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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345690/clozapine-induced-myocarditis
#1
COMMENT
Tanuka Datta, Allen J Solomon
Approved in 1989 for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, Clozapine is a last-line atypical antipsychotic drug used with increasing frequency. In addition to its well-known side effect of agranulocytosis, this drug also carries with it rare but serious adverse cardiovascular risk of myocarditis. We present a patient on Clozapine who was admitted to the cardiology service with chest pain, ST segment elevations and elevated troponin concerning for acute myocardial infarction. Evaluation with imaging revealed decreased left ventricular function, however, no coronary artery disease was present on catheterization; findings consistent with a diagnosis of myocarditis...
January 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341341/prediction-of-activation-patterns-preceding-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-machine-learning-with-structured-sparsity
#2
Amicie de Pierrefeu, Thomas Fovet, Fouad Hadj-Selem, Tommy Löfstedt, Philippe Ciuciu, Stephanie Lefebvre, Pierre Thomas, Renaud Lopes, Renaud Jardri, Edouard Duchesnay
Despite significant progress in the field, the detection of fMRI signal changes during hallucinatory events remains difficult and time-consuming. This article first proposes a machine-learning algorithm to automatically identify resting-state fMRI periods that precede hallucinations versus periods that do not. When applied to whole-brain fMRI data, state-of-the-art classification methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), yield dense solutions that are difficult to interpret. We proposed to extend the existing sparse classification methods by taking the spatial structure of brain images into account with structured sparsity using the total variation penalty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338891/gray-and-white-matter-changes-and-their-relation-to-illness-trajectory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Anna Alonso-Solís, Iluminada Corripio, Rosa B Sauras-Quetcuti, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Erick J Canales-Rodriguez, Eva Grasa-Bello, Enric Álvarez, Maria J Portella
Previous works have studied structural brain characteristics in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but few have focused on the relation between brain differences and illness trajectories. The aim of this study is to analyze gray and white matter changes in FEP patients and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes. A sample of 41 FEP patients and 41 healthy controls (HC), matched by age and educational level was scanned with a 3T MRI during the first month of illness onset. One year later, patients were assigned to two illness trajectories (schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia)...
January 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329039/an-investigation-into-the-drivers-of-avolition-in-schizophrenia
#4
Gaurav Suri, Lindsey M Lavaysse, Gerald Young, Craig Moodie, Alen Tersakyan, James J Gross, David E Gard
Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia)...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326362/-18f-pbr111-pet-imaging-in-healthy-controls-and-schizophrenia-test-retest-reproducibility-and-quantification-of-neuroinflammation
#5
Julie Ottoy, Livia De Picker, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Steven Deleye, Leonie Wyffels, Lauren Kosten, Bernard Sabbe, Violette Coppens, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Sarah Ceyssens, Sigrid Stroobants, Manuel Morrens, Steven Staelens
Activated microglia express the translocator protein (TSPO) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. 18F-PBR111 is a second-generation positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that specifically binds the TSPO, allowing in-vivo visualization and quantification of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the test-retest variability of 18F-PBR111 in healthy controls is acceptable to detect a psychosis-associated neuroinflammatory signal in schizophrenia. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18F-PBR111 scans were obtained in 17 healthy male controls (HC) and 11 male schizophrenia patients during a psychotic episode (SP)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325847/amphetamine-induced-striatal-dopamine-release-measured-with-an-agonist-radiotracer-in%C3%A2-schizophrenia
#6
W Gordon Frankle, Jennifer Paris, Michael Himes, N Scott Mason, Chester A Mathis, Rajesh Narendran
BACKGROUND: Receptor imaging studies have reported increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in subjects with schizophrenia (SCH) relative to healthy control subjects (HCs). A limitation of these studies, performed with D2/3 antagonist radiotracers, is the failure to provide information about D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for the agonists (i.e., D2/3 receptors coupled to G proteins [D2/3 HIGH]). The endogenous agonist dopamine binds with preference to D2/3 HIGH receptors relative to D2/3 LOW receptors, making it critical to understand the status of D2/3 HIGH receptors in SCH...
December 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324666/mapping-the-schizophrenia-genes-by-neuroimaging-the-opportunities-and-the-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable brain disease originating from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The genes underpinning the neurobiology of SZ are largely unknown but recent data suggest strong evidence for genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, making the brain vulnerable to the risk of SZ. Structural and functional brain mapping of these genetic variations are essential for the development of agents and tools for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SZ...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324274/mediators-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-suicidality
#8
Minna Rytilä-Manninen, Henna Haravuori, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen, Nina Lindberg
We investigated whether psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, family and social dysfunction, and alcohol use mediate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicidality. The study population comprised 206 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 203 age- and gender-matched adolescents from the community. ACEs and suicidality were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version, the Life Events Checklist, and a structured background data collection sheet...
January 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317603/subcortical-association-with-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Daisuke Koshiyama, Masaki Fukunaga, Naohiro Okada, Fumio Yamashita, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Kazutaka Ohi, Haruo Fujino, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kiyoto Kasai, Ryota Hashimoto
Memory performance is severely impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Although several studies have reported a relationship between memory performance and hippocampal volume, only a few structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical structures other than hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical regional volumes in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317600/altered-avalanche-dynamics-in-a-developmental-nmdar-hypofunction-model-of-cognitive-impairment
#10
Saurav Seshadri, Andreas Klaus, Daniel E Winkowski, Patrick O Kanold, Dietmar Plenz
Disturbed activity patterns in cortical networks contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Several lines of evidence implicate NMDA receptor hypofunction in SZ, and blocking NMDA receptor signaling during early neurodevelopment produces cognitive deficits in rodent models that resemble those seen in schizophrenic patients. However, the altered network dynamics underlying these cognitive impairments largely remain to be characterized, especially at the cellular level. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to describe pathological dynamics, occurring in parallel with cognitive dysfunction, in a developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction model...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315951/four-way-multimodal-fusion-of-7%C3%A2-t-imaging-data-using-an-mcca-jica-model-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#11
Kristin K Lottman, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Vince D Calhoun, Fabio Catao, Adrienne C Lahti
Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305645/free-visual-exploration-of-natural-movies-in-schizophrenia
#12
Johanna Elisa Silberg, Ioannis Agtzidis, Mikhail Startsev, Teresa Fasshauer, Karen Silling, Andreas Sprenger, Michael Dorr, Rebekka Lencer
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking dysfunction (ETD) observed with standard pursuit stimuli represents a well-established biomarker for schizophrenia. How ETD may manifest during free visual exploration of real-life movies is unclear. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded (EyeLink®1000) while 26 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy age-matched controls freely explored nine uncut movies and nine pictures of real-life situations for 20 s each. Subsequently, participants were shown still shots of these scenes to decide whether they had explored them as movies or pictures...
January 5, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305294/cortical-folding-abnormalities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-who-have-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#13
Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Anja Barth, Fabio Sambataro, Nenad Vasic, Nadine D Wolf, Karel Frasch, R Christian Wolf
In schizophrenia temporal cortical volume loss differs between patients presenting with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (pAVH) in contrast to those without hallucinatory symptoms (nAVH). However, it is unknown whether this deficit reflects a neural signature of neurodevelopmental origin or if abnormal temporal cortical volume is reflective of factors which may be relevant at later stages of the disorder. Here, we tested the hypothesis that local gyrification index (LGI) in regions of the temporal cortex differs between patients with pAVH (n=10) and healthy controls (n=14), and that abnormal temporal LGI discriminates between pAVH and nAVH (n=10)...
January 2, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#14
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301039/defining-the-locus-of-dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-and-test-of-the-mesolimbic-hypothesis
#15
Robert McCutcheon, Katherine Beck, Sameer Jauhar, Oliver D Howes
Background: Studies using positron emission tomography to image striatal dopamine function, have demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia display increases in presynaptic function. Mesolimbic dysfunction specifically, has previously been suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. This has not been directly tested in vivo, and the precise anatomical locus of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum remains unclear. The current article investigates the magnitude of dopaminergic abnormalities in individuals with schizophrenia, and determines how the magnitude of abnormality varies across functional subdivisions of the striatum...
December 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297153/cigarette-smoking-and-schizophrenia-independently-and-reversibly-altered-intrinsic-brain-activity
#16
Huan Liu, Qi Luo, Wanyi Du, Xingbao Li, Zhiwei Zhang, Renqiang Yu, Xiaolu Chen, Huaqing Meng, Lian Du
Schizophrenia patients are at high risk for cigarette smoking, but the neurobiological mechanisms of this comorbid association are relatively unknown. Long-term nicotine intake may impact brain that are independently and additively associated with schizophrenia. We investigated whether altered intrinsic brain activity (iBA) related to schizophrenia pathology is also associated with nicotine addiction. Forty-two schizophrenia patients (21 smokers and 21 nonsmokers) and 21 sex- and age-matched healthy nonsmokers underwent task-free functional MRI...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278773/an-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-reliability-and-sensitivity-of-motion-correction-strategies-for-resting-state-functional-mri
#17
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yu Cel, Alex Fornitod
Estimates of functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) are sensitive to artefacts caused by in-scanner head motion. This susceptibility has motivated the development of numerous denoising methods designed to mitigate motion-related artefacts. Here, we compare popular retrospective rs-fMRI denoising methods, such as regression of head motion parameters and mean white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (with and without expansion terms), aCompCor, volume censoring (e...
December 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276351/abnormal-concentration-of-gaba-and-glutamate-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-1h-mrs-study
#18
Tianyi Chen, Yingchan Wang, Jianye Zhang, Zuowei Wang, Jiale Xu, Yao Li, Zhilei Yang, Dengtang Liu
Background: The etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia are unknown. The traditional dopamine (DA) hypothesis is unable to fully explain its pathology and therapeutics. The glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypotheses suggest Glu or GABA concentrations are abnormal in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show glutamate level increases in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) including the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) in those with schizophrenia...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274736/can-we-accurately-classify-schizophrenia-patients-from-healthy-controls-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-machine-learning-a-multi-method-and-multi-dataset-study
#19
Julie L Winterburn, Aristotle N Voineskos, Gabriel A Devenyi, Eric Plitman, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Nikhil Bhagwat, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jo Knight, M Mallar Chakravarty
Machine learning is a powerful tool that has previously been used to classify schizophrenia (SZ) patients from healthy controls (HC) using magnetic resonance images. Each study, however, uses different datasets, classification algorithms, and validation techniques. Here, we perform a critical appraisal of the accuracy of machine learning methodologies used in SZ/HC classifications studies by comparing three machine learning algorithms (logistic regression [LR], support vector machines [SVMs], and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]) on three independent datasets (435 subjects total) using two tissue density estimates and cortical thickness (CT)...
December 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#20
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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