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Guohua Zheng, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Bingzhao Ye, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
INTRODUCTION: Poststroke cognitive impairment is one of the most common complications in stroke survivors, and >65% of these patients suffer from cognitive impairment at 12 months following onset, which strongly affects the rehabilitation of their motor function and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to improve the cognitive ability of stroke survivors. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong exercises, characterised by the coordination of mind and body with a low exercise intensity, Baduanjin has the potential benefit of improving cognitive ability for patients who had a stroke with cognitive impairment...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Christopher G Watson, Christian Stopp, David Wypij, David C Bellinger, Jane W Newburger, Michael J Rivkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare white matter microstructure in children and adolescents with single ventricle who underwent the Fontan procedure with healthy controls, and to explore the association of white matter injury with cognitive performance as well as patient and medical factors. STUDY DESIGN: Fontan (n = 102) and control subjects (n = 47) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at ages 10-19 years. Mean DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity) were calculated for 33 fiber tracts from standard white matter atlases...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
D Mercerón-Martínez, W Almaguer-Melian, E Alberti-Amador, J A Bergado
The relationships between affective and cognitive processes are an important issue of present neuroscience. The amygdala, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex appear as main players in these mechanisms. We have shown that post-training electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) speeds the acquisition of a motor skill, and produces a recovery in behavioral performance related to spatial memory in fimbria-fornix (FF) lesioned animals. BLA electrical stimulation rises bdnf RNA expression, BDNF protein levels, and arc RNA expression in the hippocampus...
June 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Joseph C Wilson, Deanne L Westerman
Photographs have been found to affect a variety of psychological judgments. For example, nonprobative but semantically related photographs may increase beliefs in the truth of general knowledge statements (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(5), 969-974, 2012; Newman et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(5), 1337-1348, 2015). Photographs can also create illusions of memory (Cardwell, Henkel, Garry, Newman, & Foster, Memory & Cognition, 44(6), 883-896, 2016; Henkel, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(1), 78-86, 2011; Henkel & Carbuto, 2008)...
June 21, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Shay Menashe
The aim of this study was to gain additional knowledge about the asynchrony phenomenon in developmental dyslexia, especially when spatial selective attention is manipulated. Adults with developmental dyslexia and non-impaired readers underwent two experimental tasks, one including alphabetic stimuli (pre-lexical consonant-vowel syllables) and the other containing non-alphabetic stimuli (pictures and sounds of animals). Participants were instructed to attend to the right or left hemifields and to respond to all stimuli on that hemifield...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Navin Kaushal, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Francis Langlois, Louis Bherer
PURPOSE: Exercise has been shown to have various proximal and distal benefits among older adults such as improving physical fitness, cognitive functioning, and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Despite this evidence, limited research has investigated pathway change of these outcomes. The primary purpose of this study was to test if older adults who improved in physical fitness measures from engaging in multicomponent exercise training for 12 weeks predicted change in proximal (cognitive functioning) and distal (HR-QOL) outcomes, respectively...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Nicoline Hemager, Kerstin J Plessen, Anne Thorup, Camilla Christiani, Ditte Ellersgaard, Katrine Søborg Spang, Birgitte Klee Burton, Maja Gregersen, Anne Søndergaard, Aja Neergaard Greve, Ditte Lou Gantriis, Gry Poulsen, Larry J Seidman, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Importance: Children at familial high risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FHR-SZ) or bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) exhibit neurocognitive impairments. Large studies of neurocognition in young children at familial high risk at the same age are important to differentiate the pathophysiology and developmental trajectory of these 2 groups. Objective: To characterize neurocognitive functions in 7-year-old children with FHR-SZ or FHR-BP and a control population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multisite population-based cohort study collected data from January 1, 2013, to January 31, 2016, in the first wave of the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study VIA 7 at 2 university hospital research sites in Copenhagen and Aarhus using Danish registries...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Erin Guty, Peter Arnett
OBJECTIVES: Research indicates that symptoms following a concussion are related to cognitive dysfunction; however, less is known about how different types of symptoms may be related to cognitive outcomes or how specific domains of cognition are affected. The present study explored the relationship between specific types of symptoms and these various cognitive outcomes following a concussion. METHODS: One-hundred twenty-two student-athletes with sports-related concussion were tested with a battery that included a symptom report measure and various cognitive tests...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Niels Bergsland, Ferdinand Schweser, Michael G Dwyer, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ralph H B Benedict, Robert Zivadinov
Thalamic white matter (WM) injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains relatively poorly understood. Combining multiple imaging modalities, sensitive to different tissue properties, may aid in further characterizing thalamic damage. Forty-five MS patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) were scanned with 3T MRI to obtain quantitative measures of diffusivity and magnetic susceptibility. Participants underwent cognitive evaluation with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis battery...
June 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Freya Corfield, Dawn Langdon
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system which can lead to a range of severe physical disabilities. A large proportion of those affected will experience cognitive impairment, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Effective assessment of cognition in MS has been problematic due to a lack of suitable scales. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was developed in 2010 as part of an international endeavour to facilitate cognitive assessment...
June 19, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Agnieszka Szarkowska, Olivia Gerber-Morón
People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether the way people cope with subtitled content depends on their familiarity with subtitling and on their knowledge of the language of the film soundtrack. We tested 74 English, Polish and Spanish viewers watching films subtitled at different speeds (12, 16 and 20 characters per second)...
2018: PloS One
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Catherine A Sumida, Thao T Vo, Emily J Van Etten, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objective: Difficulties managing medications, particularly among older adults experiencing cognitive deficits, is an important contributing factor to medication nonadherence that may have significant negative financial and health outcomes. The current study examined the performance of healthy older adults' (HOA) and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) on the medication management abilities assessment's (MMAA, a performance-based measure of medication management) original scoring criteria and derived error process measures, assessing medication overtaking and undertaking magnitude...
April 18, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Junyeon Won, Shanshan Wu, Hongquing Ji, J Carson Smith, Jungjun Park
(1) Background: Although a body of evidence demonstrates that acute exercise improves executive function, few studies have compared more complex, laboratory-based modes of exercise, such as soccer that involve multiple aspects of the environment. (2) Methods: Twelve experienced soccer players (24.8 ± 2 years) completed three counterbalanced 20 min sessions of (1) seated rest; (2) moderate intensity treadmill exercise; and (3) a game of futsal. Once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-activity levels, participants completed the Stroop Color Word Conflict Task while reaction time (RT) and P300 event-related potentials were measured...
September 26, 2017: Sports
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kristin J Redmond, Meghan Hildreth, Haris I Sair, Stephanie Terezakis, Todd McNutt, Lawrence Kleinberg, Kenneth J Cohen, Moody Wharam, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone
PURPOSE: Brain radiation is associated with functional deficits in children. The purpose of this study was to examine white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and associations with region-specific radiation dose and neuropsychological functioning in children treated with cranial irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 20 patients and 55 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the present study. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline and 6, 15, and 27 months after treatment...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Johannah M Scheurer, Lei Zhang, Erin A Plummer, Solveig A Hultgren, Ellen W Demerath, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk for neurodevelopmental complications. Early growth is associated with improved later cognition. The relationship of early proportionality and body composition with later cognition is not well established. OBJECTIVES: To assess differences in fat-free mass and adiposity (fat mass, percent body fat) changes in preterm and full-term infants through preschool age and examine associations with early childhood cognition...
June 13, 2018: Neonatology
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