jens Haueisen, Karl-Juergen Bär, Andreas Voss

 The new interdisciplinary field of network physiology is getting more and more into the focus of interest in medicine. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is well described in schizophrenia (SZO). However, the linear and nonlinear coupling between the ANS and central nervous system (CNS) is only partly addressed until now. This coupling can be assumed as a feedback-feedforward network, reacting with flexible and adaptive responses to internal and external factors.
 For the first time, in this study, we investigated linear and nonlinear short-term central-cardiorespiratory couplings of 17 patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (SZO) in comparison to 17 age-gender matched healthy subjects (CON) analyzing heart rate (HR), respiration (RESP) and the power of frontal EEG activity (PEEG)...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Francis Grover, Maurice Lamb, Scott Bonnette, Paula L Silva, Tamara Lorenz, Michael A Riley
Tightly coordinated grip force adaptations in response to changing load forces have been reported as continuous, stable, and proportional to the load force changes. Considering the existence of inherent sensorimotor feedback delays, current accounts of grip force-load force coupling invoke explicit predictive mechanisms in the form of internal models for feedforward control to account for anticipatory grip force modulations. However, recent findings suggest that the stability and regularity of grip force-load force coupling is less persistent than previously thought...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Olivier White, Amir Karniel, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Marie Barbiero, Ilana Nisky
Switched systems are common in artificial control systems. Here, we suggest that the brain adopts a switched feedforward control of grip forces during manipulation of objects. We measured how participants modulated grip force when interacting with soft and rigid virtual objects when stiffness varied continuously between trials. We identified a sudden phase transition between two forms of feedforward control that differed in the timing of the synchronization between the anticipated load force and the applied grip force...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Lucía Vaquero, Neus Ramos-Escobar, Clément François, Virginia Penhune, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Yalda Mohsenzadeh, Sheng Qin, Radoslaw M Cichy, Dimitrios Pantazis
Human visual recognition activates a dense network of overlapping feedforward and recurrent neuronal processes, making it hard to disentangle processing in the feedforward from the feedback direction. Here, we used ultra-rapid serial visual presentation to suppress sustained activity that blurs the boundaries of processing steps, enabling us to resolve two distinct stages of processing with MEG multivariate pattern classification. The first processing stage was the rapid activation cascade of the bottom-up sweep, which terminated early as visual stimuli were presented at progressively faster rates...
June 21, 2018: ELife
Joan Dallinga, Mark Janssen, Jet van der Werf, Ruben Walravens, Steven Vos, Marije Deutekom
BACKGROUND: A large number of people participate in individual or unorganized sports on a recreational level. Furthermore, many participants drop out because of injury or lowered motivation. Potentially, physical activity-related apps could motivate people during sport participation and help them to follow and maintain a healthy active lifestyle. It remains unclear what the quality of running, cycling, and walking apps is and how it can be assessed. Quality of these apps was defined as having a positive influence on participation in recreational sports...
June 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Yosef Singer, Yayoi Teramoto, Ben Db Willmore, Andrew J King, Jan W H Schnupp, Nicol S Harper
Neurons in sensory cortex are tuned to diverse features in natural scenes. But what determines which features neurons become selective to? Here we explore the idea that neuronal selectivity is optimised to represent features in the recent sensory past that best predict immediate future inputs. We tested this hypothesis using simple feedforward neural networks, which were trained to predict the next few video or audio frames in clips of natural scenes. The networks developed receptive fields that closely matched those of real cortical neurons in different mammalian species, including the oriented spatial tuning of primary visual cortex, the frequency selectivity of primary auditory cortex and, most notably, their temporal tuning properties...
June 18, 2018: ELife
Livio Oboti, Eleonora Russo, Tuyen Tran, Daniel Durstewitz, Joshua G Corbin
Interconnections between the olfactory bulb and the amygdala are a major pathway for triggering strong behavioral responses to a variety of odorants. However, while this broad mapping has been established, the patterns of amygdala feedback connectivity and the influence on olfactory circuitry remain unknown. Here, using a combination of neuronal tracing approaches, we dissect the connectivity of a cortical amygdala [posteromedial cortical nucleus (PmCo)] feedback circuit innervating the mouse accessory olfactory bulb...
May 2018: ENeuro
Diana C Dima, Gavin Perry, Krish D Singh
In navigating our environment, we rapidly process and extract meaning from visual cues. However, the relationship between visual features and categorical representations in natural scene perception is still not well understood. Here, we used natural scene stimuli from different categories and filtered at different spatial frequencies to address this question in a passive viewing paradigm. Using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and cross-decoding of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we show that categorical representations emerge in human visual cortex at ∼180 ms and are linked to spatial frequency processing...
June 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Amirhossein Tavanaei, Timothée Masquelier, Anthony Maida
Although representation learning methods developed within the framework of traditional neural networks are relatively mature, developing a spiking representation model remains a challenging problem. This paper proposes an event-based method to train a feedforward spiking neural network (SNN) layer for extracting visual features. The method introduces a novel spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule and a threshold adjustment rule both derived from a vector quantization-like objective function subject to a sparsity constraint...
June 1, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Henry D I Abarbanel, Paul J Rozdeba, Sasha Shirman
We formulate an equivalence between machine learning and the formulation of statistical data assimilation as used widely in physical and biological sciences. The correspondence is that layer number in a feedforward artificial network setting is the analog of time in the data assimilation setting. This connection has been noted in the machine learning literature. We add a perspective that expands on how methods from statistical physics and aspects of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics play a role in how networks can be trained and designed...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Lauri Nurminen, Sam Merlin, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci
Sensory information travels along feedforward connections through a hierarchy of cortical areas, which, in turn, send feedback connections to lower-order areas. Feedback has been implicated in attention, expectation, and sensory context, but the mechanisms underlying these diverse feedback functions are unknown. Using specific optogenetic inactivation of feedback connections from the secondary visual area (V2), we show how feedback affects neural responses in the primate primary visual cortex (V1). Reducing feedback activity increases V1 cells' receptive field (RF) size, decreases their responses to stimuli confined to the RF, and increases their responses to stimuli extending into the proximal surround, therefore reducing surround suppression...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Can Wu, Xiaoyu Ma, Yang Zhou, Yv Liu, Ying Shao, Qiuyue Wang
Anti-aging protein Klotho is closely associated with a variety of chronic diseases and age-related diseases. And Klotho gene deficiency enhances the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), resulting in exacerbating streptozotocin-stimulated diabetic glomerular injury and promoting the progression of early diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, it has not yet been elucidated that the mechanism of Klotho function on the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerular injury. What's more, insulin represents the antilipolytic effect via the mTOR-early growth response factor 1 (Egr1) regulatory axis in mammalian organism...
June 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Smaranda Belciug, Florin Gorunescu
Methods based on microarrays (MA), mass spectrometry (MS), and machine learning (ML) algorithms have evolved rapidly in recent years, allowing for early detection of several types of cancer. A pitfall of these approaches, however, is the overfitting of data due to large number of attributes and small number of instances -- a phenomenon known as the 'curse of dimensionality'. A potentially fruitful idea to avoid this drawback is to develop algorithms that combine fast computation with a filtering module for the attributes...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Otto Lappi, Callum Mole
The authors present an approach to the coordination of eye movements and locomotion in naturalistic steering tasks. It is based on recent empirical research, in particular, on driver eye movements, that poses challenges for existing accounts of how we visually steer a course. They first analyze how the ideas of feedback and feedforward processes and internal models are treated in control theoretical steering models within vision science and engineering, which share an underlying architecture but have historically developed in very separate ways...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Stan van Pelt, Elena Shumskaya, Pascal Fries
Visually induced gamma-band activity (GBA) has been implicated in several central cognitive functions, in particular perceptual binding, the feedforward routing of attended stimulus information and memory encoding. Several studies have documented that the strength and frequency of GBA are influenced by both subject-intrinsic factors like age, and subject-extrinsic factors such as stimulus contrast. Here, we investigated the relative contributions of previously tested factors, additional factors, and their interactions, in a cohort of 158 subjects recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Gavin M Bidelman, Mary Katherine Davis, Megan H Pridgen
Everyday speech perception is challenged by external acoustic interferences that hinder verbal communication. Here, we directly compared how different levels of the auditory system (brainstem vs. cortex) code speech and how their neural representations are affected by two acoustic stressors: noise and reverberation. We recorded multichannel (64 ch) brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) and cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) simultaneously in normal hearing individuals to speech sounds presented in mild and moderate levels of noise and reverb...
May 26, 2018: Hearing Research
Gerardo Peláez, Joshua Vaugan, Pablo Izquierdo, Higinio Rubio, Juan Carlos García-Prada
Input shaping is an Optimal Control feedforward strategy whose ability to define how and when a flexible dynamical system defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) and computer controlled would move into its operative space, without command induced unwanted dynamics, has been exhaustively demonstrated. This work examines the issue of Embedded Internet of Things (IoT) Input Shaping with regard to real time control of multibody oscillatory systems whose dynamics are better described by differential algebraic equations (DAEs)...
June 4, 2018: Sensors
Andrew J Monteith, Heather A Vincent, SunAh Kang, Patrick Li, Tauris M Claiborne, Zenon Rajfur, Ken Jacobson, Nathaniel J Moorman, Barbara J Vilen
Lysosomes maintain immune homeostasis through the degradation of phagocytosed apoptotic debris; however, the signaling events regulating lysosomal maturation remain undefined. In this study, we show that lysosome acidification, key to the maturation process, relies on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), activation of caspase-1, and cleavage of Rab39a. Mechanistically, the localization of cofilin to the phagosome recruits caspase-11, which results in the localized activation of caspase-1. Caspase-1 subsequently cleaves Rab39a on the phagosomal membrane, promoting lysosome acidification...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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