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schizophreni* AND (Imaging OR MRI OR DTI)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#1
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#2
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922632/a-phenome-wide-examination-of-neural-and-cognitive-function
#3
R A Poldrack, E Congdon, W Triplett, K J Gorgolewski, K H Karlsgodt, J A Mumford, F W Sabb, N B Freimer, E D London, T D Cannon, R M Bilder
This data descriptor outlines a shared neuroimaging dataset from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics, which focused on understanding the dimensional structure of memory and cognitive control (response inhibition) functions in both healthy individuals (130 subjects) and individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia (50 subjects), bipolar disorder (49 subjects), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (43 subjects). The dataset includes an extensive set of task-based fMRI assessments, resting fMRI, structural MRI, and high angular resolution diffusion MRI...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919751/less-head-motion-during-mri-under-task-than-resting-state-conditions
#4
Willem Huijbers, Koene R A Van Dijk, Meta M Boenniger, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Monique M B Breteler
Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915397/age-and-gender-interactions-in-white-matter-of-schizophrenia-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-compared-to-non-psychiatric-controls-commonalities-across-disorders
#5
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Natasha Radhu, David Rotenberg, Stephanie Ameis, Felicity A Backhouse, Mawahib Semeralul, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are psychiatric disorders with abnormalities in white matter structure. These disorders share high comorbidity and family history of OCD is a risk factor for SCZ which suggests some shared neurobiology. White matter was examined using diffusion tensor imaging in relativity large samples of SCZ (N = 48), OCD (N = 38) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 45). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated and tract based spatial statistics were used to compare groups...
December 3, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915121/predicting-individual-brain-functional-connectivity-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-model
#6
Tian Dai, Ying Guo
Network-oriented analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI, has revealed important association between abnormal connectivity and brain disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression and Alzheimer's disease. Imaging-based brain connectivity measures have become a useful tool for investigating the pathophysiology, progression and treatment response of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have started to explore the possibility of using functional neuroimaging to help predict disease progression and guide treatment selection for individual patients...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#7
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898432/the-impact-of-paliperidone-palmitate-long-acting-injection-on-hospital-admissions-in-a-mental-health-setting
#8
Nikola Nikolić, Natalie Page, Adil Akram, Maha Khan
We screened 216 patients in a retrospective observational investigator-initiated study, of whom 45.37% patients (n=98) were retained after the inclusion criteria were applied. These patients had been prescribed paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PPLAI) with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder. We investigated whether PPLAI has an effect on the frequency and length of admissions to mental health inpatient units, the number of contacts with Crisis Resolution Home Treatment Teams (CRHTT) and frequency of home visits by the CRHTT per patient, over 6 years, split using a 'mirror image' method...
November 24, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896966/enforcing-co-expression-in-multimodal-regression-framework
#9
Pascal Zille, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
We consider the problem of multimodal data integration for the study of complex neurological diseases (e.g. schizophrenia). Among the challenges arising in such situation, estimating the link between genetic and neurological variability within a population sample has been a promising direction. A wide variety of statistical models arose from such applications. For example, Lasso regression and its multitask extension are often used to fit a multivariate linear relationship between given phenotype(s) and associated observations...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896809/a2a-d2-receptor-receptor-interaction-modulates-gliotransmitter-release-from-striatal-astrocyte-processes
#10
Chiara Cervetto, Arianna Venturini, Mario Passalacqua, Diego Guidolin, Susanna Genedani, Kjell Fuxe, Dasiel O Borroto-Esquela, Pietro Cortelli, Amina Woods, Guido Maura, Manuela Marcoli, Luigi F Agnati
Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894892/longitudinal-functional-brain-imaging-study-in-early-course-schizophrenia-before-and-after-cognitive-enhancement-therapy
#11
Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack, Konasale M Prasad, Chiara S Haller, Raymond Y Cho
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894376/brain-substrates-underlying-auditory-speech-priming-in-healthy-listeners-and-listeners-with-schizophrenia
#12
C Wu, Y Zheng, J Li, H Wu, S She, S Liu, Y Ning, L Li
BACKGROUND: Under 'cocktail party' listening conditions, healthy listeners and listeners with schizophrenia can use temporally pre-presented auditory speech-priming (ASP) stimuli to improve target-speech recognition, even though listeners with schizophrenia are more vulnerable to informational speech masking. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study searched for both brain substrates underlying the unmasking effect of ASP in 16 healthy controls and 22 patients with schizophrenia, and brain substrates underlying schizophrenia-related speech-recognition deficits under speech-masking conditions...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887859/olanzapine-modulation-of-long-and-short-range-functional-connectivity-in-the-resting-brain-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Renrong Wu, Lehua Li, Zhikun Zhang, Jingping Zhao
Treatment effects of antipsychotic drugs on cerebral function are seldom examined. Exploring functional connectivity (FC) in drug-free schizophrenia patients before and after antipsychotic treatment can improve the understanding of antipsychotic drug mechanisms. A total of 17 drug-free patients with recurrent schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Long- and short-range FC strengths (FCS) were calculated for each participant. Compared with the controls, the patients at baseline exhibited increased long-range positive FCS (lpFCS) in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and decreased lpFCS in the brain regions of the default-mode network (DMN) regions and sensorimotor circuits of the brain...
November 22, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882449/diametrical-relationship-between-gray-and-white-matter-volumes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#14
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been variously characterized as separate nosological entities with overlapping deficits in social cognition or diametrical extremes of a phenotypic continuum. This study aimed to determine how these models apply to comparative morphometric data. MRI scans of the brain were obtained in 49 subjects with schizophrenia, 20 subjects with autism and 39 healthy controls. Images were parcellated into 40 Brodmann areas and entered into repeated-measures ANOVA for between-group comparison of global and localized gray and white matter volumes...
November 23, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872811/failure-to-mobilize-cognitive-control-for-challenging-tasks-correlates-with-symptom-severity-in-schizophrenia
#15
Bengi Baran, F Işık Karahanoğlu, Yigal Agam, Leonidas Mantonakis, Dara S Manoach
Deficits in the adaptive, flexible control of behavior contribute to the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. We used functional MRI and an antisaccade paradigm to examine the neural correlates of cognitive control deficits and their relations to symptom severity. Thirty-three chronic medicated outpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls performed an antisaccade paradigm. We examined differences in recruitment of the cognitive control network and task performance for Hard (high control) versus Easy (low control) antisaccade trials within and between groups...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872268/consistent-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-multisite-study
#16
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Erik G Jönsson, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lena Flyckt, Ingrid Melle, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental illness with high heritability and complex etiology. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted brain network connectivity in the pathophysiology. However, previous findings are inconsistent, likely due to a combination of methodological and clinical variability and relatively small sample sizes. Few studies have used a data-driven approach for characterizing pathological interactions between regions in the whole brain and evaluated the generalizability across independent samples...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#17
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867023/the-role-of-white-matter-microstructure-in-inhibitory-deficits-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Xiaoming Du, Peter Kochunov, Ann Summerfelt, Joshua Chiappelli, Fow-Sen Choa, L Elliot Hong
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory-excitatory (I-E) imbalance has increasingly been proposed as a fundamental mechanism giving rise to many schizophrenia-related pathophysiology. The integrity of I-E functions should require precise and rapid electrical signal transmission. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that part of the I-E abnormality in schizophrenia may originate from their known abnormal white matter connectivity that may interfere the I-E functions. METHODS: We test this using short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) vs...
November 12, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867012/a-robust-sparse-modeling-framework-for-estimating-schizophrenia-biomarkers-from-fmri
#19
Keith Dillon, Vince Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Our goal is to identify the brain regions most relevant to mental illness using neuroimaging. State of the art machine learning methods commonly suffer from repeatability difficulties in this application, particularly when using large and heterogeneous populations for samples. NEW METHOD: We revisit both dimensionality reduction and sparse modeling, and recast them in a common optimization-based framework. This allows us to combine the benefits of both types of methods in an approach which we call unambiguous components...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864083/robust-skull-stripping-using-multiple-mr-image-contrasts-insensitive-to-pathology
#20
Snehashis Roy, John A Butman, Dzung L Pham
Automatic skull-stripping or brain extraction of magnetic resonance (MR) images is often a fundamental step in many neuroimage processing pipelines. The accuracy of subsequent image processing relies on the accuracy of the skull-stripping. Although many automated stripping methods have been proposed in the past, it is still an active area of research particularly in the context of brain pathology. Most stripping methods are validated on T1-w MR images of normal brains, especially because high resolution T1-w sequences are widely acquired and ground truth manual brain mask segmentations are publicly available for normal brains...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
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