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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628780/brainage-score-indicates-accelerated-brain-aging-in-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#2
Igor Nenadić, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Heinrich Sauer, Christian Gaser
BrainAGE (brain age gap estimation) is a novel morphometric parameter providing a univariate score derived from multivariate voxel-wise analyses. It uses a machine learning approach and can be used to analyse deviation from physiological developmental or aging-related trajectories. Using structural MRI data and BrainAGE quantification of acceleration or deceleration of in individual aging, we analysed data from 45 schizophrenia patients, 22 bipolar I disorder patients (mostly with previous psychotic symptoms / episodes), and 70 healthy controls...
May 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#3
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618327/long-term-antipsychotic-and-benzodiazepine-use-and-brain-volume-changes-in-schizophrenia-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966-study
#4
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Tuomas Heikka, Jani S Moilanen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jussi Tohka, José V Manjón, Pierrick Coupé, Lassi Björnholm, Hannu Koponen, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Vesa Kiviniemi, Graham K Murray, Jouko Miettunen
High doses of antipsychotics have been associated with loss in cortical and total gray matter in schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies have not taken benzodiazepine use into account, in spite of evidence suggesting adverse effects such as cognitive impairment and increased mortality. In this Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study, 69 controls and 38 individuals with schizophrenia underwent brain MRI at the ages of 34 and 43 years. At baseline, the average illness duration was over 10 years. Brain structures were delineated using an automated volumetry system, volBrain, and medication data on cumulative antipsychotic and benzodiazepine doses were collected using medical records and interviews...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616384/comparison-of-large-scale-human-brain-functional-and-anatomical-networks-in-schizophrenia
#5
Brent G Nelson, Danielle S Bassett, Jazmin Camchong, Edward T Bullmore, Kelvin O Lim
Schizophrenia is a disease with disruptions in thought, emotion, and behavior. The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests these disruptions are due to aberrant brain connectivity. Many studies have identified connectivity differences but few have been able to unify gray and white matter findings into one model. Here we develop an extension of the Network-Based Statistic (NBS) called NBSm (Multimodal Network-based statistic) to compare functional and anatomical networks in schizophrenia. Structural, resting functional, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 29 chronic patients with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#6
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612661/is-there-an-association-between-mismatch-negativity-and-cortical-thickness-in-schizophrenia-patients
#7
Jiyoon J Seol, Minah Kim, Kwang Hyuk Lee, Ji-Won Hur, Kang Ik K Cho, Tae Young Lee, Chun Kee Chung, Jun Soo Kwon
INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to reflect preattentive, automatic auditory processing. Reduced MMN amplitude is among the most robust findings in schizophrenia research. MMN generators have been shown to be located in the temporal and frontal cortices, which are key areas in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study investigated whether frontotemporal cortical thickness was associated with reduced MMN current source density (CSD) strength in patients with schizophrenia...
June 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605934/olanzapine-modulates-the-default-mode-network-homogeneity-in-recurrent-drug-free-schizophrenia-at-rest
#8
Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Renrong Wu, Lehua Li, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on brain function alterations associated with antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia have produced conflicting results because they used short treatment periods and different designs. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 17 drug-free patients with recurrent schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls. The patients were treated with olanzapine for 6 months and were scanned at three time points (baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 6 months of treatment)...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605528/abnormal-resting-state-connectivity-in-a-substantia-nigra-related-striato-thalamo-cortical-network-in-a-large-sample-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#9
Matteo Martino, Paola Magioncalda, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yajing Meng, Wei Deng, Yinfei Li, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Timothy Lane, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff, Tao Li
Objective: The dopamine hypothesis is one of the most influential theories of the neurobiological background of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, direct evidence for abnormal dopamine-related subcortical-cortical circuitry disconnectivity is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to test dopamine-related substantia nigra (SN)-based striato-thalamo-cortical resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in SCZ. Method: Based on our a priori hypothesis, we analyzed a large sample resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset from first-episode drug-naïve SCZ patients (n = 112) and healthy controls (n = 82) using the SN as the seed region for an investigation of striato-thalamo-cortical FC...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601503/cortical-magnetization-transfer-abnormalities-and-connectome-dysconnectivity-in-schizophrenia
#10
Yongbin Wei, Guusje Collin, René C W Mandl, Wiepke Cahn, Kristin Keunen, Ruben Schmidt, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Macroscale dysconnectivity in schizophrenia is associated with neuropathological abnormalities. The extent to which alterations in cortical myelination as revealed in vivo by magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are related to macroscale dysconnectivity remains unknown. We acquired magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) data and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data from 78 schizophrenia patients and 93 healthy controls for MTR extraction and connectome reconstruction to examine the possible link between cortical myelination and macroscale dysconnectivity...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594303/self-inflicted-enucleations-clinical-features-of-seven-cases
#11
Mamta Shah, Lucy Sun, Solly Elmann, Ivan Vrcek, Ronald Mancini, Hee Joon Kim, Jacqueline Carrasco, Roman Shinder
We report the clinical presentation, radiography, and management outcomes of autoenucleations (AE). Charts of 7 patients evaluated at 4 institutions with AE were reviewed. Four males and three females had a mean age of 50 years (range 26-72 years). The etiologies were psychosis secondary to underlying mental illness (6, 88%) and substance use (1, 12%), and the mechanism was largely blunt digital injury (6, 88%). Three (43%) AE patients suffered bilateral enucleations. Common concomitant injuries included eyelid lacerations (5, 71%) and optic nerve avulsion (3, 43%)...
June 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587813/abnormal-regional-homogeneity-as-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-for-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia-a-resting-state-fmri-study-and-support-vector-machine-analysis
#12
Shuai Wang, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Renrong Wu, Xiaoduo Fan, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
OBJECTIVE: Structural and functional abnormalities have been reported in the brain of patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS). The brain regional functional synchronization in patients with AOS remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans in 48 drug-naive patients with AOS and 31 healthy controls by using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement that reflects brain local functional connectivity or synchronization and indicates regional integration of information processing...
June 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587701/brain-atrophy-is-a-frequent-finding-in-elderly-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#13
Ulla-Marja Louhija, Tuula Saarela, Kati Juva, Björn Appelberg
BACKGROUND: To characterize the yearly incidence, diagnostic distribution, and neuro-radiologic findings in patients aged over 60 years, referred to psychiatric treatment with first episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: A computerized search, including all patients referred to psychiatric treatment during 12 consecutive months with a de novo diagnosis of psychosis was performed in the Helsinki region catchment area with 1.2 million inhabitants. Diagnoses based on hospital records were made by a group of one neurologist and three psychiatrists...
June 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582529/disrupted-olfactory-integration-in-schizophrenia-functional-connectivity-study
#14
Sara Kiparizoska, Toshikazu Ikuta
Background: Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580339/can-evolutionary-based-brain-map-be-used-as-a-complementary-diagnostic-tool-with-fmri-ct-and-pet-for-schizophrenic-patients
#15
R Boostani, M Sabeti
OBJECTIVE: In this research, a new approach termed as "evolutionary-based brain map" is presented as a diagnostic tool to classify schizophrenic and control subjects by distinguishing their electroencephalogram (EEG) features. METHODS: Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to find discriminative frequency bands from different EEG channels. By deploying the energy of those selected frequency bands from different channels within each time frame (window) on the scalp geometry, a sort of two dimensional points along with their values are created; by applying Lagrange interpolation, an image can be constructed...
June 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580294/gender-differences-in-the-structural-connectome-of-the-teenage-brain-revealed-by-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#16
Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Jan-Ray Liao, Chao-Yu Shen, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jun-Cheng Weng
The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580230/the-use-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Seiya Miyamoto, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
Schizophrenia is a mostly chronic mental disorder, and symptomatic relapse is frequently observed. It is often associated with social and/or occupational decline that can be difficult to reverse. Most patients with the illness need long-term pharmacological treatment, and antipsychotic drugs represent the mainstay of clinical care. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are an important alternative to oral medication, particularly advantageous in the context of compliance management. Several new-generation antipsychotics (NGAs), including risperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, and aripiprazole, have become available as long-acting formulations, and new evidence has been accumulating...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579941/chronic-ketamine-exposure-causes-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-in-adolescent-cynomolgus-monkeys
#18
Qi Li, Lin Shi, Gang Lu, Hong-Luan Yu, Fu-Ki Yeung, Nai-Kei Wong, Lin Sun, Kai Liu, David Yew, Fang Pan, De-Feng Wang, Pak C Sham
Acute and repeated exposures to ketamine mimic aspects of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia in humans. Recent studies by our group and others have shown that chronicity of ketamine use may be a key element for establishing a more valid model of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, current understanding on the long-term consequences of ketamine exposure on brain circuits has remained incomplete, particularly with regard to microstructural changes of white matter tracts that underpin the neuropathology of schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578419/altered-sulcogyral-patterns-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Shuichi Isomura, Ryota Hashimoto, Motoaki Nakamura, Yoji Hirano, Fumio Yamashita, Shin Jimbo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Ryan P Mears, Toshiaki Onitsuka
Abnormalities in prenatal brain development contribute to schizophrenia vulnerability. Orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns are largely determined during prenatal development, and four types of orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns have been classified in humans. Altered orbitofrontal cortex patterns have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging; however, sample sizes of previous studies were small-medium effects for detection, and gender manifestation for orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns is unclear...
January 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576546/d2-d3-dopamine-receptor-binding-with-f-18-fallypride-correlates-of-executive-function-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Nora S Vyas, Monte S Buchsbaum, Douglas S Lehrer, Brian M Merrill, Alex DeCastro, Nicholas A Doninger, Bradley T Christian, Jogeshwar Mukherjee
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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