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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667495/common-transdiagnostic-cognitive-deficits-among-people-with-psychiatric-disorders-exposed-to-childhood-maltreatment-a-meta-analysis
#1
Alexandra R-Mercier, Marjolaine Masson, Eve-Line Bussières, Caroline Cellard
INTRODUCTION: Previous meta-analyses have shown a moderate negative impact of maltreatment on the neuropsychological functioning of people with or without psychiatric disorders compared to healthy groups. The objectives of the present meta-analysis were to (1) investigate the impact of maltreatment on neuropsychological functioning of people with psychiatric disorders and to (2) evaluate the moderating effect of age, at the time of the cognitive assessment, on neuropsychological functioning...
April 18, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665578/brain-morphology-cognition-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-older-adults-with-superior-memory-performance
#2
Theresa M Harrison, Anne Maass, Suzanne L Baker, William J Jagust
The mechanisms underlying superior cognitive performance in some older adults are poorly understood. We used a multimodal approach to characterize imaging and cognitive features of 26 successful agers (SA; defined by superior episodic memory ability) and 103 typical older adults. Cortical thickness was greater in multiple regions in SA including right anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex and was related to baseline memory performance. Similarly, hippocampal volume was greater in SA and associated with baseline memory...
March 27, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665283/accelerated-executive-functions-decline-and-gray-matter-structural-changes-in-middle-aged-type-1-diabetes-patients-with-proliferative-retinopathy
#3
Eelco van Duinkerken, Martijn D Steenwijk, Martin Klein, Frederik Barkhof, Daniel C Mograbi, Michaela Diamant, Frank J Snoek, Richard G Ijzerman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine trajectories of cognitive and cortical changes over time in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy. METHODS: Twenty-five patients and 25 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging twice in 3.56 ± 0.65 and 3.94 ± 0.91 years respectively (P = 0.098). Cognitive assessment included the domains of general cognitive ability, memory, information processing speed, executive functions, attention, motor and psychomotor speed...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660936/associations-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-and-angiotensin-ii-blood-levels-and-cognitive-function
#4
Sevil Yasar, Vijay R Varma, Gregory C Harris, Michelle C Carlson
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests a possible role of the renin angiotensin system in the pathophysiologic process of Alzheimer's disease, of which angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (ANGII) are important proteins. Few studies evaluated associations between blood ACE-1 and none between ANGII levels, and cognition. OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study was aimed to examine associations between blood ACE-1 and ANG II levels and cognitive function in non-demented participants at baseline and over a 1-year period...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660416/cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-treatment-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Donel M Martin, Adriano Moffa, Stevan Nikolin, Djamila Bennabi, André R Brunoni, William Flannery, Emmanuel Haffen, Shawn M McClintock, Marina L Moreno, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Colleen K Loo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has emerged as a promising new treatment for major depression. While recent randomised, sham-controlled studies found tDCS to have antidepressant effects, it remains to be determined whether a tDCS treatment course may also enhance cognitive function independent of mood effects in depressed patients. This systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis examined cognitive outcomes from randomised, sham-controlled trials of tDCS treatment for major depression...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659665/the-influence-of-cognitive-reserve-on-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Jacobus Donders, Jacob Stout
Objective: we sought to determine the degree to which cognitive reserve, as assessed by the Test of Premorbid Functioning in combination with demographic variables, could act as a buffer against the effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive test performance. Method: retrospective analysis of a cohort of 121 persons with TBI who completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) within 1-12 months after injury. Results: regression analyses indicated that cognitive reserve was a statistically significant predictor of all postinjury WAIS-IV factor index scores, after controlling for various premorbid and comorbid confounding variables...
April 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650755/thermosensory-perception-regulates-speed-of-movement-in-response-to-temperature-changes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Andrea Soto-Padilla, Rick Ruijsink, Ody C M Sibon, Hedderik van Rijn, Jean-Christophe Billeter
Temperature influences physiology and behavior of all organisms. For ectotherms, which lack central temperature regulation, temperature adaptation requires sheltering from or moving to a heat source. As temperature constrains the rate of metabolic reactions, it can directly affect ectotherm physiology and thus behavioral performance. This direct effect is particularly relevant for insects whose small body readily equilibrates with ambient temperature. In fact, models of enzyme kinetics applied to insect behavior predict performance at different temperatures, suggesting that thermal physiology governs behavior...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648598/a-new-brief-measure-of-executive-function-adapting-the-head-toes-knees-shoulders-task-to-older-adults
#8
Eric S Cerino, Karen Hooker, Robert S Stawski, Megan McClelland
Background and Objectives: Executive function (EF) abilities are recognized as components of cognition most likely to show age-related declines. Measurement of EF in older adults is often computer-based, takes place in a laboratory setting, and thus lacks ecological validity. We sought to investigate a new way of measuring EF in older adults by adapting a brief, behavioral measure of EF in children, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (HTKS). Research Design and Methods: A sample of 150 community-dwelling older adults (Mean age = 68...
April 10, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643358/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-measured-domains-of-cognition-in-individuals-with-psychosis-and-controls
#9
Rebecca Shafee, Pranav Nanda, Jaya L Padmanabhan, Neeraj Tandon, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Sreeja Kalapurakkel, Daniel J Weiner, Raquel E Gur, Richard S E Keefe, Scot K Hill, Jeffrey R Bishop, Brett A Clementz, Carol A Tamminga, Elliot S Gershon, Godfrey D Pearlson, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Steven A McCarroll, Elise B Robinson
Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are commonly accompanied by cognitive deficits. Recent studies have reported negative genetic correlations between schizophrenia and indicators of cognitive ability such as general intelligence and processing speed. Here we compare the effect of polygenetic risk for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ ) on measures that differ in their relationships with psychosis onset: a measure of current cognitive abilities (the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, BACS) that is greatly reduced in psychotic disorder patients, a measure of premorbid intelligence that is minimally affected by psychosis onset (the Wide-Range Achievement Test, WRAT); and educational attainment (EY), which covaries with both BACS and WRAT...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643355/reverse-translated-and-gold-standard-continuous-performance-tests-predict-global-cognitive-performance-in-schizophrenia
#10
Andrew W Bismark, Michael L Thomas, Melissa Tarasenko, Alexandra L Shiluk, Sonia Y Rackelmann, Jared W Young, Gregory A Light
Attentional dysfunction contributes to functional impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Sustained attention is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many CPTs have limited cross-species translational validity and place demands on additional cognitive domains. A reverse-translated 5-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT) for human testing-originally developed for use in rodents-was designed to minimize demands on perceptual, visual learning, processing speed, or working memory functions...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643079/age-at-menopause-and-lifetime-cognition-findings-from-a-british-birth-cohort-study
#11
Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper, Adam Moore, Marcus Richards, Rebecca Hardy
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether cognitive performance between ages 43 and 69 years was associated with timing of menopause, controlling for hormone replacement therapy, childhood cognitive ability, and sociobehavioral factors. METHODS: We used data from 1,315 women participating in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (a British birth cohort study) with known age at period cessation and up to 4 assessments of verbal memory (word-learning task) and processing speed (letter-cancellation task) at ages 43, 53, 60-64, and 69...
April 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629501/gray-matter-volume-covariance-patterns-associated-with-gait-speed-in-older-adults-a-multi-cohort-mri-study
#12
Helena M Blumen, Lucy L Brown, Christian Habeck, Gilles Allali, Emmeline Ayers, Olivier Beauchet, Michele Callisaya, Richard B Lipton, P S Mathuranath, Thanh G Phan, V G Pradeep Kumar, Velandai Srikanth, Joe Verghese
Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627004/brain-connectivity-and-cognitive-processing-speed-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Riccardo Manca, Basil Sharrack, David Paling, Iain D Wilkinson, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Processing speed (PS) decline is the most commonly observed cognitive deficit in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a significant impact on quality of life. Despite its importance, knowledge of the underlying neural substrates is lacking. OBJECTIVE: As MS is increasingly recognised as a disconnection syndrome, our aim was to carry out a systematic literature review to clarify the relationship between PS performance and MRI measures of structural and functional brain connectivity in people with MS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625261/acute-and-chronic-effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognition-and-behaviour-in-young-people-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#14
REVIEW
Sara Suarez-Manzano, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Manuel De La Torre-Cruz, Emilio J Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have learning and behavioral control difficulties. AIM: The aim of this review is analyse the acute and chronic effect of physical activity (PA) on the cognition and behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Studies were identified in five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, Web of Science, and SCOPUS), from January 2000 through to January 2017...
April 3, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624538/comparisons-of-iq-in-children-with-and-without-cochlear-implants-longitudinal-findings-and-associations-with-language
#15
Ivette Cejas, Christine M Mitchell, Michael Hoffman, Alexandra L Quittner
OBJECTIVES: To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. DESIGN: This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers...
April 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623059/cognitive-impairments-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-associations-with-positive-and-negative-affect-alexithymia-pain-catastrophizing-and-self-esteem
#16
Carmen M Galvez-Sánchez, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621934/processing-speed-in-children-treated-for-brain-tumors-effects-of-radiation-therapy-and-age
#17
Lisa A Jacobson, E Mark Mahone, Keith O Yeates, M Douglas Ris
The current study examined processing speed in children two years post-treatment for brain tumors (BT) with radiation therapy (RT) compared to those treated with without RT. Participants included 59 children (4-17 years) with BT assessed as part of the Brain Radiation Investigative Study Consortium (BRISC). Processing speed was assessed at two time points: Time1 (3-9 months post-surgery) for 26 children who received whole brain or focal RT (RT group) and 33 treated without RT (no-RT group), and again two years later (Time2) for 42 participants (17 RT, 25 no-RT)...
April 6, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617157/comparing-the-open-trial-selective-reminding-test-results-with-the-california-learning-verbal-test-ii-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Silvana L Costa, John DeLuca, Kristen Costanza, Nancy D Chiaravalloti
We compared the California Learning Verbal Test II (CVLT II) and the Open Trial-Selective Reminding Test (OT-SRT) in assessing learning in persons with Multiple Sclerosis. One-hundred and twelve participants with multiple sclerosis performed the OT-SRT and the CVLT II on two different days. All participants completed additional cognitive tests assessing information processing speed (IPS), working memory (WM), and executive functions (EF). By definition, all participants were identified as having impaired learning on the OT-SRT (i...
April 4, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614679/effects-of-composite-supplement-containing-astaxanthin-and-sesamin-on-cognitive-functions-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Naoki Ito, Hitomi Saito, Shinobu Seki, Fumitaka Ueda, Takashi Asada
BACKGROUND: Dementia and its first or transitional stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is a major concern for the aging Japanese society. Thus, the use of dietary supplements to improve or maintain cognitive function has become a topic of public interest. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of a composite supplement containing food-derived antioxidants, specifically astaxanthin and sesamin (AS), on cognitive function in people with MCI. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy participants with MCI were recruited in our double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611255/translational-validity-of-pasat-and-the-effect-of-fatigue-and-mood-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-ms-a-functional-mri-study
#20
Dessislava Iancheva, Anastasiya G Trenova, Kiril Terziyski, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefka Mantarova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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