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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301102/neural-correlates-of-language-variability-in-preschool-aged-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Letitia R Naigles, Ryan Johnson, Ann Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301094/binocular-rivalry-in-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#2
Themelis Karaminis, Claudia Lunghi, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
When different images are presented to the eyes, the brain is faced with ambiguity, causing perceptual bistability: visual perception continuously alternates between the monocular images, a phenomenon called binocular rivalry. Many models of rivalry suggest that its temporal dynamics depend on mutual inhibition among neurons representing competing images. These models predict that rivalry should be different in autism, which has been proposed to present an atypical ratio of excitation and inhibition [the E/I imbalance hypothesis; Rubenstein & Merzenich, 2003]...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297292/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-adaptive-daily-planning-for-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy
#3
Rebecca Meerschaert, Adrian Nalichowski, Jay Burmeister, Arun Paul, Steven Miller, Zhenghui Hu, Ling Zhuang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291690/social-cognitive-brain-function-and-connectivity-during-visual-perspective-taking-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#4
Shaun M Eack, Jessica A Wojtalik, Matcheri S Keshavan, Nancy J Minshew
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental conditions that are characterized by significant social impairment. Emerging genomic and neurobiological evidence has increasingly pointed to shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in the two disorders. Overlap in social impairment may reflect similar underlying neural dysfunction in social-cognitive brain networks, yet few studies have directly compared brain function and communication between those with ASD and schizophrenia...
March 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291247/enhancing-studies-of-the-connectome-in-autism-using-the-autism-brain-imaging-data-exchange-ii
#5
Adriana Di Martino, David O'Connor, Bosi Chen, Kaat Alaerts, Jeffrey S Anderson, Michal Assaf, Joshua H Balsters, Leslie Baxter, Anita Beggiato, Sylvie Bernaerts, Laura M E Blanken, Susan Y Bookheimer, B Blair Braden, Lisa Byrge, F Xavier Castellanos, Mirella Dapretto, Richard Delorme, Damien A Fair, Inna Fishman, Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Louise Gallagher, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Daniel P Kennedy, Janet E Lainhart, Beatriz Luna, Stewart H Mostofsky, Ralph-Axel Müller, Mary Beth Nebel, Joel T Nigg, Kirsten O'Hearn, Marjorie Solomon, Roberto Toro, Chandan J Vaidya, Nicole Wenderoth, Tonya White, R Cameron Craddock, Catherine Lord, Bennett Leventhal, Michael P Milham
The second iteration of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE II) aims to enhance the scope of brain connectomics research in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Consistent with the initial ABIDE effort (ABIDE I), that released 1112 datasets in 2012, this new multisite open-data resource is an aggregate of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding structural MRI and phenotypic datasets. ABIDE II includes datasets from an additional 487 individuals with ASD and 557 controls previously collected across 16 international institutions...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283808/candidate-biomarkers-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review-of-mri-studies
#6
REVIEW
Dongyun Li, Hans-Otto Karnath, Xiu Xu
Searching for effective biomarkers is one of the most challenging tasks in the research field of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and powerful tool for investigating changes in the structure, function, maturation, connectivity, and metabolism of the brain of children with ASD. Here, we review the more recent MRI studies in young children with ASD, aiming to provide candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of childhood ASD. The review covers structural imaging methods, diffusion tensor imaging, resting-state functional MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
April 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262759/role-of-a-circadian-relevant-gene-nr1d1-in-brain-development-possible-involvement-in-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Masahide Goto, Makoto Mizuno, Ayumi Matsumoto, Zhiliang Yang, Eriko F Jimbo, Hidenori Tabata, Takanori Yamagata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
In our previous study, we screened autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with and without sleep disorders for mutations in the coding regions of circadian-relevant genes, and detected mutations in several clock genes including NR1D1. Here, we further screened ASD patients for NR1D1 mutations and identified three novel mutations including a de novo heterozygous one c.1499 G > A (p.R500H). We then analyzed the role of Nr1d1 in the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. Acute knockdown of mouse Nr1d1 with in utero electroporation caused abnormal positioning of cortical neurons during corticogenesis...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258508/a-volumetric-and-functional-connectivity-mri-study-of-brain-arginine-vasopressin-pathways-in-autistic-children
#8
Xiao-Jing Shou, Xin-Jie Xu, Xiang-Zhu Zeng, Ying Liu, Hui-Shu Yuan, Yan Xing, Mei-Xiang Jia, Qing-Yun Wei, Song-Ping Han, Rong Zhang, Ji-Sheng Han
Dysfunction of brain-derived arginine-vasopressin (AVP) systems may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Certain regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus are known to contain either AVP neurons or terminals and may play an important role in regulating complex social behaviors. The present study was designed to investigate the concomitant changes in autistic behaviors, circulating AVP levels, and the structure and functional connectivity (FC) of specific brain regions in autistic children compared with typically developing children (TDC) aged from 3 to 5 years...
April 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254258/transcatheter-closure-of-a-complex-atrial-septal-defect-after-occluder-device-embolization
#9
Georgina Fuertes-Ferre, Felipe Hernández Hernández, Marta López Ramón, Juan Sánchez Rubio, Esther Sánchez Insa, Jose Gabriel Galache Osuna
Percutaneous closure is nowadays considered the treatment of choice of ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). However, transcatheter closure can be highly challenging when we face an ASD with complex morphological features. The combination of different imaging modalities can be very helpful. This case shows the great value of using both intracardiac and real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography for the percutaneous closure of a complex iatrogenic ASD after device embolization.
February 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249937/is-transnasal-tee-imaging-a-viable-alternative-to-conventional-tee-during-structural-cardiac-interventions-a-comparison-of-image-quality
#10
Dimitris Klettas, Emma Alcock, Rafal Dworakowski, Philip MacCarthy, Mark Monaghan
AIM: The role of transoesophageal echocardiography in cardiac interventional structural procedures is well established and appreciated. However, the need for general anaesthesia (GA) throughout the procedure remains a controversial issue. The aim of the present study is to assess the feasibility and imaging quality of using a transnasal microrobe that allows the usage of conscious sedation in patients that undergo cardiac structural interventional procedures without missing the benefits, guidance and navigation of conventional trans-procedural TEE...
March 1, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248652/simultaneous-deblurring-and-iterative-reconstruction-of-cbct-for-image-guided-brain-radiosurgery
#11
SayedMasoud Hashemi, William Y Song, Arjun Sahgal, Young Lee, Christopher Huynh, Vladimir Grouza, Håkan Nordström, Markus Eriksson, Antoine Dorenlot, Jean Marie Régis, James G Mainprize, Mark Ruschin
One of the limiting factors in cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality is system blur, caused by detector response, x-ray source focal spot size, azimuthal blurring, and reconstruction algorithm. In this work, we develop a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm that improves spatial resolution by explicitly accounting for image unsharpness caused by different factors in the reconstruction formulation. While the model-based iterative reconstruction techniques use prior information about the detector response and x-ray source, our proposed technique uses a simple measurable blurring model...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242518/-decoding-versus-comprehension-brain-responses-underlying-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-autism
#12
Haley M Bednarz, Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Despite intact decoding ability, deficits in reading comprehension are relatively common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few neuroimaging studies have tested the neural bases of this specific profile of reading deficit in ASD. This fMRI study examined activation and synchronization of the brain's reading network in children with ASD with specific reading comprehension deficits during a word similarities task. Thirteen typically developing children and 18 children with ASD performed the task in the MRI scanner...
February 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236101/effect-of-social-stimuli-on-postural-responses-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Parisa Ghanouni, Amir-Hossein Memari, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Jandark Eghlidi, Pouria Moshayedi
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of social versus non-social stimuli on postural responses in 21 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age of 11.6 ± 1.5) compared with 30 typically developing (TD) boys (mean age of 11.7 ± 1.8). Postural control of children was examined while they were standing on a force plate and viewing images of an object, male face, or female face in sequence. Each image was shown in two trials and each trial lasted for 20 s. Results indicated a significant interaction between group and task (p < 0...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235805/a-kainate-receptor-subunit-promotes-the-recycling-of-the-neuron-specific-k-cl-cotransporter-kcc2-in-hippocampal-neurons
#15
Jessica C Pressey, Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Zahra Dargaei, Jonah Chevrier, Alamjeet K Chauhan, Steven J Meas, Pavel Uvarov, Matti S Airaksinen, Melanie A Woodin
Synaptic inhibition depends on a transmembrane gradient of chloride, which is set by the neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2. Reduced KCC2 levels in the neuronal membrane contribute to the generation of epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and autism spectrum disorders; thus, it is important to characterize the mechanisms regulating KCC2 expression. In the present study, we determined the role of KCC2-protein interactions in regulating total and surface-membrane KCC2 expression. Using quantitative immunofluorescence in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, we discovered that the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 and the auxiliary subunit Neto2 significantly increase the total KCC2 abundance in neurons, but that GluK2 exclusively increases the abundance of KCC2 in the surface membrane...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224424/dynamic-characteristic-mechanism-of-atrial-septal-defect-using-real-time-three-dimensional-echocardiography-and-evaluation-of-right-ventricular-functions
#16
Gao-Wa Sharen, Jun Zhang, Chuan Qin, Qing Lv
The dynamic characteristics of the area of the atrial septal defect (ASD) were evaluated using the technique of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT 3DE), the potential factors responsible for the dynamic characteristics of the area of ASD were observed, and the overall and local volume and functions of the patients with ASD were measured. RT 3DE was performed on the 27 normal controls and 28 patients with ASD. Based on the three-dimensional data workstations, the area of ASD was measured at P wave vertex, R wave vertex, T wave starting point, and T wave terminal point and in the T-P section...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223033/children-with-asd-show-links-between-aberrant-sound-processing-social-symptoms-and-atypical-auditory-interhemispheric-and-thalamocortical-functional-connectivity
#17
Annika C Linke, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Ellyn B Pueschel, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and atypical sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Alterations in network connectivity are widely recognized, but their interplay with social and sensory symptoms remains largely unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic and behavioral assessments were used in a cohort of children and adolescents with ASD (n=40) and matched typically developing (TD, n=38) controls to examine the relation between auditory processing, interhemispheric and thalamocortical network connectivity, and social-behavioral symptom severity...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211634/prediction-of-forearm-bone-shape-based-on-partial-least-squares-regression-from-partial-shape
#18
Keiichiro Oura, Yoshito Otake, Atsuo Shigi, Futoshi Yokota, Tsuyoshi Murase, Yoshinobu Sato
BACKGROUND: Computer-assisted corrective osteotomy using a mirror image of the normal contralateral shape as reference is increasingly used. Instead, we propose to use the shape predicted by statistical learning to deal with cases demonstrating bilateral abnormality, such as bilateral trauma, congenital disease, and metabolic disease. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 100 normal forearms were used in this study. The whole bone shape was predicted from its partial shape based on statistical learning of the other 99 bones...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211449/translational-use-of-event-related-potentials-to-assess-circuit-integrity-in-asd
#19
REVIEW
Meera E Modi, Mustafa Sahin
Deficits in social cognition are the defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social cognition requires the integration of several neural circuits in a time-sensitive fashion, so impairments in social interactions could arise as a result of alterations in network connectivity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has revealed abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory and visual sensory stimuli in humans with ASD, indicating disruption of neural connectivity. Similar abnormalities in sensory-evoked ERPs have been observed in animal models of ASD, suggesting that ERPs have the potential to provide a translational biomarker of the disorder...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202961/early-brain-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Heather Cody Hazlett, Hongbin Gu, Brent C Munsell, Sun Hyung Kim, Martin Styner, Jason J Wolff, Jed T Elison, Meghan R Swanson, Hongtu Zhu, Kelly N Botteron, D Louis Collins, John N Constantino, Stephen R Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan C Evans, Vladimir S Fonov, Guido Gerig, Penelope Kostopoulos, Robert C McKinstry, Juhi Pandey, Sarah Paterson, John R Pruett, Robert T Schultz, Dennis W Shaw, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven
Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life...
February 15, 2017: Nature
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