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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938151/elucidation-of-shared-and-specific-white-matter-findings-underlying-psychopathology-clusters-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jeanette Lim, Rowena Chin, New Fei Ho, Max Lam, Min Yi Sum, Simon Collinson, Lisa Phillips, Tih-Shih Lee, Balázs Zoltán Gulyás, Juan Zhou, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with diverse white matter (WM) brain abnormalities. In this study, we sought to examine the WM microstructural findings which underlie clinical psychopathology clusters in schizophrenia and hypothesized that these symptom clusters are associated with common and unique WM tracts. METHODS: Overall, 76 healthy controls (HC), and 148 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were recruited and severity of symptomatology in schizophrenia was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
September 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932681/assessing-neural-tuning-for-object-perception-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-with-multivariate-pattern-analysis-of-fmri-data
#3
Eric A Reavis, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Stephen A Engel, Mark S Cohen, Keith H Nuechterlein, David C Glahn, Lori L Altshuler, Michael F Green
INTRODUCTION: Deficits in visual perception are well-established in schizophrenia and are linked to abnormal activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). Related deficits may exist in bipolar disorder. LOC contains neurons tuned to object features. It is unknown whether neural tuning in LOC or other visual areas is abnormal in patients, contributing to abnormal perception during visual tasks. This study used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate perceptual tuning for objects in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931944/errant-gardeners-glial-cell-dependent-synaptic-pruning-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Urte Neniskyte, Cornelius T Gross
The final stage of brain development is associated with the generation and maturation of neuronal synapses. However, the same period is also associated with a peak in synapse elimination - a process known as synaptic pruning - that has been proposed to be crucial for the maturation of remaining synaptic connections. Recent studies have pointed to a key role for glial cells in synaptic pruning in various parts of the nervous system and have identified a set of critical signalling pathways between glia and neurons...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#5
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924878/differences-between-schizophrenic-and-normal-subjects-using-network-properties-from-fmri
#6
Youngoh Bae, Kunaraj Kumarasamy, Issa M Ali, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Bradley J Erickson
Schizophrenia has been proposed to result from impairment of functional connectivity. We aimed to use machine learning to distinguish schizophrenic subjects from normal controls using a publicly available functional MRI (fMRI) data set. Global and local parameters of functional connectivity were extracted for classification. We found decreased global and local network connectivity in subjects with schizophrenia, particularly in the anterior right cingulate cortex, the superior right temporal region, and the inferior left parietal region as compared to healthy subjects...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924203/the-common-variants-implicated-in-microstructural-abnormality-of-first-episode-and-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
H Y Ren, Q Wang, W Lei, C C Zhang, Y F Li, X J Li, M L Li, W Deng, C H Huang, F Du, L S Zhao, Y C Wang, X H Ma, X Hu, T Li
Both post-mortem and neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with schizophrenia. However, its genetic underpinnings and relevant biological pathways remain unclear. In order to unravel the genes and the pathways associated with abnormal WM microstructure in schizophrenia, we recruited 100 first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 matched healthy controls to conduct genome-wide association analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) value measured using diffusing tensor imaging (DTI), followed by multivariate association study and pathway enrichment analysis...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914403/self-transformation-at-the-boundary-of-religious-conversion-and-psychosis
#8
Szabolcs Kéri
The relationship between religious conversion, as a form of spiritual emergency, and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we assessed 53 individuals referred to a psychiatry center with the initial diagnosis of a psychotic episode by focusing on the clinical diagnosis (psychosis vs. spiritual emergency), subjective experiences (basic symptoms), and neuropsychological functions. Twenty-nine individuals meet the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, but 24 persons experienced only religious and spiritual problems (religious conversion)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911049/aberrant-hyperconnectivity-in-the-motor-system-at-rest-is-linked-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#9
Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Petra V Viher
Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910775/classification-of-schizophrenia-based-on-individual-hierarchical-brain-networks-constructed-from-structural-mri-images
#10
Jin Liu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Fang-Xiang Wu, Xiaogang Chen, Jianxin Wang
With structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, conventional methods for the classification of schizophrenia (SCZ) and healthy control (HC) extract cortical thickness independently at different regions of interest (ROIs) without considering the correlation between these regions. In this study we proposed an improved method for the classification of SCZ and HC based on individual hierarchical brain networks constructed from structural MRI images. Our method involves constructing individual hierarchical networks where each node and each edge in these networks represents a ROI and the correlation between a pair of ROIs, respectively...
September 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910708/telomere-quantification-in-frontal-and-temporal-brain-tissue-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Hans C van Mierlo, Catharina G K Wichers, Yujie He, Marjolein A M Sneeboer, Timothy R D J Radstake, René S Kahn, Jasper C A Broen, Lot D de Witte
Recent imaging studies have suggested that accelerated aging occurs in schizophrenia. However, the exact cause of these findings is still unclear. In this study we measured telomere length, a marker for cell senescence, in gray and white matter brain tissue from the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) of 9 patients with schizophrenia and 11 controls. No alterations in telomere length were found in MFG gray and white matter and in STG gray matter. A significant reduction in telomere length was observed in STG white matter of patients with schizophrenia as compared to controls (fold change of -0...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895568/response-to-targeted-cognitive-training-correlates-with-change-in-thalamic-volume-in-a-randomized-trial-for-early-schizophrenia
#12
Ian S Ramsay, Susanna Fryer, Alison Boos, Brian J Roach, Melissa Fisher, Rachel Loewy, Sophia Vinogradov, Daniel H Mathalon
Reduced thalamic volume is consistently observed in schizophrenia, and correlates with cognitive impairment. Targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing in schizophrenia drives improvements in cognition that are believed to result from functional neuroplasticity in prefrontal and auditory cortices. In this study, we sought to determine whether response to TCT is also associated with structural neuroplastic changes in thalamic volume in patients with early schizophrenia (ESZ). Additionally, we examined baseline clinical, cognitive, and neural characteristics predictive of a positive response to TCT...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893493/brain-tspo-imaging-and-gray-matter-volume-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-in-people-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-an-11-c-pbr28-study
#13
Sudhakar Selvaraj, Peter S Bloomfield, Bo Cao, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Oliver D Howes
Patients with schizophrenia show whole brain and cortical gray matter (GM) volume reductions which are progressive early in their illness. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the CNS, phagocytose neurons and synapses. Some post mortem and in vivo studies in schizophrenia show evidence for elevated microglial activation compared to matched controls. However, it is currently unclear how these results relate to changes in cortical structure. METHODS: Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) subjects alongside two groups of age and genotype matched healthy controls received [(11)C]PBR28 PET scans to index TSPO expression, a marker of microglial activation and a 3T MRI scan...
September 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887651/a-cell-culture-model-for-investigation-of-synapse-influenceability-epigenetics-expression-and-function-of-gene-targets-important-for-synapse-formation-and-preservation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-differentiated-by-retinoic-acid
#14
Kirsten Jahn, C Wieltsch, N Blumer, M Mehlich, H Pathak, A Q Khan, H Hildebrandt, H Frieling
SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are frequently used for different neuronal cell culture models. As there is no "gold-standard", miscellaneous protocols exist to differentiate these cells into a neuronal cell type. Here, the aim was to find a differentiation condition making cells suitable for investigation of influenceability of synapses by environmental conditions in pharmacologic experiments. For this purpose, effects on synapse molecules should be somehow rateable and cells should be usable for functional analysis like calcium imaging...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885436/intracranial-foreign-body-in-a-patient-with-paranoid-schizophrenia
#15
Lukas Andereggen, Damien Biétry, Raimund Kottke, Robert H Andres
Self-inflicted penetrating head injuries in patients with paranoid schizophrenia are an infrequent phenomenon. The authors report on a psychiatric patient who presented with epistaxis. Computed tomography showed a nail passing from the nasal cavity into the frontal lobe. Given the proximity to large intracranial vessels, a craniotomy was performed and the nail was retracted. The patient later reported having hammered the nail into the nasal cavity with the intention to "kill the voice in my head." Despite use of the latest imaging modalities, metal artifacts may have limited the assessment of vascular involvement...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883674/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-visual-evoked-potentials-veps-of-occipital-region-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-migraine-headache
#16
Gorana Sulejmanpasic, Senad Drnda
AIM: To examine the morphologic variations of occipital sulci patterns in patients with schizophrenia and migraine haeadache regarding gender and laterality as well as damage of visual pathway in patients with schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: This study included 80 patients and brain scans and visual evoked potential responses recorded over the occipital cortex were performed to analyze the occipital region of both hemispheres...
June 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#17
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882707/functional-connectivity-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-an-observational-study
#18
Michael Peer, Harald Prüss, Inbal Ben-Dayan, Friedemann Paul, Shahar Arzy, Carsten Finke
BACKGROUND: In anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, antibody-mediated dysfunction of NMDARs causes severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, including psychosis, memory deficits, and movement disorders. However, it remains elusive how antibody-mediated NMDAR dysfunction leads to these symptoms, and whether the symptoms arise from impairment in specific brain regions and the interactions between impaired regions. METHODS: In this observational study, we recruited 43 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis from a tertiary university hospital and 43 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls without a history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, who were recruited from the general population of Berlin...
September 4, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880187/integrating-imaging-genomic-data-in-the-quest-for-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia-disease
#19
Su-Ping Deng, Wenxing Hu, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
It's increasingly important but difficult to determine potential biomarkers of schizophrenia disease, owing to the complex pathophysiology of this disease. In this study, a network-fusion based framework was proposed to identify genetic biomarkers of complex diseases. Genomic, epigenomic and neuroimaging data were integrated by network fusion. A three-step feature selection was applied to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to select Important features, which were then used to construct two gene networks in different states for the SNPs and DNA methylation data, respectively...
September 4, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875553/human-brain-imaging-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-receptors-using-18-f-nifene-selectivity-functional-activity-toxicity-aging-effects-gender-effects-and-extrathalamic-pathways
#20
Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Patrick J Lao, Tobey J Betthauser, Gurleen K Samra, Min-Liang Pan, Ishani H Patel, Christopher Liang, Raju Metherate, Bradley T Christian
Nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR's) have been implicated in several brain disorders, including addiction, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Here we report in vitro selectivity and functional properties, toxicity in rats, in vivo evaluation in humans, and comparison across species of [(18) F]Nifene, a fast acting PET imaging agent for α4β2* nAChRs. Nifene had subnanomolar affinities for hα2β2 (0.34 nM), hα3β2 (0.80 nM) and hα4β2 (0.83 nM) nAChR but weaker (27 to 219 nM) for hβ4 nAChR subtypes and 169 nM for hα7 nAChR...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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