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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929505/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-adaptive-daily-planning-for-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy
#1
Rebecca Meerschaert, Adrian Nalichowski, Jay Burmeister, Arun Paul, Steven Miller, Zhenghui Hu, Ling Zhuang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervi-cal cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928836/atrial-septal-defect-repair-gone-wrong
#2
Richard Bloomingdale, Said Ashraf, Shaun Cardozo
Isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) accounts for 13% of congenital heart disorders. The anatomic location, size, and coexistence of other cardiac anomalies determine outcomes of repair. Surgical closure was the first-choice treatment until the 1990s and remains the only treatment for large defects. We describe a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent surgical repair for an ASD as a child in 1959. She presented with dyspnea to the hospital almost 53 years after the surgery. Diagnostic cardiac imaging revealed interesting anatomy of the repair surgery...
December 8, 2016: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928515/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Maheen F Siddiqui, Clare Elwell, Mark H Johnson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are classified as neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by diminished social communication and interaction. Recently, evidence has accrued that a significant proportion of individuals with autism have concomitant diseases such as mitochondrial disease and abnormalities of energy generation. This has therefore led to the hypothesis that autism may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. We review such studies reporting decreased activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes and reduced gene expression of mitochondrial genes, in particular genes of respiratory chain complexes, in individuals with autism...
September 27, 2016: Autism-open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927492/investigating-the-universality-of-preoperative-health-related-quality-of%C3%A2-life-hrqol-for-surgically-treated-spinal-deformity-in-young-adults-a-propensity-score-matched-comparison-between-african-and%C3%A2-us-populations
#4
Bradley Y Harris, Matthew F Roth, Bassel G Diebo, Shay Bess, Alexander A Theologis, Justin K Scheer, Frank J Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P Ames, Richard Hodes, Jennifer Ayamga, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of propensity score-matched (PSM) observational cohorts. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare preoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores and radiographic measurements of young African and US adults with spinal deformity (ASD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Young ASD patients in the United States are motivated more to correct coronal and sagittal plane deformities than to alleviate pain. Motivations for surgical correction in young ASD patients in Africa have not been previously investigated...
September 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#5
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916731/associations-between-the-cntnap2-gene-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-cognitive-performance-on-the-stroop-task
#6
Bi Zhu, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Xuemei Lei, Yunxin Wang, Jin Li, Robert K Moyzis, Jun Li, Qi Dong, Chongde Lin
The CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) gene, highly expressed in the human prefrontal cortex, has been linked with autism and language impairment. Potential relationships between CNTNAP2, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cognition have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined in the same study. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 317 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between CNTNAP2 variants, DLPFC, and cognitive performance (measured by the Stroop task)...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916527/dynamic-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-radial-glial-progenitors-of-the-developing-brain
#7
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Ashley L Lennox, Jeremy P Rouanet, Debra L Silver
In the developing brain, neurons are produced from neural stem cells termed radial glia [1, 2]. Radial glial progenitors span the neuroepithelium, extending long basal processes to form endfeet hundreds of micrometers away from the soma. Basal structures influence neuronal migration, tissue integrity, and proliferation [3-7]. Yet, despite the significance of these distal structures, their cell biology remains poorly characterized, impeding our understanding of how basal processes and endfeet influence neurogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898583/genetic-control-of-postnatal-human-brain-growth
#8
Laura I van Dyck, Eric M Morrow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#9
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#10
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882449/diametrical-relationship-between-gray-and-white-matter-volumes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#12
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been variously characterized as separate nosological entities with overlapping deficits in social cognition or diametrical extremes of a phenotypic continuum. This study aimed to determine how these models apply to comparative morphometric data. MRI scans of the brain were obtained in 49 subjects with schizophrenia, 20 subjects with autism and 39 healthy controls. Images were parcellated into 40 Brodmann areas and entered into repeated-measures ANOVA for between-group comparison of global and localized gray and white matter volumes...
November 23, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874271/diagnostic-model-generated-by-mri-derived-brain-features-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Xiang Xiao, Hui Fang, Jiansheng Wu, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Lu Qian, FengJing Liang, Zhou Xiao, Kang Kang Chu, Xiaoyan Ke
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of atypical social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism of ASD is unclarified yet, the neuroanatomical features are considered as valuable predictors for discriminating ASD from others. But there has been relatively little scientific study about predictive power of different neuroanatomical features of early age ASD...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874265/incidental-brain-mri-findings-in-an-autism-twin-study
#14
Julio C Monterrey, Jennifer Philips, Sue Cleveland, Serena Tanaka, Patrick Barnes, Joachim F Hallmayer, Alan L Reiss, Laura C Lazzeroni, Antonio Y Hardan
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest the prevalence of asymptomatic "incidental" findings (IF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is similar to that of neurotypically developing (NT) controls. However, given the causes of IF may include both genetic and environmental factors, a twin study would facilitate comparing brain IF between ASD and NT subjects. MRI scans were examined to assess the prevalence of brain IF in twin "case pairs" (at least one twin with diagnosis of ASD) and twin "control pairs" (NT)...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871642/reduced-hemispheric-asymmetry-of-white-matter-microstructure-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Ruth A Carper, Jeffrey M Treiber, Shannon Yandall DeJesus, Ralph-Axel Müller
OBJECTIVE: Many past studies have suggested atypical functional and anatomical hemispheric asymmetries in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, almost all of these have examined only language-related asymmetries. Here, we conduct a comprehensive investigation of microstructural asymmetries across a large number of fiber tracts in ASD. METHOD: We used diffusion tensor imaging for a comprehensive investigation of anatomical white matter asymmetries across the entire white matter skeleton, using tract-based spatial statistics in 41 children and adolescents with ASD and a matched group of 44 typically developing (TD) participants...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870420/imaging-sex-gender-and-autism-in-the-brain-etiological-implications
#16
REVIEW
Meng-Chuan Lai, Jason P Lerch, Dorothea L Floris, Amber N V Ruigrok, Alexa Pohl, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen
The male preponderance in autism prevalence has brought together the disparate topics of sex/gender and autism research. Two directions of neuroimaging studies on the relationships between sex/gender and autism may inform male-specific risk mechanisms and female-specific protective mechanisms of autism. First, we review how sex/gender moderates autism-related brain changes and how this informs general models of autism etiology. Better-powered human neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain characteristics of autism are qualitatively, rather than simply quantitatively, different between males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#17
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868393/atypical-effective-connectivity-of-thalamo-cortical-circuits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Youxue Zhang, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by atypical connectivity within and across multiple brain systems. We aimed to explore information transmission from the sensory periphery to information processing centers of the brain across thalamo-cortical circuits in ASD. A large multicenter dataset from the autism brain imaging data exchange was utilized. A thalamus template derived from the Automatic Anatomic Labeling atlas was subdivided into six subregions corresponding to six cortical regions using a "winner-takes-all" strategy...
November 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867699/characterization-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-spontaneous-hemodynamic-activity
#19
Jun Li, Lina Qiu, Lingyu Xu, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Ulas Sunar
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic activity in the temporal cortex for typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-seven children participated in the experiments including twenty-five with ASD. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed weaker bilateral resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), but much stronger fluctuation magnitude in terms of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb)...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866083/neuroanatomical-differences-in-fast-and-slow-rat-strains-with-differential-vulnerability-to-kindling-and-behavioral-comorbidities
#20
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
November 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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