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Paediatric pain managent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337672/fentanyl-formulations-in-the-management-of-pain-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Stephan A Schug, Sonya Ting
Fentanyl is a synthetic, highly selective opioid with many desirable physicochemical properties, including a high lipophilicity and predictable pharmacokinetics. These properties have an established record in the management of pain in a variety of settings, particularly acute pain and breakthrough cancer pain. Fentanyl was initially developed for parenteral use; however, this is invasive and impractical in the outpatient setting. Unfortunately, the high first-pass metabolism of fentanyl makes oral formulations unfeasible...
March 23, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334433/dietary-interventions-for-recurrent-abdominal-pain-in-childhood
#2
REVIEW
Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Alice E Martin, Rebecca A Abbott, Alison Bethel, Joanna Thompson-Coon, Rebecca Whear, Stuart Logan
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review, last published in 2009 (Huertas-Ceballos 2009). Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), including children with irritable bowel syndrome, is a common problem affecting between 4% and 25% of school-aged children. For the majority of such children, no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation. Many dietary inventions have been suggested to improve the symptoms of RAP. These may involve either excluding ingredients from the diet or adding supplements such as fibre or probiotics...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284593/nurse-titrated-analgesia-and-sedation-in-intensive-care-increases-the-frequency-of-comfort-assessment-and-reduces-midazolam-use-in-paediatric-patients-following-cardiac-surgery
#3
Grace E Larson, Stephen McKeever
BACKGROUND: Pain and sedation protocols are suggested to improve the outcomes of patients within paediatric intensive care. However, it is not clear how protocols will influence practice within individual units. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate a nurse led pain and sedation protocols impact on pain scoring and analgesic and sedative administration for post-operative cardiac patients within a paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 100 patients admitted to a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit pre and post introduction of an analgesic and sedative protocol...
March 8, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274051/effectiveness-of-two-topical-anaesthetic-agents-used-along-with-audio-visual-aids-in-paediatric-dental-patients
#4
Nidhi Agarwal, Jayata Dhawan, Dipanshu Kumar, Ashish Anand, Karan Tangri
INTRODUCTION: Topical anaesthetic agents enable pain free intraoral procedures, symptomatic pain relief for toothache, superficial mucosal lesions and pain related to post extraction time. Most common anxiety provoking and fearful experience for children in dental operatory is administration of local anaesthesia because on seeing the needle, children usually become uncooperative. One of recent trend of behaviour management technique is using non-aversive techniques out of which audiovisual distraction has emerged as a very successful technique for managing children in dental settings...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262913/pharmacological-interventions-for-recurrent-abdominal-pain-in-childhood
#5
REVIEW
Alice E Martin, Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Rebecca A Abbott, Alison Bethel, Joanna Thompson-Coon, Rebecca Whear, Stuart Logan
BACKGROUND: Between 4% and 25% of school-aged children at some stage complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) of sufficient severity to interfere with their daily lives. When no clear organic cause is found, the children are managed with reassurance and simple measures; a large range of pharmacological interventions have been recommended for use in these children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for RAP in children of school age...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260237/interim-therapeutic-restoration-approach-versus-treatment-under-general-anaesthesia-approach
#6
Songping Nicholas Lim, Leroy Kiang, Ranjan Manohara, Huei Jinn Tong, Rahul Nair, Catherine Hong, Shijia Hu
BACKGROUND: Although dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) remains the long-established approach for treating anxious children, treatment under GA presents with increased risks, costs and parental acceptability issues. Interim therapeutic restoration (ITR) has been proposed as an alternative approach. AIM: To compare the incidence and types of failures between children managed with the ITR approach and those managed under GA within 12 months of treatment completion...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239996/re-presentations-and-recurrent-events-following-initial-management-of-the-acute-paediatric-scrotum-a-5-year-review
#7
Shareena Lala, Neil Price, Vipul Upadhyay
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews report relatively low rates of post-operative complications for acute scrotal exploration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the re-presentation to hospital in boys with previous acute scrotal pathology, reviewing contralateral symptoms, post-operative complications, testicular torsion following fixation and failure of conservative management of testicular appendage (TA) torsion. METHODS: All boys under 16 years presenting to our unit with an acute scrotum from January 2008 to December 2012 (5-year period) were identified...
February 27, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209175/effectiveness-of-topical-silicone-gel-and-pressure-garment-therapy-for-burn-scar-prevention-and-management-in-children-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Jodie Wiseman, Megan Simons, Roy Kimble, Robert Ware, Steven McPhail, Zephanie Tyack
BACKGROUND: Abnormal scar development following burn injury can cause substantial physical and psychological distress to children and their families. Common burn scar prevention and management techniques include silicone therapy, pressure garment therapy, or a combination of both. Currently, no definitive, high-quality evidence is available for the effectiveness of topical silicone gel or pressure garment therapy for the prevention and management of burn scars in the paediatric population...
February 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152641/a-review-of-paediatric-and-adolescent-gynaecology-services-in-a-tertiary-outpatient-clinic
#9
Mugdha Kulkarni, Julie Glanville, Sally Phillot, Adam Balen
Adolescence is a distinctive stage in human development during which many simple and complex medical conditions can present for the first time. Paediatric and adolescent gynaecological conditions need careful multidisciplinary clinical management with a sensitive approach understanding the patients' psychological and physiological circumstances. The objective of this study is to review the tertiary paediatric and adolescent gynaecology service in Leeds, United Kingdom and to present an overview of the various conditions that present to such a clinic...
February 2, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045322/orofacial-granulomatosis-as-early-manifestation-of-crohn-s-disease-report-of-a-case-in-a-paediatric-patient
#10
A Sarra, N G Nikitakis, A Daskalopoulos, G Chouliaras, A Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, K Athanasaki
BACKGROUND: Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a controversial entity mainly characterised by recurrent or permanent soft tissue swelling of sudden onset in the orofacial area with a histologic appearance of granulomatous inflammation. Differential diagnosis includes local diseases and systemic conditions, such as Crohn's disease (CD). A case of OFG in a paediatric patient is reported here, focusing on the clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment and long-term outcome. CASE REPORT: A 7 year-old boy presented with persistent and prominent lip swelling and painful oral mucosa lesions of six months duration...
December 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032947/controversies-in-the-management-of-caustic-ingestion-injury-an-evidence-based-review
#11
J H Bird, S Kumar, C Paul, J D Ramsden
BACKGROUND: Caustic ingestion of acid or alkaline substances can cause damage to the upper respiratory and upper digestive tract. Initial presentation following caustic ingestion can include oropharyngeal pain, dysphagia and stridor. It is due to this clinical presentation that the resident otolaryngologist is consulted to review and examine these patients to assess for airway compromise and commence initial management and care until airway concern has passed. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide evidence-based guidance in the management of those presenting with acute ingestion injury so that informed initial medical therapy can be commenced and appropriate investigations are arranged to optimize patient outcome...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878604/-paediatric-palliative-care-ppc-a-particular-challenge-tasks-aims-and-specifics
#12
Boris Zernikow, Barbara Gertz, Carola Hasan
In Germany, there are about 50,000 children, adolescents and young adults with life threatening or life limiting conditions, who will likely die due to their illness before reaching the age of 40. In recent years prevalence has increased significantly.The aim of paediatric palliative care (PPC) is to optimize quality of life for the child, adolescent or young adult and its whole family. Whenever possible the patient should be treated at home.The very complex and rare diseases as well as the patients' wide range of age and developmental stage are particularly challenging within PPC...
January 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862499/pain-assessment-and-management-in-paediatric-oncology-a-cross-sectional-audit
#13
Karin Plummer, Maria McCarthy, Ian McKenzie, Fiona Newall, Elizabeth Manias
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the pain assessment and management practices documented by health professionals within a tertiary-level Children's Cancer Centre and to evaluate how these practices were compared with international recommendations. BACKGROUND: Children with cancer are vulnerable to pain due to the intensity of antineoplastic therapy. Therefore, it is imperative to ensure that current pain management practices provided to paediatric oncology inpatients are of a high quality...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845483/prevalence-of-pain-in-the-departments-of-surgery-and-oncohematology-of-a-paediatric-hospital-that-has-joined-the-project-towards-pain-free-hospital
#14
G Marchetti, A Vittori, V Tortora, M Bishop, G Lofino, V Pardi, E A De Marco, G Manca, A Inserra, R Caruso, I Ciaralli, F Locatelli, S Bella, A E Tozzi, S Picardo
BACKGROUND: Among hospitalized adults and children pain is undertreated. This study wants to assess the effectiveness of pain therapy in two departments of a large children's hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a single day work three committees, administering a questionnaire to patients or parents, have evaluated the adherence to international recommendations (JCI and WHO) in the management of analgesic therapy. Patient demographics, prevalence and intensity (moderate and/or severe) of pain (during hospitalization, 24 hours before and at the time of the interview), analgesia (type, route, duration and frequency of administration) and Pain Management Index (=analgesic score-pain score) were recorded...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843269/pediatric-adenotonsillectomy-in-a-low-resource-setting-lessons-and-implications
#15
Sanyaolu Alani Ameye, Afolabi Muyiwa Owojuyigbe, Adekunle Adeyemo, Anthony T Adenekan, Sylvia Ouche
OBJECTIVES: To examine the practices related paediatric adenotonsillectomy in our setting especially in relation to blood request and transfusion, routine investigations, post-operative analgesic practice and complications. METHODS: We reviewed the record of paediatric patients who had adenotonsillectomy in our facility over a 5-year period to obtain relevant information to our study. RESULTS: There were 33 males and 19 females with mean age of 3...
July 2016: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793550/pain-report-and-musculoskeletal-impairment-in-young-people-with-severe-forms-of-cerebral-palsy-a-population-based-series
#16
Brona C McDowell, Catherine Duffy, Claire Lundy
BACKGROUND: While pain is reportedly more prevalent in more functionally impaired children with cerebral palsy, information is scant in those with poor communication skills. METHODS: Young people (4-27 years) with severe forms of cerebral palsy were recruited from a population-based register. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) provided information on general health and bodily pain; the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) was used for participants with limited communication; and the Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure (SAROMM) described musculoskeletal impairment...
January 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790555/efficacy-and-safety-of-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-for-caudal-analgesia-in-paediatric-infra-umbilical-surgeries
#17
Samita Priolkar, Shirley Ann D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Caudal analgesia, has gained popularity in paediatric intraoperative and postoperative pain management, more so with the use of adjuvants to prolong its duration, each of them having various results. Clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist is being used for its analgesic effects in various doses with 0.25% Bupivacaine. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy, haemodynamic safety and side effects of 1 μg/kg Clonidine added to 1 ml/kg of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775292/-laryngotracheal-traumatic-injuries-lti-in-children-when-to-operate
#18
S Santiago-Martínez, A Laín, G Guillén, R Gander, S López-Fernández, F Pumarola, L Seidler, J Lloret
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric LTI is associated with significant morbid-mortality. Although historically first line treatment was surgical, conservative management is making headway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the management and surgical indications of LTI treated at our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with LTI treated between 2007 and 2014. RESULTS: Six out of seven patients, with a median age of 4 years (2-15), had blunt traumas and one had an open trauma...
October 10, 2015: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760282/heated-insufflation-with-or-without-humidification-for-laparoscopic-abdominal-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Daniel W Birch, Jerry T Dang, Noah J Switzer, Namdar Manouchehri, Xinzhe Shi, Ghassan Hadi, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756437/the-effectiveness-of-information-and-communication-technology-based-psychological-interventions-for-paediatric-chronic-pain-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-intervention-content-analysis
#20
Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
BACKGROUND: Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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