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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450820/overlapping-and-distinct-cognitive-impairments-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-disability
#1
Sarah L Karalunas, Elizabeth Hawkey, Hanna Gustafsson, Meghan Miller, Marybeth Langhorst, Michaela Cordova, Damien Fair, Joel T Nigg
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly comorbid, share genetic liability, and often exhibit overlapping cognitive impairments. Clarification of shared and distinct cognitive effects while considering comorbid symptoms across disorders has been lacking. In the current study, children ages 7-15 years assigned to three diagnostic groups:ADHD (n = 509), ASD (n = 97), and controls (n = 301) completed measures spanning the cognitive domains of attention/arousal, working memory, set-shifting, inhibition, and response variability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450534/reading-behind-the-lines-the-factors-affecting-the-text-reception-threshold-in-hearing-aid-users
#2
Adriana A Zekveld, Marieke Pronk, Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg
Purpose: The visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test (Zekveld et al., 2007) has been designed to assess modality-general factors relevant for speech perception in noise. In the last decade, the test has been adopted in audiology labs worldwide. The 1st aim of this study was to examine which factors best predict interindividual differences in the TRT. Second, we aimed to assess the relationships between the TRT and the speech reception thresholds (SRTs) estimated in various conditions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446012/a-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-antidepressants-on-cognitive-functioning-in-depressed-and-non-depressed-samples
#3
REVIEW
Catherine E Prado, Stephanie Watt, Simon F Crowe
A thorough understanding of the cognitive effects of antidepressant medications is essential given their frequency of use. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether antidepressants differentially affect the various domains of cognitive functioning for depressed and non-depressed participants. An electronic search of PsycInfo, Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for all journal articles published between January 1998 and January 2017. Thirty-three studies were included enabling calculation of Hedges' g using a random effects model for the cognitive domains of divided attention, executive function, expressive language, immediate memory, perceptual motor skills, processing speed, recent memory, sustained attention, visuospatial-constructional skills and working memory...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445414/effects-of-a-new-nutraceutical-combination-on-cognitive-function-in-hypertensive-patients
#4
Giuseppe Giugliano, Alessia Salemme, Sara De Longis, Marialuisa Perrotta, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Raffaele Izzo, Valentina Trimarco
Background: Chronic increased arterial blood pressure has been associated with executive dysfunction, slowing of attention and mental processing speed, and later with memory deficits. Due to the absence of a concrete therapeutic approach to this pathophysiological process, in the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of nutraceuticals, especially those with antioxidant properties, which own strong neuroprotective potential, that may help to improve cognitive function and to delay the onset of dementia...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445335/dual-tasking-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-a-cognitive-screening-instrument
#5
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Madlen Paucke, Tjalf Ziemssen
The monitoring of cognitive functions is central to the assessment and consecutive management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though, especially cognitive processes that are central to everyday behavior like dual-tasking are often neglected. We examined dual-task performance using a psychological-refractory period (PRP) task in N = 21 patients and healthy controls and conducted standard neuropsychological tests. In dual-tasking, MS patients committed more erroneous responses when dual-tasking was difficult. In easier conditions, performance of MS patients did not differ to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444522/psychotic-symptoms-and-attitudes-toward-medication-mediate-the-effect-of-insight-on-personal-social-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#6
Yingjun Zheng, Yuping Ning, Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Chao Wu
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the mediating pathway of 3 factors (psychotic symptoms, attitude toward medication, and cognitive processing speed) on the effect of insight on personal-social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 168; mean age 18 ± 50 years) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV were randomly assigned to treatment with antipsychotic medication alone or combined treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), Assessment of Insight (SAI), and Social-Personal Performance Scale (PSPS) scores were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months...
February 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442392/selection-of-normative-group-affects-rates-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Kathryn A Wyman-Chick, Phillip K Martin, Daniel Weintraub, Scott A Sperling, Lauren O Erickson, Carol A Manning, Matthew J Barrett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of different methods of standardizing cognitive data in the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. METHODS: Cognitive data from 423 participants with Parkinson's disease were included (age = 61.7 [9.7], education = 15.6 [3.0]). Internal norms were calculated using the group mean and standard deviation of the healthy control group. Published norms were compared to the overall group mean of and to age-stratified norms from healthy controls for each neuropsychological test over 4 visits...
February 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441812/associations-between-functional-biological-age-and-cognition-among-older-adults-in-rural-bangladesh-comparisons-with-chronological-age
#8
Ola Sternäng, Katie Palmer, Zarina N Kabir, Mohammed I Hasan, Åke Wahlin
OBJECTIVES: We constructed a functional biological age (fBioAge) indicator by using four functional variables: grip strength, forced expiratory lung volume, visual acuity, and hearing. Our aim was to compare how chronological age (ChronAge) and fBioAge are related to cognitive abilities in older adults. METHOD: We used data from the Poverty and Health in Aging project, Bangladesh. Participants ( N = 400) were 60+ years of age and diagnosed as nondemented. Examined cognitive abilities were four episodic memory measures (including recall and recognition), two verbal fluency indicators, two semantic knowledge, and two processing speed tasks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441005/atypical-within-session-motor-procedural-learning-after-traumatic-brain-injury-but-well-preserved-between-session-procedural-memory-consolidation
#9
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439356/frontal-cortex-epigenetic-dysregulation-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Laura Mahady, Muhammad Nadeem, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kewei Chen, Sylvia E Perez, Elliott J Mufson
Although the frontal cortex plays an important role in cognitive function and undergoes neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the factors driving these cellular alterations remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that alterations in epigenetic regulation play a pivotal role in this process in AD. We evaluated frontal cortex histone deacetylase (HDAC) and sirtuin (SIRT) levels in tissue obtained from subjects with a premortem diagnosis of no-cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild to moderate AD (mAD), and severe AD (sAD) using quantitative western blotting...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439328/impact-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-general-anesthesia-on-brain-networks-cognitive-efficiency-and-ventricular-volume-predict-functional-connectivity-decline-in-older-adults
#11
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#12
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432034/cognitive-functioning-in-chronic-post-stroke-aphasia
#13
José Fonseca, Ana Raposo, Isabel Pavão Martins
There is a minimal amount of knowledge regarding the cognitive abilities of people with aphasia. We evaluated the performance of individuals with chronic aphasia (AP) and control participants without aphasia (CP) with left hemisphere stroke in a battery of nonverbal cognitive tests and its relationship with aphasia severity, comprehension abilities, and speech fluency in a prospective cross-sectional study. Cognitive evaluation comprised 10 nonverbal tests. Scores were converted to age and education adjusted standard scores...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431549/self-paced-cycling-improves-cognition-on-institutionalized-older-adults-without-known-cognitive-impairment-a-15-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Silvia Varela, José M Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez, Carlos Ayán
This study aimed at identifying the effects of self-paced cycling on the cognitive and functional status and fall risk on institutionalized older adults without cognitive impairment. Thirty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to an exercise (EG) or to a control (CG) group. The EG participants cycled at their self-selected intensity at least for 15 minutes daily during 15 months. The CG participants performed recreational activities. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, and Symbol Digit Modality Test were used for cognitive assessments...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430447/mechanisms-involved-in-brain-dysfunction-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-implications-and-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Marc Turon, Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Josefina López-Aguilar, Lluís Blanch
Critical illness may lead to significant long-term neurological morbidity and patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor to the development of adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Patients undergoing MV for long periods present neurologic impairment with memory and cognitive alteration. Delirium is considered an acute form of brain dysfunction and its prevalence rises in mechanically ventilated patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429463/-abnormal-processing-characteristics-to-basic-emotional-faces-in-the-early-phase-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Qiong-Xi Lin, Gui-Hua Wu, Ling Zhang, Zeng-Jian Wang, Ning Pan, Cai-Juan Xu, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429136/cognitive-processing-for-step-precision-increases-beta-and-gamma-band-modulation-during-overground-walking
#17
Anderson Souza Oliveira, Federico Gabriel Arguissain, Ole Kæseler Andersen
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (NW); (2) walking in a pre-defined pathway forcing variation in step width and length by stepping on green marks on the floor (only one color: W1C), and (3) walking in the same pre-defined W1C pathway while evaluating different combinations among the colors green, yellow and red, in which only one color was the footfall target (evaluating two colors: W2C)...
February 10, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425581/long-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-lower-cognitive-function-among-middle-age-adults-the-doetinchem-cohort-study
#18
Sandra H van Oostrom, Astrid C J Nooyens, Martin P J van Boxtel, W M Monique Verschuren
OBJECTIVES: In older adults, both short and long sleep duration are associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive outcomes. This study examined whether sleep duration is associated with (changes in) cognitive function in a middle-aged population. METHODS: In the Doetinchem Cohort Study, the cognitive function of 2970 men and women aged 41-75 years at baseline (1995-2007) was examined 2-3 times, with 5-year time intervals...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425267/global-white-matter-diffusion-characteristics-predict-longitudinal-cognitive-change-independently-of-amyloid-status-in-clinically-normal-older-adults
#19
Jennifer S Rabin, Rodrigo D Perea, Rachel F Buckley, Taylor E Neal, Randy L Buckner, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Trey Hedden
White matter degradation has been proposed as one possible explanation for age-related cognitive decline. In the present study, we examined 2 main questions: 1) Do diffusion characteristics predict longitudinal change in cognition independently or synergistically with amyloid status? 2) Are the effects of diffusion characteristics on longitudinal cognitive change tract-specific or global in nature? Cognitive domains of executive function, episodic memory, and processing speed were measured annually (mean follow-up = 3...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414287/symbol-digit-modalities-test-adaptation-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-environment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
P H R Silva, C T Spedo, A A Barreira, R F Leoni
BACKGROUND: The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used for cognitive evaluation of information processing speed (IPS), required in many cognitive operations. Despite being unspecific for different neurological disorders, it is sensitive to assess impaired performance related to stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. However, in addition to evaluate the presence and severity of IPS impairment, it is of interest to determine the localization and integration of brain regions responsible for the functions assessed by the SDMT...
January 25, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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