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J Michael Hasse, Elise M Bragg, Allison J Murphy, Farran Briggs
The corticogeniculate (CG) pathway links the visual cortex with the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and is the first feedback connection in the mammalian visual system. Whether functional connections between CG neurons and LGN relay neurons obey or ignore the separation of feedforward visual signals into parallel processing streams is not known. Accordingly, there is some debate about whether CG neurons are morphologically heterogeneous or homogenous. Here we characterized the morphology of CG neurons in the ferret, a visual carnivore with distinct feedforward parallel processing streams, and compared the morphology of ferret CG neurons with CG neuronal morphology previously described in macaque monkeys (Briggs et al, 2016)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Cian McCafferty, François David, Marcello Venzi, Magor L Lőrincz, Francis Delicata, Zoe Atherton, Gregorio Recchia, Gergely Orban, Régis C Lambert, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Nathalie Leresche, Vincenzo Crunelli
Behaviorally and pathologically relevant cortico-thalamo-cortical oscillations are driven by diverse interacting cell-intrinsic and synaptic processes. However, the mechanism that gives rise to the paroxysmal oscillations of absence seizures (ASs) remains unknown. Here we report that, during ASs in behaving animals, cortico-thalamic excitation drives thalamic firing by preferentially eliciting tonic rather than T-type Ca 2+ channel (T-channel)-dependent burst firing in thalamocortical (TC) neurons and by temporally framing thalamic output via feedforward reticular thalamic (NRT)-to-TC neuron inhibition...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Julie K Allen, Guillermo N Armaiz-Pena, Archana S Nagaraja, Nouara C Sadaoui, Tatiana Ortiz, Robert Dood, Merve Ozcan, Danielle M Herder, Monika Haemerrle, Kshipra M Gharpure, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Rebecca Previs, Sherry Y Wu, Sunila Pradeep, Xiaoyun Xu, Hee Dong Han, Behrouz Zand, Heather J Dalton, Morgan Taylor, Wei Hu, Justin Bottsford-Miller, Myrthala Moreno-Smith, Yu Kang, Lingegowda S Mangala, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Vasudha Sehgal, Erika L Spaeth, Prahlad T Ram, Stephen Tc Wong, Frank C Marini, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Steve W Cole, Susan K Lutgendorf, Mariella diBiasi, Anil K Sood
Mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports a key role for sustained adrenergic signaling in the tumor microenvironment as a driver of tumor growth and progression. However, the mechanisms by which adrenergic neurotransmitters are delivered to the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Here we present evidence for a feedforward loop whereby adrenergic signaling leads to increased tumoral innervation. In response to catecholamines, tumor cells produced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an ADRB3/cAMP/Epac/JNK-dependent manner...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Mario Dipoppa, Adam Ranson, Michael Krumin, Marius Pachitariu, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Cortical computation arises from the interaction of multiple neuronal types, including pyramidal (Pyr) cells and interneurons expressing Sst, Vip, or Pvalb. To study the circuit underlying such interactions, we imaged these four types of cells in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Our recordings in darkness were consistent with a "disinhibitory" model in which locomotion activates Vip cells, thus inhibiting Sst cells and disinhibiting Pyr cells. However, the disinhibitory model failed when visual stimuli were present: locomotion increased Sst cell responses to large stimuli and Vip cell responses to small stimuli...
April 11, 2018: Neuron
Yixuan Ku
Selective attention and working memory are inter-dependent core cognitive functions. It is critical to allocate attention on selected targets during the capacity-limited working memory processes to fulfill the goal-directed behavior. The trends of research on both topics are increasing exponentially in recent years, and it is considered that selective attention and working memory share similar underlying neural mechanisms. Different types of attention orientation in working memory are introduced by distinctive cues, and the means using retrospective cues are strengthened currently as it is manipulating the representation in memory, instead of the perceptual representation...
2018: PeerJ
Flavio Oliveira Pires
Dr Robergs suggested that the central governor model (CGM) is not a well-worded theory, as it deviated from the tenant of falsification criteria. According to his view of science, exercise researches with the intent to prove rather than disprove the theory contribute little to new knowledge and condemn the theory to the label of pseudoscience. However, exercise scientists should be aware of limitations of the falsification criteria. First, the number of potential falsifiers for a given hypothesis is always infinite so that there is no mean to ensure asymmetric comparison between theories...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Jungeui Hong, Nathan Brandt, Farah Abdual-Rahman, Ally W H Yang, Timothy R Hughes, David Gresham
We studied adaptive evolution of gene expression using long-term experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ammonium-limited chemostats. We found repeated selection for non-synonymous variation in the DNA binding domain of the transcriptional activator, GAT1, which functions with the repressor, DAL80 in an incoherent type-1 feedforward loop (I1-FFL) to control expression of the high affinity ammonium transporter gene, MEP2. Missense mutations in the DNA binding domain of GAT1 reduce its binding to the GATAA consensus sequence...
April 5, 2018: ELife
Rajeev V Rikhye, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa
The thalamus has long been suspected to have an important role in cognition, yet recent theories have favored a more corticocentric view. According to this view, the thalamus is an excitatory feedforward relay to or between cortical regions, and cognitively relevant computations are exclusively cortical. Here, we review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral studies along evolutionary and theoretical dimensions, arguing for essential and unique thalamic computations in cognition. Considering their architectural features as well as their ability to initiate, sustain, and switch cortical activity, thalamic circuits appear uniquely suited for computing contextual signals that rapidly reconfigure task-relevant cortical representations...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Ke Gong, Gao Guo, David E Gerber, Boning Gao, Michael Peyton, Chun Huang, John D Minna, Kimmo J Hatanpaa, Kemp Kernstine, Ling Cai, Yang Xie, Hong Zhu, Farjana Fattah, Shanrong Zhang, Masaya Takahashi, Bipasha Mukherjee, Sandeep Burma, Jonathan Dowell, Kathryn Dao, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Victor Olivas, Trever G Bivona, Dawen Zhao, Amyn A Habib
Although aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling is widespread in cancer, EGFR inhibition is effective only in a subset of NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) with EGFR activating mutations. A majority of NSCLCs express EGFR wild type (EGFRwt) and do not respond to EGFR inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of inflammation-induced cancer. We find that a rapid increase in TNF level is a universal adaptive response to EGFR inhibition in NSCLC regardless of EGFR status. EGFR signaling actively suppresses TNF mRNA levels by inducing expression of miR-21 resulting in decreased TNF mRNA stability...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mingsian R Bai, Weichi Pan, Hungyu Chen
Active noise control (ANC) of headsets is revisited in this paper. An in-depth electroacoustic analysis of the combined loudspeaker-cavity headset system is conducted on the basis of electro-mechano-acoustical analogous circuits. Model matching of the primary path and the secondary path leads to a feedforward control architecture. The ideal controller sheds some light on the key parameters that affect the noise reduction performance. Filtered-X least-mean-squares algorithm is employed to implement the feedforward controller on a digital signal processor...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stephen J Elliott, Woomin Jung, Jordan Cheer
Local active sound control systems provide useful reductions in noise within a zone of quiet which only extends to about one tenth of an acoustic wavelength. If active control is required above a few hundred hertz, this generally limits the movement of a listener to unrealistically small changes in head position. We describe a local active sound control system using a fixed array of monitoring microphones, in which the pressures at the ear positions are estimated from these microphone signals using head position information from an optical head tracker...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marko Markovic, Meike A Schweisfurth, Leonard F Engels, Tashina Bentz, Daniela Wüstefeld, Dario Farina, Strahinja Dosen
BACKGROUND: To effectively replace the human hand, a prosthesis should seamlessly respond to user intentions but also convey sensory information back to the user. Restoration of sensory feedback is rated highly by the prosthesis users, and feedback is critical for grasping in able-bodied subjects. Nonetheless, the benefits of feedback in prosthetics are still debated. The lack of consensus is likely due to the complex nature of sensory feedback during prosthesis control, so that its effectiveness depends on multiple factors (e...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Madhura R Joglekar, Jorge F Mejias, Guangyu Robert Yang, Xiao-Jing Wang
Understanding reliable signal transmission represents a notable challenge for cortical systems, which display a wide range of weights of feedforward and feedback connections among heterogeneous areas. We re-examine the question of signal transmission across the cortex in a network model based on mesoscopic directed and weighted inter-areal connectivity data of the macaque cortex. Our findings reveal that, in contrast to purely feedforward propagation models, the presence of long-range excitatory feedback projections could compromise stable signal propagation...
March 21, 2018: Neuron
Jakob Lorentzen, Maria Willerslev-Olsen, Helle Hüche Larsen, Christian Svane, Christian Forman, Rasmus Frisk, Simon Francis Farmer, Uwe Kersting, Jens Bo Nielsen
Toe walking requires careful control of the ankle muscles in order to absorb the impact of ground contact and maintain a stable position of the joint. The present study aimed to clarify the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a treadmill (3.0 km h-1 ). Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Soleus (Sol) EMG, knee and ankle joint angles and gastrocnemius-soleus muscle fascicle lengths were recorded. Peripheral and central contributions to the EMG activity were assessed by afferent blockade, H-reflex testing, Transcranial Magnetic Brain Stimulation (TMS) and sudden unloading of the planter flexor muscle-tendon complex...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Anirban Ghosh, Özden Baltekin, Marcus Wäneskog, Dina Elkhalifa, Disa L Hammarlöf, Johan Elf, Sanna Koskiniemi
Bacterial populations can use bet-hedging strategies to cope with rapidly changing environments. One example is non-growing cells in clonal bacterial populations that are able to persist antibiotic treatment. Previous studies suggest that persisters arise in bacterial populations either stochastically through variation in levels of global signalling molecules between individual cells, or in response to various stresses. Here, we show that toxins used in contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) create persisters upon direct contact with cells lacking sufficient levels of CdiI immunity protein, which would otherwise bind to and neutralize toxin activity...
March 23, 2018: EMBO Journal
Marianne A Stephan, Carlotta Lega, Virginia B Penhune
There is increasing evidence for integrated representation of sensory and motor information in the brain, and that seeing or hearing action-related stimuli may automatically cue the movements required to respond to or produce them. In this study we tested whether anticipation of tones in a known melody automatically activates corresponding motor representations in a predictive way, in preparation for potential upcoming movements. Therefore, we trained 20 non-musicians (8 men, 12 women) to play a simple melody...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Gonzalo I Gómez, Paola Fernández, Victoria Velarde, Juan C Sáez
Connexin43 (Cx43), pannexin1 (Panx1) and P2X₇ receptor (P2X₇R) are expressed in kidneys and are known to constitute a feedforward mechanism leading to inflammation in other tissues. However, the possible functional relationship between these membrane channels and their role in damaged renal cells remain unknown. In the present work, we found that MES-13 cells, from a cell line derived from mesangial cells, stimulated with angiotensin II (AngII) developed oxidative stress (OS, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and generated pro-inflammatory cytokines (ELISA; IL-1β and TNF-α)...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Beom-Seok Oh, Kar-Ann Toh, Andrew Beng Jin Teoh, Zhiping Lin
Gabor magnitude is known to be among the most discriminative representations for face images due to its space- frequency co-localization property. However, such property causes adverse effects even when the images are acquired under moderate head pose variations. To address this pose sensitivity issue and other moderate imaging variations, we propose an analytic Gabor feedforward network which can absorb such moderate changes. Essentially, the network works directly on the raw face images and produces directionally projected Gabor magnitude features at the hidden layer...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Hannah Choi, Anitha Pasupathy, Eric Shea-Brown
The primate visual system has an exquisite ability to discriminate partially occluded shapes. Recent electrophysiological recordings suggest that response dynamics in intermediate visual cortical area V4, shaped by feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC), may play a key role. To probe the algorithms that may underlie these findings, we build and test a model of V4 and PFC interactions based on a hierarchical predictive coding framework. We propose that probabilistic inference occurs in two steps. Initially, V4 responses are driven solely by bottom-up sensory input and are thus strongly influenced by the level of occlusion...
March 22, 2018: Neural Computation
Troy J Rand, Mukul Mukherjee
The sensorimotor system prefers sway velocity information when maintaining upright posture. Sway velocity has a unique characteristic of being persistent on a short time-scale and anti-persistent on a longer time-scale. The time where the transition from persistence to anti-persistence occurs provides information about how sway velocity is controlled. It is, however, not clear what factors affect shifts in this transition point. This research investigated postural responses to support surface movements of different temporal correlations and movement velocities...
March 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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