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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088647/the-developmental-relationship-between-specific-cognitive-domains-and-grey-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Dorothea M Moore, Anila M D'Mello, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine J Stoodley
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and cognitive development, yet little is known about the developmental relationship between cerebellar structure and cognitive subdomains in children. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between cerebellar grey matter (GM) and language, reading, working memory, executive function, and processing speed in 110 individuals aged 8-17 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Study. Further, we examined the effect of age on the relationships between cerebellar GM and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#2
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087827/neuropsychological-outcome-following-frontal-lobectomy-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-adults
#3
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080262/processing-speed-test-validation-of-a-self-administered-ipad-%C3%A2-based-tool-for-screening-cognitive-dysfunction-in-a-clinic-setting
#4
Stephen M Rao, Genna Losinski, Lyla Mourany, David Schindler, Bernadett Mamone, Christine Reece, Danielle Kemeny, Sridar Narayanan, Deborah M Miller, Francois Bethoux, Robert A Bermel, Richard Rudick, Jay Alberts
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and has important consequences for daily activities, yet, unlike motor function, is not routinely assessed in the clinic setting. We developed the Processing Speed Test (PST), a self-administered iPad(®)-based tool to measure MS-related deficits in processing speed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the PST is valid for screening cognitive dysfunction by comparing it to the paper-and-pencil Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#5
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#6
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078569/the-computer-based-symbol-digit-modalities-test-establishing-age-expected-performance-in-healthy-controls-and-evaluation-of-pediatric-ms-patients
#7
Sandra Bigi, R A Marrie, C Till, E A Yeh, N Akbar, A Feinstein, B L Banwell
Decreased information processing speed (IPS) is frequently reported in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The computerized version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (c-SDMT) measures IPS over eight consecutive trials per session and additionally captures changes in performance within the session. Here, we establish normative c-SDMT performance and test-retest reliability in healthy children (HC) and explore differences in the overall c-SDMT-performance between HC and MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 478 HC (237 female, 49...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077386/hypertension-severity-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-performance
#8
Henrique C S Muela, Valeria A Costa-Hong, Mônica S Yassuda, Natália C Moraes, Claudia M Memória, Michel F Machado, Thiago A Macedo, Edson B S Shu, Ayrton R Massaro, Ricardo Nitrini, Alfredo J Mansur, Luiz A Bortolotto
BACKGROUND: Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076647/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#9
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075038/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-proof-of-concept-rct
#10
K L Campbell, J W Y Kam, S E Neil-Sztramko, T Liu Ambrose, T C Handy, H Lim, S Hayden, L Hsu, A A Kirkham, C C Gotay, D C McKenzie, L A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with chemotherapy. This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the effect of aerobic exercise versus usual lifestyle on cognitive function in postmenopausal BCS...
January 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#11
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068126/using-perspective-to-resolve-reference-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation
#12
James E Cane, Heather J Ferguson, Ian A Apperly
Research has demonstrated a link between perspective taking and working memory. Here we used eye tracking to examine the time course with which working memory load (WML) influences perspective-taking ability in a referential communication task and how motivation to take another's perspective modulates these effects. In Experiment 1, where there was no reward or time pressure, listeners only showed evidence of incorporating perspective knowledge during integration of the target object but did not anticipate reference to this common ground object during the pretarget-noun period...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063894/dysregulation-of-cytokine-mediated-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment
#13
REVIEW
Xiaojia Ren, Daret K St Clair, D Allan Butterfield
One of the major complaints patients who survive cancer often make is chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (CICI), which survivors often call "chemo brain." CICI is a side effect of chemotherapy due to the cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs causing structural and functional changes in brain, even when drugs that do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) are used. Diminished cognitive functions including diminution of learning and memory, concentration and attention, processing speed and executive functions that reduce quality of life and ability to work are common signs and symptoms of CICI...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063853/reaction-time-and-postural-sway-modify-the-effect-of-executive-function-on-risk-of-falls-in-older-people-with-mild-to-moderate-cognitive-impairment
#14
Morag E Taylor, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Susan E Kurrle, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jacqueline C T Close
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between cognitive performance and falls in older people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (CI) by investigating the mediational effects of medical, medication, neuropsychological, and physiological factors. DESIGN: Secondary analysis, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community and low-level care. PARTICIPANTS: 177 older people (aged 82 ± 7 years) with mild to moderate CI (MMSE 11-23; ACE-R < 83)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063852/gait-speed-and-processing-speed-as-clinical-markers-for-geriatric-health-outcomes
#15
Joost B Sanders, Marijke A Bremmer, Hannie C Comijs, Peter M van de Ven, Dorly J H Deeg, Aartjan T F Beekman
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the independent and combined potential of slowed gait speed and slowed processing speed as predictors of adverse health outcomes. The role of depressive symptoms in these associations is also investigated. METHODS: In the prospective cohort study, using the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam database, three study samples for each outcome variable were defined: persistent cognitive decline (PCD; N = 1,271, 13 years of follow-up), falls (N = 1,282, 6 years of follow-up), and mortality (N = 1,559, age 74...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063384/cognitive-inconsistency-in-bipolar-patients-is-determined-by-increased-intra-individual-variability-in-initial-phase-of-task-performance
#16
Paweł Krukow, Ola Szaniawska, Michał Harciarek, Małgorzata Plechawska-Wójcik, Kamil Jonak
BACKGROUND: Bipolar patients show high intra-individual variability during cognitive processing. However, it is not known whether there are a specific fluctuations of variability contributing to the overall high cognitive inconsistency. The objective was to compare dynamic profiles of patients and healthy controls to identify hypothetical differences and their associations with overall variability and processing speed. METHODS: Changes of reaction times iSD during processing speed test performance over time was measured by dividing the iSD for whole task into four consecutive parts...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062652/the-processing-speed-impairment-in-psychosis-is-more-than-just-accelerated-aging
#17
Samuel R Mathias, Emma E M Knowles, Jennifer Barrett, Olivia Leach, Sebastiano Buccheri, Tamara Beetham, John Blangero, Russell A Poldrack, David C Glahn
Processing speed is impaired in patients with psychosis, and deteriorates as a function of normal aging. These observations, in combination with other lines of research, suggest that psychosis may be a syndrome of accelerated aging. But do patients with psychosis perform poorly on tasks of processing speed for the same reasons as older adults? Fifty-one patients with psychotic illnesses and 90 controls with similar mean IQ (aged 19-69 years, all African American) completed a computerized processing-speed task, reminiscent of the classic digit-symbol coding task...
January 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#18
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061362/developing-easy-to-perform-routine-mri-measurements-as-potential-surrogates-for-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#19
Sarah A Morrow, Suresh Menon, Heather Rosehart, Manas Sharma
OBJECTIVES: One of the most frequently disabling symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is cognitive impairment which is often insidious in onset and therefore difficult to recognize in the early stages, for both persons with MS and clinicians. A biomarker that would help identify those at risk of cognitive impairment, or with only mild impairment, would be a useful tool for clinicians. Using MRI, already an integral tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in MS, would be ideal...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057695/cancer-and-cognitive-function-the-path-through-life-project
#20
Sarang Kim, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have shown that cancer diagnosis plays a protective role in Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of the cancer diagnosis on general cognitive function/cognitive decline has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cancer diagnosis and cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment/disorders (MCI/MCD), adjusting for cancer treatments. METHODS: These data were drawn from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Study, a population-based Australian cohort study...
January 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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