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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783788/development-of-the-mental-synthesis-evaluation-checklist-msec-a-parent-report-tool-for-mental-synthesis-ability-assessment-in-children-with-language-delay
#1
Julia Braverman, Rita Dunn, Andrey Vyshedskiy
Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images from objects stored in memory. Mental synthesis ability is essential for understanding complex syntax, spatial prepositions, and verb tenses. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated with an increasing vocabulary. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), on the other hand, may learn hundreds of words but never acquire mental synthesis. In these individuals, tests assessing vocabulary comprehension may fail to demonstrate the profound deficit in mental synthesis...
May 20, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778275/quantifying-the-effects-of-16p11-2-copy-number-variants-on-brain-structure-a-multisite-genetic-first-study
#2
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Jared A Nielsen, Clara Moreau, Claudia Modenato, Anne M Maillard, Aurélie Pain, Sonia Richetin, Aia E Jønch, Abid Y Qureshi, Nicole R Zürcher, Philippe Conus, Wendy K Chung, Elliott H Sherr, John E Spiro, Ferath Kherif, Jacques S Beckmann, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Alexandre Reymond, Randy L Buckner, Bogdan Draganski, Sébastien Jacquemont
BACKGROUND: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11.2 CNVs on brain structure. METHODS: Using voxel- and surface-based brain morphometric methods, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging collected at seven sites from 78 individuals with a deletion, 71 individuals with a duplication, and 212 individuals without a CNV...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777472/circumscribed-interests-and-attention-in-autism-the-role-of-biological-sex
#3
Clare Harrop, Desiree Jones, Shuting Zheng, Sallie Nowell, Brian A Boyd, Noah Sasson
Recent studies suggest that circumscribed interests (CI) in females with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may align more closely with interests reported in typical female development than those typically reported for ASD males. We used eye-tracking to quantify attention to arrays containing combinations of male, female and neutral images in elementary-aged males and females with and without ASD. A number of condition × sex effects emerged, with both groups attending to images that corresponded with interests typically associated with their biological sex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#4
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771286/local-cortical-gyrification-is-increased-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-but-decreases-rapidly-in-adolescents
#5
Jiwandeep S Kohli, Mikaela K Kinnear, Christopher H Fong, Inna Fishman, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Extensive MRI evidence indicates early brain overgrowth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Local gyrification may reflect the distribution and timing of aberrant cortical expansion in ASDs. We examined MRI data from (Study 1) 64 individuals with ASD and 64 typically developing (TD) controls (7-19 years), and from (Study 2) an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (n = 31/group). Local Gyrification Index (lGI), cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) were measured. In Study 1, differences in lGI (ASD > TD) were found in left parietal and temporal and right frontal and temporal regions...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738572/ciliary-margin-derived-bmp4-does-not-have-a-major-role-in-ocular-development
#7
Rebecca L Rausch, Richard T Libby, Amy E Kiernan
Heterozygous Bmp4 mutations in humans and mice cause severe ocular anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD). Abnormalities include pupil displacement, corneal opacity, iridocorneal adhesions, and variable intraocular pressure, as well as some retinal and vascular defects. It is presently not known what source of BMP4 is responsible for these defects, as BMP4 is expressed in several developing ocular and surrounding tissues. In particular, BMP4 is expressed in the ciliary margins of the optic cup which give rise to anterior segment structures such as the ciliary body and iris, making it a good candidate for the required source of BMP4 for anterior segment development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736781/combination-of-rs-fmri-and-smri-data-to-discriminate-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-young-children-using-deep-belief-network
#8
Maryam Akhavan Aghdam, Arash Sharifi, Mir Mohsen Pedram
In recent years, the use of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has recorded a great increase in neuropsychiatric disorders. Deep learning is a branch of machine learning that is increasingly being used for applications of medical image analysis such as computer-aided diagnosis. In a bid to classify and represent learning tasks, this study utilized one of the most powerful deep learning algorithms (deep belief network (DBN)) for the combination of data from Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I and II (ABIDE I and ABIDE II) datasets...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735152/age-and-gender-effects-on-intrinsic-connectivity-in-autism-using-functional-integration-and-segregation
#9
Teague Rhine Henry, Gabriel S Dichter, Kathleen Gates
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine intrinsic whole-brain functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the framework of functional segregation and integration. Emphasis was given to potential gender and developmental effects as well as identification of specific networks that may contribute to the global results. METHODS: We leveraged an open data resource (N = 1587) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) initiative, combining data from more than 2100 unique cross-sectional datasets in ABIDE I and ABIDE II collected at different sites...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732645/procedural-sedation-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-survey-of-current-practice-patterns-of-the-society-for-pediatric-sedation-members
#10
Pradip P Kamat, Leah N Bryan, Courtney E McCracken, Harold K Simon, John W Berkenbosch, Jocelyn R Grunwell
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder are challenging to sedate because of communication, sensory, and behavioral challenges. AIMS: The aim of this survey was to determine how procedural sedation is provided to children with autism spectrum disorders and whether sedation programs have specialized protocols for procedural sedation of these children. METHODS: We surveyed physician Medical Directors of sedation programs who are members of the Society for Pediatric Sedation, asking about practice characteristics and resource utilization during procedural sedation of children with autism spectrum disorders...
May 6, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722793/autism-associated-16p11-2-microdeletion-impairs-prefrontal-functional-connectivity-in-mouse-and-human
#11
Alice Bertero, Adam Liska, Marco Pagani, Roberta Parolisi, Maria Esteban Masferrer, Marta Gritti, Matteo Pedrazzoli, Alberto Galbusera, Alessia Sarica, Antonio Cerasa, Mario Buffelli, Raffaella Tonini, Annalisa Buffo, Cornelius Gross, Massimo Pasqualetti, Alessandro Gozzi
Human genetic studies are rapidly identifying variants that increase risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it remains unclear how specific mutations impact brain function and contribute to neuropsychiatric risk. Chromosome 16p11.2 deletion is one of the most common copy number variations in autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. Using resting state functional MRI data from the Simons Variation in Individuals Project (VIP) database, we show that 16p11.2 deletion carriers exhibit impaired prefrontal connectivity, resulting in weaker long-range functional coupling with temporal-parietal regions...
May 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721685/how-many-versus-how-much-comprehensive-haemodynamic-evaluation-of-partial-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection-by-cardiac-mri
#12
Neil Seller, Shi-Joon Yoo, Brian Grant, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of location and number of anomalously connected pulmonary veins and any associated atrial septal defect (ASD) on the magnitude of left-to-right shunting in patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), and how that influences right ventricular volume loading. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography examinations of 26 paediatric patients (mean age, 11...
May 2, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718384/neural-substrates-for-moral-judgments-of-psychological-versus-physical-harm
#13
Lily Tsoi, James A Dungan, Aleksandr Chakroff, Liane L Young
While we may think about harm as primarily being about physical injury, harm can also take the form of negative psychological impact. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the extent to which moral judgments of physical and psychological harms are processed similarly, focusing on brain regions implicated in mental state reasoning or theory of mind, a key cognitive process for moral judgment. First, univariate analyses reveal item-specific features that lead to greater recruitment of theory of mind regions for psychological harm versus physical harm...
April 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713416/relationship-between-displacement-of-the-psoas-major-muscle-and-spinal-alignment-in-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#14
Yoshiaki Oda, Tomoyuki Takigawa, Ryo Ugawa, Yasuyuki Shiozaki, Haruo Misawa, Yoshihisa Sugimoto, Masato Tanaka, Toshifumi Ozaki
Study Design: Cross sectional study. Purpose: To clarify the difference in position of the psoas muscle between adult spinal deformity (ASD) and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Overview of Literature: Although it is known that the psoas major muscle deviates in ASD patients, no report is available regarding the difference in comparison with LSS patients. Methods: This study investigates 39 patients. For evaluating spinal alignment, pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope, lumbar lordosis (LL), PI-LL, Cobb angle, and the convex side, the lumbar curves were measured...
April 2018: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713407/the-incidence-of-adjacent-segment-degeneration-after-the-use-of-a-versatile-dynamic-hybrid-stabilization-device-in-lumbar-stenosis-results-of-a-5-8-year-follow-up
#15
Mauro Dobran, Davide Nasi, Domenico Paolo Esposito, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati, Maurizio Iacoangeli
Study Design: Retrospective study with long-term follow-up. Purpose: To evaluate the long-term incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and clinical outcomes in a consecutive series of patients who underwent spinal decompression associated with dynamic or hybrid stabilization with a Flex+TM stabilization system (SpineVision, Antony, France) for lumbar spinal stenosis. Overview of Literature: The incidence of ASD and clinical outcomes following dynamic or hybrid stabilization with the Flex+TM system used for lumbar spinal stenosis have not been well investigated...
April 2018: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704525/opportunities-and-challenges-for-using-the-zebrafish-to-study-neuronal-connectivity-as-an-endpoint-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#16
REVIEW
Galen W Miller, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Bianca Yaghoobi, Pamela J Lein
Chemical exposures have been implicated as environmental risk factors that interact with genetic susceptibilities to influence individual risk for complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disabilities. Altered patterns of neuronal connectivity represent a convergent mechanism of pathogenesis for these and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and growing evidence suggests that chemicals can interfere with specific signaling pathways that regulate the development of neuronal connections...
April 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704141/2d-4d-ratio-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-twin-study
#17
Lynnea Myers, Annelies Van't Westeinde, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
The second to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is of interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies on the relationship of this ratio with other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are lacking. Investigating the association between the ratio and NDDs in twins can provide insight into genetic and/or environmental factors driving the ratio. Hand images were collected in N = 238 twins with NDDs or typical development from 70 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic pairs to examine ratios and their associations to DSM-5 defined categorical NDDs, autistic traits, zygosity, and sex...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703592/personalized-intrinsic-network-topography-mapping-and-functional-connectivity-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Erin W Dickie, Stephanie H Ameis, Saba Shahab, Navona Calarco, Dawn E Smith, Dayton Miranda, Joseph D Viviano, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in techniques using functional magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrate individually specific variation in brain architecture in healthy individuals. To our knowledge, the effects of individually specific variation in complex brain disorders have not been previously reported. METHODS: We developed a novel approach (Personalized Intrinsic Network Topography, PINT) for localizing individually specific resting-state networks using conventional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 17, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696525/brief-report-attentional-cueing-to-images-of-social-interactions-is-automatic-for-neurotypical-individuals-but-not-those-with-asc
#19
Marcus Neil Morrisey, Catherine L Reed, Daniel N McIntosh, M D Rutherford
Human actions induce attentional orienting toward the target of the action. We examined the influence of action cueing in social (man throwing toward a human) and non-social (man throwing toward a tree) contexts in observers with and without autism spectrum condition (ASC). Results suggested that a social interaction enhanced the cueing effect for neurotypical participants. Participants with ASC did not benefit from non-predictive cues and were slower in social contexts, although they benefitted from reliably predictive cues...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689730/designing-a-model-to-detect-the-brain-connections-abnormalities-in-children-with-autism-using-3d-cellular-neural-networks-and-wavelet-transform
#20
Elham Askari, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan, Ali Sheikhani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Mohammad Teshnehlab
In neuropsychological disorders, the significant abnormalities in the brain connections in some regions are observed. This paper presents a novel model to demonstrate the connections between different regions in children with autism. The proposed model first conducts the wavelet decomposition of electroencephalography signals by wavelet transform then the features are extracted, such as relative energy and entropy. These features are fed to the 3D-cellular neural network model as inputs to indicate the brain connections...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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