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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439973/intracardiac-versus-transesophageal-echocardiography-to-guide-transcatheter-closure-of-interatrial-communications-nationwide-trend-and-comparative-analysis
#1
Fahad Alqahtani, Ashwin Bhirud, Sami Aljohani, James Mills, Akram Kawsara, Ashok Runkana, Mohamad Alkhouli
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess current temporal trends in utilization of ICE versus TEE guided closure of interatrial communications, and to compare periprocedural complications and resource utilization between the two imaging modalities. BACKGROUND: While transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has historically been used to guide percutaneous structural heart interventions, intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is being increasingly utilized to guide many of these procedures such as closure of interatrial communications...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434615/searching-for-cross-diagnostic-convergence-neural-mechanisms-governing-excitation-and-inhibition-balance-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Brendan D Adkinson, Jie Lisa Ji, Genevieve Yang, Vinod H Srihari, James C McPartland, John H Krystal, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Recent theoretical accounts have proposed excitation and inhibition (E/I) imbalance as a possible mechanistic, network-level hypothesis underlying neural and behavioral dysfunction across neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These two disorders share some overlap in their clinical presentation as well as convergence in their underlying genes and neurobiology. However, there are also clear points of dissociation in terms of phenotypes and putatively affected neural circuitry...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427801/-multimodality-imaging-in-the-cardiac-catheterization-laboratory
#5
Karine Warin-Fresse, Sébastien Hascoet, Patrice Guérin
Cardiac catheterization has greatly contributed to the progress made in the management of congenital heart diseases (CHD). Initially used in diagnosis, it allowed the understanding of heart diseases, their anatomy and hemodynamics. Gradually, the development of interventional cardiology has played a major role in the management of these malformations (Patent ductus arteriosus [PDA] and atrial septal defect [ASD] closure, pulmonary dilatation, percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation…). The development of such technology was made possible through the concomitant development of imaging techniques: fluoroscopy, ultrasound, MRI and CT...
April 17, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#6
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424605/white-matter-integrity-and-treatment-based-change-in-speech-performance-in-minimally-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Karen Chenausky, Julius Kernbach, Andrea Norton, Gottfried Schlaug
We investigated the relationship between imaging variables for two language/speech-motor tracts and speech fluency variables in 10 minimally verbal (MV) children with autism. Specifically, we tested whether measures of white matter integrity-fractional anisotropy (FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and frontal aslant tract (FAT)-were related to change in percent syllable-initial consonants correct, percent items responded to, and percent syllable insertion errors (from best baseline to post 25 treatment sessions)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#8
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420309/a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-study-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-3-tesla-clinical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-system-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-left-cerebellum
#9
Hiromichi Ito, Kenji Mori, Masafumi Harada, Sonoka Hisaoka, Yoshihiro Toda, Tatsuo Mori, Aya Goji, Yoko Abe, Masahito Miyazaki, Shoji Kagami
The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate metabolite concentration ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum in ASD. In the ACC and left cerebellum studies, the ASD group and intelligence quotient- and age-matched control group consisted of 112 and 114 subjects and 65 and 45 subjects, respectively. In the ASD group, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/ creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex, and glutamate (Glu)/Cr was significantly increased and GABA+/Cr was significantly decreased in the left cerebellum compared to those in the control group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418398/intranasal-oxytocin-enhances-intrinsic-corticostriatal-functional-connectivity-in-women
#10
R A I Bethlehem, M V Lombardo, M-C Lai, B Auyeung, S K Crockford, J Deakin, S Soubramanian, A Sule, P Kundu, V Voon, S Baron-Cohen
Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate the impact of oxytocin on resting-state connectivity between subcortical and cortical networks in women. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 26 typically developing women 40 min following intranasal oxytocin administration using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416788/characteristics-of-arabic-websites-with-information-on-autism
#11
Fahad M Alnemary, Faisal M Alnemary, Abdulrahman S Alamri, Yassar A Alamri
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of Arabic websites with information on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The word autism in Arabic was entered into 2 popular search engines in September 2013 to locate the top 80 websites featuring the term. Websites were sorted using 10 characteristics, previously used to evaluate the characteristics of English websites with information on ASD. RESULTS: Most websites were registered using a ...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414966/modeling-sleep-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-zebrafish
#12
REVIEW
Talia Levitas-Djerbi, Lior Appelbaum
What are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link neurological disorders and sleep disturbances? The transparent zebrafish model could bridge this gap in knowledge due to its unique genetic and imaging toolbox, and amenability to high-throughput screening. Sleep is well-characterized in zebrafish and key regulators of the sleep/wake cycle are conserved, including melatonin and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt), whereas novel sleep regulating proteins are continually being identified, such as Kcnh4a, Neuromedin U, and QRFP...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414133/complexity-of-weighted-graph-a-new-technique-to-investigate-structural-complexity-of-brain-activities-with-applications-to-aging-and-autism
#13
Mehran Ahmadlou, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years complexity of the brain structure in healthy and disordered subjects has been studied increasingly. But to the best of the authors' knowledge, researchers so far have investigated the structural complexity only in the context of two restricted networks known as Small-World and Scale-free networks; whereas other aspects of the structural complexity of brain activities may be affected by aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as the Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder. In this study, two general complexity metrics of graphs, Graph Index Complexity and Offdiagonal Complexity are proposed as general measures of complexity, not restricted to SWN only...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413601/a-few-of-my-favorite-things-circumscribed-interests-in-autism-are-not-accompanied-by-increased-attentional-salience-on-a-personalized-selective-attention-task
#14
Owen E Parsons, Andrew P Bayliss, Anna Remington
BACKGROUND: Autistic individuals commonly show circumscribed or "special" interests: areas of obsessive interest in a specific category. The present study investigated what impact these interests have on attention, an aspect of autistic cognition often reported as altered. In neurotypical individuals, interest and expertise have been shown to result in an automatic attentional priority for related items. Here, we examine whether this change in salience is also seen in autism. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with and without autism performed a personalized selective attention task assessing the level of attentional priority afforded to images related to the participant's specific interests...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413234/high-dimensional-tests-for-functional-networks-of-brain-anatomic-regions
#15
Jichun Xie, Jian Kang
Exploring resting-state brain functional connectivity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has become a popular topic over the past few years. The data in a standard brain template consist of over 170,000 voxel specific points in time for each human subject. Such an ultra-high dimensionality makes the voxel-level functional connectivity analysis (involving four billion voxel pairs) both statistically and computationally inefficient. In this work, we introduce a new framework to identify the functional brain network at the anatomical region level for each individual...
April 2017: Journal of Multivariate Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408291/altered-expression-of-circadian-rhythm-and-extracellular-matrix-genes-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-valproic-acid-rat-model-of-autism
#16
Nikkie F M Olde Loohuis, Gerard J M Martens, Hans van Bokhoven, Barry B Kaplan, Judith R Homberg, Armaz Aschrafi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a highly heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by complex interplay between various genes and environmental factors during embryonic development. Changes at the molecular, cellular and neuroanatomical levels are especially evident in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of ASD patients and are particularly contributing to social impairments. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that altered neuronal development and plasticity, as seen in the mPFC of ASD individuals, may result from aberrant expression of functionally connected genes...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#17
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398337/sex-differences-in-frontal-lobe-connectivity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#18
E A Zeestraten, M C Gudbrandsen, E Daly, M T de Schotten, M Catani, F Dell'Acqua, M-C Lai, A N V Ruigrok, M V Lombardo, B Chakrabarti, S Baron-Cohen, C Ecker, D G M Murphy, M C Craig
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are more prevalent in males than females. The biological basis of this difference remains unclear. It has been postulated that one of the primary causes of ASC is a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe from higher-order association areas during development (that is, a frontal 'disconnection syndrome'). Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether frontal connectivity differs between males and females with ASC. We recruited 98 adults with a confirmed high-functioning ASC diagnosis (61 males: aged 18-41 years; 37 females: aged 18-37 years) and 115 neurotypical controls (61 males: aged 18-45 years; 54 females: aged 18-52 years)...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397802/the-connectomes-of-males-and-females-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-have-significantly-different-white-matter-connectivity-densities
#19
Andrei Irimia, Carinna M Torgerson, Zachary J Jacokes, John D Van Horn
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of neurodevelopmental conditions whose striking sex-related disparity (with an estimated male-to-female ratio of 4:1) remains unknown. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to identify the brain structure correlates of the sex-by-ASD diagnosis interaction in a carefully selected cohort of 110 ASD patients (55 females) and 83 typically-developing (TD) subjects (40 females). The interaction was found to be predicated primarily upon white matter connectivity density innervating, bilaterally, the lateral aspect of the temporal lobe, the temporo-parieto-occipital junction and the medial parietal lobe...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395085/partial-agenesis-and-hypoplasia-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-idiopathic-autism
#20
Jarek Wegiel, Michael Flory, Wojciech Kaczmarski, W Ted Brown, Kathryn Chadman, Thomas Wisniewski, Krzysztof Nowicki, Izabela Kuchna, Shuang Yong Ma, Jerzy Wegiel
To test the hypothesis that developmental anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC), contribute to the pathogenesis of autism, we characterized the type, topography, and severity of CC pathology corresponding to reduced CC areas that are detected by magnetic resonance imaging in the brains of 11 individuals with autism and 11 controls. In the brains of 3 autistic subjects, partial CC agenesis resulted in complete or partial lack of interhemispheric axonal connections in CC segments III-V. In these cases, a combination of focal agenesis and uniform axonal deficit caused reduction of CC areas by 37%, of axon numbers by 62%, and of the numerical density of axons by 39%...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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