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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#1
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#2
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099850/synaptotagmin-2-is-the-fast-ca-2-sensor-at-a-central-inhibitory-synapse
#3
Chong Chen, Itaru Arai, Rachel Satterfield, Samuel M Young, Peter Jonas
GABAergic synapses in brain circuits generate inhibitory output signals with submillisecond latency and temporal precision. Whether the molecular identity of the release sensor contributes to these signaling properties remains unclear. Here, we examined the Ca(2+) sensor of exocytosis at GABAergic basket cell (BC) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in cerebellum. Immunolabeling suggested that BC terminals selectively expressed synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2), whereas synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) was enriched in excitatory terminals...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089543/optimal-regulatory-circuit-topologies-for-fold-change-detection
#4
Miri Adler, Pablo Szekely, Avi Mayo, Uri Alon
Evolution repeatedly converges on only a few regulatory circuit designs that achieve a given function. This simplicity helps us understand biological networks. However, why so few circuits are rediscovered by evolution is unclear. We address this question for the case of fold-change detection (FCD): a response to relative changes of input rather than absolute changes. Two types of FCD circuits recur in biological systems-the incoherent feedforward and non-linear integral-feedback loops. We performed an analytical screen of all three-node circuits in a class comprising ∼500,000 topologies...
January 10, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076413/dynamic-characteristics-of-ventilatory-and-gas-exchange-during-sinusoidal-walking-in-humans
#5
Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Masaaki Iihoshi, Juhelee Tuba Nazunin, Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
Our present study investigated whether the ventilatory and gas exchange responses show different dynamics in response to sinusoidal change in cycle work rate or walking speed even if the metabolic demand was equivalent in both types of exercise. Locomotive parameters (stride length and step frequency), breath-by-breath ventilation (V̇E) and gas exchange (CO2 output (V̇CO2) and O2 uptake (V̇O2)) responses were measured in 10 healthy young participants. The speed of the treadmill was sinusoidally changed between 3 km·h-1 and 6 km·h-1 with various periods (from 10 to 1 min)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073000/settling-a-nervous-stomach-the-neural-regulation-of-enteric-cancer
#6
Michelle Monje
The nervous system is emerging as a regulator of malignancy. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hayakawa et al. demonstrate a feedforward signaling loop in which tumor-derived nerve growth factor promotes enteric tumor innervation, and recruited nerves drive cancer growth through acetylcholine-regulated Wnt signaling and stimulation of further NGF release.
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069947/first-passage-time-approach-to-controlling-noise-in-the-timing-of-intracellular-events
#7
Khem Raj Ghusinga, John J Dennehy, Abhyudai Singh
In the noisy cellular environment, gene products are subject to inherent random fluctuations in copy numbers over time. How cells ensure precision in the timing of key intracellular events despite such stochasticity is an intriguing fundamental problem. We formulate event timing as a first-passage time problem, where an event is triggered when the level of a protein crosses a critical threshold for the first time. Analytical calculations are performed for the first-passage time distribution in stochastic models of gene expression...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069808/kinetic-modeling-and-analysis-of-the-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1-signaling-axis-reveals-cooperative-feedforward-regulation
#8
Anisur Rahman, Jason M Haugh
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls biosynthesis and has been implicated in uncontrolled cell growth in cancer. Although many details of mTORC1 regulation are well understood, a systems-level, predictive framework synthesizing those details is currently lacking. We constructed various mathematical models of mTORC1 activation mediated by Akt and aligned the model outputs to kinetic data acquired for growth factor-stimulated cells. A model based on a putative feedforward loop orchestrated by Akt consistently predicted how the pathway was altered by depletion of key regulatory proteins...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#9
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063499/analysis-of-phosphatidic-acid-binding-and-regulation-of-pipki-in-vitro-and-in-intact-cells
#10
L W R Tay, Z Wang, G Du
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a lipid second messenger that regulates a wide array of essential cellular events, such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, adhesion, and motility. To control the spatiotemporal production of PI(4,5)P2, the activity of type 1 phosphotidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinases (PIPKIs) is tightly regulated by small GTPases and another signaling lipid, phosphatidic acid (PA). It is of interest that PI(4,5)P2 is also a critical cofactor for the activation of the PA-generating enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD)...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059699/feedforward-motor-information-enhances-somatosensory-responses-and-sharpens-angular-tuning-of-rat-s1-barrel-cortex-neurons
#11
Mohamed Khateb, Jackie Schiller, Yitzhak Schiller
The primary vibrissae motor cortex (vM1) is responsible for generating whisking movements. In parallel, vM1 also sends information directly to the sensory barrel cortex (vS1). In this study, we investigated the effects of vM1 activation on processing of vibrissae sensory information in vS1 of the rat. To dissociate the vibrissae sensory-motor loop we optogenetically-activated vM1 and independently passively stimulated principal vibrissae. Optogenetic activation of vM1 supra-linearly amplified the response of vS1 neurons to passive vibrissa stimulation in all cortical layers measured...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056364/estimation-of-biogas-and-methane-yields-in-an-uasb-treating-potato-starch-processing-wastewater-with-backpropagation-artificial-neural-network
#12
Philip Antwi, Jianzheng Li, Portia Opoku Boadi, Jia Meng, En Shi, Kaiwen Deng, Francis Kwesi Bondinuba
Three-layered feedforward backpropagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiple nonlinear regression (MnLR) models were developed to estimate biogas and methane yield in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating potato starch processing wastewater (PSPW). Anaerobic process parameters were optimized to identify their importance on methanation. pH, total chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, alkalinity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, volatile fatty acids and hydraulic retention time selected based on principal component analysis were used as input variables, whiles biogas and methane yield were employed as target variables...
December 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053043/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#13
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053027/endogenously-released-neuropeptide-y-suppresses-hippocampal-short-term-facilitation-and-is-impaired-by-stress-induced-anxiety
#14
Qin Li, Aundrea F Bartley, Lynn E Dobrunz
: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has robust anxiolytic properties and is reduced in patients with anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms by which NPY modulates circuit function to reduce anxiety behavior are not known. Anxiolytic effects of NPY are mediated in the CA1 region of hippocampus, and NPY injection into hippocampus alleviates anxiety symptoms in the predator scent stress model of stress-induced anxiety. The mechanisms that regulate NPY release, and its effects on CA1 synaptic function, are not fully understood...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045973/neuro-analogical-gate-tuning-of-trajectory-data-fusion-for-a-mecanum-wheeled-special-needs-chair
#15
Ahmed K El-Shenawy, M A ElSaharty, Ezz Eldin Zakzouk
Trajectory tracking of mobile wheeled chairs using internal shaft encoder and inertia measurement unit(IMU), exhibits several complications and accumulated errors in the tracking process due to wheel slippage, offset drift and integration approximations. These errors can be realized when comparing localization results from such sensors with a camera tracking system. In long trajectory tracking, such errors can accumulate and result in significant deviations which make data from these sensors unreliable for tracking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044015/contextual-modulation-of-primary-visual-cortex-by-auditory-signals
#16
REVIEW
L S Petro, A T Paton, L Muckli
Early visual cortex receives non-feedforward input from lateral and top-down connections (Muckli & Petro 2013 Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 195-201. (doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020)), including long-range projections from auditory areas. Early visual cortex can code for high-level auditory information, with neural patterns representing natural sound stimulation (Vetter et al. 2014 Curr. Biol. 24, 1256-1262. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.020)). We discuss a number of questions arising from these findings. What is the adaptive function of bimodal representations in visual cortex? What type of information projects from auditory to visual cortex? What are the anatomical constraints of auditory information in V1, for example, periphery versus fovea, superficial versus deep cortical layers? Is there a putative neural mechanism we can infer from human neuroimaging data and recent theoretical accounts of cortex? We also present data showing we can read out high-level auditory information from the activation patterns of early visual cortex even when visual cortex receives simple visual stimulation, suggesting independent channels for visual and auditory signals in V1...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043970/spatial-and-temporal-signal-processing-and-decision-making-by-mapk-pathways
#17
REVIEW
Oguzhan Atay, Jan M Skotheim
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are conserved from yeast to man and regulate a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation and differentiation. Recent developments show how MAPK pathways perform exquisite spatial and temporal signal processing and underscores the importance of studying the dynamics of signaling pathways to understand their physiological response. The importance of dynamic mechanisms that process input signals into graded downstream responses has been demonstrated in the pheromone-induced and osmotic stress-induced MAPK pathways in yeast and in the mammalian extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK pathway...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041912/a-constitutive-intrinsic-inflammatory-signaling-circuit-composed-of-mir-196b-meis2-ppp3cc-and-p65-drives-prostate-cancer-castration-resistance
#18
Ji-Hak Jeong, Sun-Jin Park, Shohreh Iravani Dickinson, Jun-Li Luo
Androgen deprivation therapy is the most effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer, but almost all cancer eventually becomes castration resistant, and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that an intrinsic constitutively activated feedforward signaling circuit composed of IκBα/NF-κB(p65), miR-196b-3p, Meis2, and PPP3CC is formed during the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This circuit controls the expression of stem cell transcription factors that drives the high tumorigenicity of CRPC cells...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030651/retinal-lateral-inhibition-provides-the-biological-basis-of-long-range-spatial-induction
#19
Jihyun Yeonan-Kim, Marcelo Bertalmío
Retinal lateral inhibition is one of the conventional efficient coding mechanisms in the visual system that is produced by interneurons that pool signals over a neighborhood of presynaptic feedforward cells and send inhibitory signals back to them. Thus, the receptive-field (RF) of a retinal ganglion cell has a center-surround receptive-field (RF) profile that is classically represented as a difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) adequate for efficient spatial contrast coding. The DOG RF profile has been attributed to produce the psychophysical phenomena of brightness induction, in which the perceived brightness of an object is affected by that of its vicinity, either shifting away from it (brightness contrast) or becoming more similar to it (brightness assimilation) depending on the size of the surfaces surrounding the object...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026790/stabilization-of-neural-network-based-control-systems-via-event-triggered-control-with-nonperiodic-sampled-data
#20
Songlin Hu, Dong Yue, Xiangpeng Xie, Yong Ma, Xiuxia Yin
This paper focuses on a problem of event-triggered stabilization for a class of nonuniformly sampled neural-network-based control systems (NNBCSs). First, a new event-triggered data transmission mechanism is designed based on the nonperiodic sampled data. Different from the previous works, the proposed triggering scheme enables the NNBCSs design to enjoy the advantages of both nonuniform and event-triggered sampling schemes. Second, under the nonperiodic event-triggered data transmission scheme, the nonperiodic sampled-data three-layer fully connected feedforward neural-network (TLFCFFNN)-based event-triggered controller is constructed, and the resulting closed-loop TLFCFFNN-based event-triggered control system is modeled as a state delay system based on time-delay system modeling approach...
December 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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