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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#1
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
January 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#2
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348040/negative-valence-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-selective-attention-and-co-occurring-anxiety
#3
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Alana J McVey, Martin E Franklin, Benjamin E Yerys, Judith S Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340831/noninvasive-quantification-of-left-to-right-shunt-by-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-secundum-atrial-septal-defect-the-effects-of-breath-holding-and-comparison-with-invasive-oximetry
#4
Yuzo Yamasaki, Satoshi Kawanami, Takeshi Kamitani, Koji Sagiyama, Ichiro Sakamoto, Ken-Ichi Hiasa, Hidetake Yabuuchi, Michinobu Nagao, Hiroshi Honda
To investigate the effect of breath-holding on left-to-right shunts in patients with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Thirty-five consecutive patients with secundum ASDs underwent right heart catheterization and invasive oximetry. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. All measurements were obtained during free breathing (FB) (quiet breathing; no breath-hold), expiratory breath-hold (EBH), and inspiratory breath-hold (IBH). Pulmonary circulation flow (Qp) and systemic circulation flow (Qs) were calculated by multiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324787/association-of-sex-hormones-with-physical-laboratory-and-imaging-markers-of-anthropometry-in-men-and-women-from-the-general-population
#5
Tom Seyfart, Nele Friedrich, Hanna Kische, Robin Bülow, Henri Wallaschofski, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Brian G Keevil, Robin Haring
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of sex hormones with anthropometry in a large population-based cohort, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS)-based sex hormone measurements and imaging markers. STUDY DESIGN/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cross-sectional data from 957 men and women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were used. Associations of a comprehensive panel of LCMS-measured sex hormones with anthropometric parameters, laboratory, and imaging markers were analyzed in multivariable regression models for the full sample and stratified by sex...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322586/functional-connectivity-predicts-gender-evidence-for-gender-differences-in-resting-brain-connectivity
#6
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317592/gut-microbiome-populations-are-associated-with-structure-specific-changes-in-white-matter-architecture
#7
Irene M Ong, Jose G Gonzalez, Sean J McIlwain, Emily A Sawin, Andrew J Schoen, Nagesh Adluru, Andrew L Alexander, John-Paul J Yu
Altered gut microbiome populations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder and mood disorders. In animal models, modulation of gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation influences brain function and behavior and has been shown to ameliorate behavioral symptoms. With striking differences in microbiome-driven behavior, we explored whether these behavioral changes are also accompanied by corresponding changes in neural tissue microstructure...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315120/ethnic-variations-in-radiographic-parameters-and-srs-22-scores-in-adult-spinal-deformity-a-comparison-between-north-american-and-japanese-patients-above-50-years-of-age-with-minimum-2-year-follow-up
#8
Naobumi Hosogane, Christopher Ames, Morio Matsumoto, Mitsuru Yagi, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Hiroshi Taneichi, Yu Yamato, Daisaku Takeuchi, Frank Schwab, Christopher Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, Shay Bess, Virginie Lafage
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of North American and Japanese adult spinal deformity (ASD) database. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnical differences in radiographic parameters and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 between North American and Japanese ASD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous comparison study between North American and Japanese ASD patients has revealed Japanese patients had marked pelvic tilt deformity and had lower Oswestry Disability Index scores corresponding to established thresholds of radiographic deformity...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313185/comparing-attention-to-socially-relevant-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-developmental-coordination-disorder
#9
Emma Sumner, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill
Difficulties with social interaction have been reported in both children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), although these disorders have very different diagnostic characteristics. To date, assessment of social skills in a DCD population has been limited to paper-based assessment or parent report. The present study employed eye tracking methodology to examine how children attend to socially-relevant stimuli, comparing 28 children with DCD, 28 children with ASD and 26 typically-developing (TD) age-matched controls (aged 7-10)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310683/exploring-multi-level-system-factors-facilitating-educator-training-and-implementation-of-evidence-based-practices-ebp-a-study-protocol
#10
Aubyn C Stahmer, Jessica Suhrheinrich, Patricia L Schetter, Elizabeth McGee Hassrick
BACKGROUND: This study examines how system-wide (i.e., region, district, and school) mechanisms such as leadership support, training requirements, structure, collaboration, and education affect the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools and how this affects the outcomes for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite growing evidence for the positive effects of EBPs for ASD, these practices are not consistently or effectively used in schools. Although special education programs are mandated to use EBPs, there are very few evidence-based methods for selecting, implementing, and sustaining EBPs...
January 8, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300843/reduced-local-and-increased-long-range-functional-connectivity-of-the-thalamus-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
It is hypothesized that brain network abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reflect local overconnectivity and long-range underconnectivity. However, this is not a consistent finding in recent studies, which could reflect the developmental nature and the heterogeneity of ASD. Here, we tested 565 ASD and 602 neurotypical (NT) males, and 91 ASD and 233 NT females using local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping and seed-voxel correlation analyses to assess how local and long-range connectivities differ in ASD...
December 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278772/metric-learning-with-spectral-graph-convolutions-on-brain-connectivity-networks
#12
Sofia Ira Ktena, Sarah Parisot, Enzo Ferrante, Martin Rajchl, Matthew Lee, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
Graph representations are often used to model structured data at an individual or population level and have numerous applications in pattern recognition problems. In the field of neuroscience, where such representations are commonly used to model structural or functional connectivity between a set of brain regions, graphs have proven to be of great importance. This is mainly due to the capability of revealing patterns related to brain development and disease, which were previously unknown. Evaluating similarity between these brain connectivity networks in a manner that accounts for the graph structure and is tailored for a particular application is, however, non-trivial...
December 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274848/mirror-neuron-system-activation-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-replication-functional-mri-study
#13
J E Reynolds, J Billington, S Kerrigan, J Williams, C Elliott, A M Winsor, L Codd, M Bynevelt, M K Licari
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) may lead to deficits in imitation and the internal representation of movement, potentially contributing to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). AIMS: Using fMRI, this study examined brain activation patterns in children with and without DCD on a finger adduction/abduction task during four MNS activation states: observation; motor imagery; execution; and imitation...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274502/subtyping-cognitive-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-random-forest-algorithm
#14
E Feczko, N Balba, O Miranda-Dominguez, M Cordova, S L Karalunas, L Irwin, D V Demeter, A P Hill, B H Langhorst, J Grieser Painter, J Van Santen, E J Fombonne, J L Nigg, D A Fair
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, and may both affect and be affected by multiple cognitive mechanisms. This study attempts to identify and characterize cognitive subtypes within the ASD population using a random forest (RF) machine learning classification model. We trained our model on measures from seven tasks that reflect multiple levels of information processing...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262472/-structural-change-of-the-corpus-callosum-fibers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-two-year-follow-up
#15
C Chang, N N Qiu, T Xiao, X Xiao, K K Chu, Y Li, Q R Wu, H Fang, X Y Ke
Objective: To conduct a follow-up investigation of structural changes of the corpus callosum fibers of toddlers (2 to 5 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) and to explore the associations with clinical symptoms. Method: In this prospective randomized controlled study, ASD children who were diagnosed in the Child Mental Health Research Center, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from May 2011 to November 2012 were included in the ASD group, and developmentally delayed children were included in the control group (DD group)...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251836/longitudinal-development-of-thalamic-and-internal-capsule-microstructure-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Kristine McLaughlin, Brittany G Travers, Olga I Dadalko, Douglas C Dean, Do Tromp, Nagesh Adluru, Daniel Destiche, Abigail Freeman, Molly D Prigge, Alyson Froehlich, Tyler C Duffield, Brandon A Zielinski, Erin D Bigler, Nicholas Lange, Jeff S Anderson, Andrew L Alexander, Janet E Lainhart
The thalamus is a key sensorimotor relay area that is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown how the thalamus and white-matter structures that contain thalamo-cortical fiber connections (e.g., the internal capsule) develop from childhood into adulthood and whether this microstructure relates to basic motor challenges in ASD. We used diffusion weighted imaging in a cohort-sequential design to assess longitudinal development of the thalamus, and posterior- and anterior-limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC and ALIC, respectively) in 89 males with ASD and 56 males with typical development (3-41 years; all verbal)...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251830/patterns-of-altered-neural-synchrony-in-the-default-mode-network-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-revealed-with-magnetoencephalography-meg-relationship-to-clinical-symptomatology
#17
Renée Lajiness-O'Neill, Jonathan R Brennan, John E Moran, Annette E Richard, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Ryan Goodcase, Tiffany Andersen, Kaitlyn McFarlane, Kenneth Rusiniak, Ioulia Kovelman, Neelima Wagley, Maggie Ugolini, Jeremy Albright, Susan M Bowyer
Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (MAge  = 9...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249338/wavelet-coherence-based-classifier-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study-on-neurodynamics-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism
#18
Antoine Bernas, Albert P Aldenkamp, Svitlana Zinger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis requires a long and elaborate procedure. Due to the lack of a biomarker, the procedure is subjective and is restricted to evaluating behavior. Several attempts to use functional MRI as an assisting tool (as classifier) have been reported, but they barely reach an accuracy of 80%, and have not usually been replicated or validated with independent datasets. Those attempts have used functional connectivity and structural measurements...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247748/action-simulation-and-mirroring-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Heather M Wadsworth, Jose O Maximo, Rebecca J Donnelly, Rajesh K Kana
Mental imitation, perhaps a precursor to motor imitation, involves visual perspective-taking and motor imagery. Research on mental imitation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rather limited compared to that on motor imitation. The main objective of this fMRI study is to determine the differences in brain responses underlying mirroring and mentalizing networks during mental imitation in children and adolescents with ASD. Thirteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and 15 age-and- IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants took part in this fMRI study...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247487/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-as-pacemaker-of-attention-a-developmental-mechanism-of-derailed-attentional-function-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting, and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus - norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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