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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146048/cerebellar-volume-in-autism-literature-meta-analysis-and-analysis-of-the-autism-brain%C3%A2-imaging-data-exchange-cohort
#1
Nicolas Traut, Anita Beggiato, Thomas Bourgeron, Richard Delorme, Laure Rondi-Reig, Anne-Lise Paradis, Roberto Toro
BACKGROUND: The neuroanatomical bases of autism spectrum disorder remain largely unknown. Among the most widely discussed candidate endophenotypes, differences in cerebellar volume have been often reported as statistically significant. METHODS: We aimed at objectifying this possible alteration by performing a systematic meta-analysis of the literature and an analysis of the ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange) cohort. Our meta-analysis sought to determine a combined effect size of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis on different measures of the cerebellar anatomy as well as the effect of possible factors of variability across studies...
October 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145754/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-morphometry-differences-between-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-individuals-across-the-lifespan-results-from-the-enigma-asd-working-group
#2
Daan van Rooij, Evdokia Anagnostou, Celso Arango, Guillaume Auzias, Marlene Behrmann, Geraldo F Busatto, Sara Calderoni, Eileen Daly, Christine Deruelle, Adriana Di Martino, Ilan Dinstein, Fabio Luis Souza Duran, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Damien Fair, Jennifer Fedor, Jackie Fitzgerald, Christine M Freitag, Louise Gallagher, Ilaria Gori, Shlomi Haar, Liesbeth Hoekstra, Neda Jahanshad, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Joost Janssen, Jason Lerch, Beatriz Luna, Mauricio Moller Martinho, Jane McGrath, Filippo Muratori, Clodagh M Murphy, Declan G M Murphy, Kirsten O'Hearn, Bob Oranje, Mara Parellada, Alessandra Retico, Pedro Rossa, Katya Rubia, Devon Shook, Margot Taylor, Paul M Thompson, Michela Tosetti, Gregory L Wallace, Fengfeng Zhou, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129723/neural-correlates-of-impaired-self-regulation-in-male-youths-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#3
Hsing-Chang Ni, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Wen-Che Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Although recent studies revealed impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neural correlates of dysregulation and its impacts on autistic neuroanatomy remain unclear. Voxel-based morphometry was applied on structural MRI images in 81 ASD and 61 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7-17years. Dysregulation was defined by the sum of T-scores of Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression subscales in the Child Behavior Checklist>180. There were 53 and 28 boys in the ASD+Dysregulation and ASD-Dysregulation groups, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128446/disrupted-focal-white-matter-integrity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#4
Xin Di, Azeezat Azeez, Xiaobo Li, Emad Haque, Bharat B Biswal
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that has long been considered to result from brain underconnectivity. However, volumetric analysis of structural MRI data has failed to find consistent white matter alterations in patients with ASD. The present study aims to examine whether there are consistent focal white matter alterations as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in individuals with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. METHOD: Coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed on 14 studies that reported fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations between individuals with ASD and TD individuals...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127511/adjacent-segment-degeneration-after-intervertebral-fusion-surgery-by-means-of-cervical-block-vertebrae
#5
Xinlong Ma, Yuren Du, Shuli Wang, Jianxiong Ma, Tao Wang, Mingjie Kuang, Baoyi Ma
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cervical block vertebrae is unknown. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the cause of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after cervical fusion. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the incidence of cervical block vertebrae? Is there a gender difference? (2) Among cervical block vertebrae cases, is ASD related to age and segment? And what is the specific relationship? (3) What are the imaging findings and characteristics of this disease? PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively diagnosed cervical block vertebrae cases with bony fusions in any segments of the cervical spine without intervertebral fusion surgery of 33,762 patients reported from 2006 to 2011 in north China...
November 10, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125430/cortical-bone-trajectory-screw-fixation-versus-traditional-pedicle-screw-fixation-for-2-level-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-comparison-of-surgical-outcomes-for-2-level-degenerative-lumbar-spondylolisthesis
#6
Hironobu Sakaura, Toshitada Miwa, Tomoya Yamashita, Yusuke Kuroda, Tetsuo Ohwada
OBJECTIVE The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique is a new nontraditional pedicle screw (PS) insertion method. However, the biomechanical behavior of multilevel CBT screw/rod fixation remains unclear, and surgical outcomes in patients after 2-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using CBT screw fixation have not been reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the clinical and radiological outcomes after 2-level PLIF using CBT screw fixation for 2-level degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS) and to compare these outcomes with those after 2-level PLIF using traditional PS fixation...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119520/connectivity-based-parcellation-of-the-amygdala-predicts-social-skills-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Annika Rausch, Wei Zhang, Christian F Beckmann, Jan K Buitelaar, Wouter B Groen, Koen V Haak
Amygdala dysfunction plays a role in the social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but it is unclear which of its subregions are abnormal in ASD. This study compared the volume and functional connectivity (FC) strength of three FC-defined amygdala subregions between ASD and controls, and assessed their relation to social skills in ASD. A subregion associated with the social perception network was enlarged in ASD (F1 = 7.842, p = .008) and its volume correlated significantly with symptom severity (social skills: r = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112191/identifying-specific-prefrontal-neurons-that-contribute-to-autism-associated-abnormalities-in-physiology-and-social-behavior
#8
A C Brumback, I T Ellwood, C Kjaerby, J Iafrati, S Robinson, A T Lee, T Patel, S Nagaraj, F Davatolhagh, V S Sohal
Functional imaging and gene expression studies both implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), particularly deep-layer projection neurons, as a potential locus for autism pathology. Here, we explored how specific deep-layer prefrontal neurons contribute to abnormal physiology and behavior in mouse models of autism. First, we find that across three etiologically distinct models-in utero valproic acid (VPA) exposure, CNTNAP2 knockout and FMR1 knockout-layer 5 subcortically projecting (SC) neurons consistently exhibit reduced input resistance and action potential firing...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106499/autism-related-neuroligin-4-knockout-impairs-intracortical-processing-but-not-sensory-inputs-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#9
Petr Unichenko, Jenq-Wei Yang, Sergei Kirischuk, Sergei Kolbaev, Werner Kilb, Matthieu Hammer, Dilja Krueger-Burg, Nils Brose, Heiko J Luhmann
Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a cell adhesion protein that regulates synapse organization and function. Mutations in human NLGN4 are among the causes of autism spectrum disorders. In mouse, Nlgn4 knockout (KO) perturbs GABAergic synaptic transmission and oscillatory activity in hippocampus, and causes social interaction deficits. The complex profile of cellular and circuit changes that are caused by Nlgn4-KO is still only partly understood. Using Nlgn4-KO mice, we found that Nlgn4-KO increases the power in the alpha frequency band of spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex under urethane anesthesia in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105664/brain-behavior-participant-similarity-networks-among-youth-and-emerging-adults-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-autism-spectrum-or-bipolar-disorder-and-matched-controls
#10
Laura Stefanik, Lauren Erdman, Stephanie H Ameis, George Foussias, Benoit H Mulsant, Tina Behdinan, Anna Goldenberg, Lauren J O'Donnell, Aristotle N Voineskos
There is considerable heterogeneity in social cognitive and neurocognitive performance among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), and healthy individuals. This study used Similarity Network Fusion (SNF), a novel data-driven approach, to identify participant similarity networks based on relationships among demographic, brain imaging, and behavioral data. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 174 adolescents and young adults (aged 16-35 years) with an SSD (n=51), an ASD without intellectual disability (n=38), euthymic BD (n=34), and healthy controls (n=51)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104967/identifying-autism-from-resting-state-fmri-using-long-short-term-memory-networks
#11
Nicha C Dvornek, Pamela Ventola, Kevin A Pelphrey, James S Duncan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has helped characterize the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and carries promise for producing objective biomarkers for ASD. Recent work has focused on deriving ASD biomarkers from resting-state functional connectivity measures. However, current efforts that have identified ASD with high accuracy were limited to homogeneous, small datasets, while classification results for heterogeneous, multi-site data have shown much lower accuracy. In this paper, we propose the use of recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory (LSTMs) for classification of individuals with ASD and typical controls directly from the resting-state fMRI time-series...
September 2017: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#12
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101314/clinical-and-radiological-analysis-of-bryan-cervical-artificial-disc-replacement-for-skip-multi-segment-cervical-spondylosis-long-term-follow-up-results
#13
Zikun Shang, Yingze Zhang, Di Zhang, Wenyuan Ding, Yong Shen
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical and radiological efficacy of Bryan cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) for "skip" multi-segment cervical spondylosis (SCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 49 patients with SCS treated with either Bryan cervical ADR (18 cases) or ACDF (31 cases). Each case was evaluated preoperatively and at more than 48 months postoperatively in follow-up using the JOA, NDI, and VAS. Cervical sagittal curvature, total cervical ROM, and degree of middle segments of motion were also evaluated...
November 4, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100073/synaptic-neurexin-complexes-a-molecular-code-for-the-logic-of-neural-circuits
#14
REVIEW
Thomas C Südhof
Synapses are specialized junctions between neurons in brain that transmit and compute information, thereby connecting neurons into millions of overlapping and interdigitated neural circuits. Here, we posit that the establishment, properties, and dynamics of synapses are governed by a molecular logic that is controlled by diverse trans-synaptic signaling molecules. Neurexins, expressed in thousands of alternatively spliced isoforms, are central components of this dynamic code. Presynaptic neurexins regulate synapse properties via differential binding to multifarious postsynaptic ligands, such as neuroligins, cerebellin/GluD complexes, and latrophilins, thereby shaping the input/output relations of their resident neural circuits...
November 2, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097111/reduction-of-radiation-exposure-in-transcatheter-atrial-septal-defect-closure-how-low-must-we-go
#15
Fidelio Sitefane, Sophie Malekzadeh-Milani, Olivier Villemain, Magalie Ladouceur, Younes Boudjemline
BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization relies on X-ray imaging. Most procedures are now standardized. Interventionists must strive to minimize radiation exposure to reduce the risk of induced cancers. AIMS: To describe the radiation level in our institution, and evaluate the components contributing to radiation exposure, during transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. METHODS: Radiation doses for ASD closure performed between January 2009 and November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 30, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095880/circumscribed-interests-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-look-beyond-trains-planes-and-clocks
#16
Ivy Y K Cho, Kristina Jelinkova, Manuela Schuetze, Sarah A Vinette, Sarah Rahman, Adam McCrimmon, Deborah Dewey, Signe Bray
Adolescence is a unique developmental period, characterized by physical and emotional growth and significant maturation of cognitive and social skills. For individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), it is also a vulnerable period as cognitive and social skills can deteriorate. Circumscribed interests (CIs), idiosyncratic areas of intense interest and focus, are a core symptom of ASD that may be associated with social development. Yet, relatively little is known about the expression of CIs in adolescents with ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092127/iatrogenic-lutembacher-syndrome-after-percutaneous-mitral-commissurotomy
#17
Theodoros D Karamitsos, Chrysovalantou Nikolaidou, Athanasios Koutsakis, Kyriakos Anastasiadis, Charalambos Karvounis, Stavros Hadjimiltiades
Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are common immediately after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC). They are usually small, hemodynamically insignificant, and tend to decrease or disappear within 6 to 12 months. Herein, a case is described of persistent ASD in a patient with mitral valve stenosis who had undergone successful PMC three years previously. The patient had signs and symptoms of right heart failure and severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) with borderline right ventricular systolic function on echocardiography, in addition to the ASD...
May 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079524/whole-brain-white-matter-connectivity-analysis-using-machine-learning-an-application-to-autism
#18
Fan Zhang, Peter Savadjiev, Weidong Cai, Yang Song, Yogesh Rathi, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, Tina Kapur, Robert T Schultz, Nikos Makris, Ragini Verma, Lauren J O'Donnell
In this paper, we propose an automated white matter connectivity analysis method for machine learning classification and characterization of white matter abnormality via identification of discriminative fiber tracts. The proposed method uses diffusion MRI tractography and a data-driven approach to find fiber clusters corresponding to subdivisions of the white matter anatomy. Features extracted from each fiber cluster describe its diffusion properties and are used for machine learning. The method is demonstrated by application to a pediatric neuroimaging dataset from 149 individuals, including 70 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 79 typically developing controls (TDC)...
October 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076035/how-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-spontaneously-attend-to-real-world-scenes-use-of-a-change-blindness-paradigm
#19
Michal Hochhauser, Adi Aran, Ouriel Grynszpan
Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a 'flicker paradigm' whereby a particular item alternately appeared and disappeared. This item was either a central or a marginal detail of the scene. Change detection response times were measured and compared between groups...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072106/auditory-attention-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-exploration-of-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#20
Sanam J Lalani, Tyler C Duffield, Haley G Trontel, Erin D Bigler, Tracy J Abildskov, Alyson Froehlich, Molly B D Prigge, Brittany G Travers, Jeffrey S Anderson, Brandon A Zielinski, Andrew Alexander, Nicholas Lange, Janet E Lainhart
Studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to perform significantly below typically developing individuals on standardized measures of attention, even when controlling for IQ. The current study sought to examine within ASD whether anatomical correlates of attention performance differed between those with average to above-average IQ (AIQ group) and those with low-average to borderline ability (LIQ group) as well as in comparison to typically developing controls (TDC). Using automated volumetric analyses, we examined regional volume of classic attention areas including the superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus in ASD AIQ (n = 38) and LIQ (n = 18) individuals along with 30 TDC...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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