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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725939/escalated-cocaine-binges-in-rats-enduring-effects-of-social-defeat-stress-or-intra-vta-crf
#1
Michael Z Leonard, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
RATIONALE: Exposure to intermittent social defeat stress elicits corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) release into the VTA and induces long-term modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine activity in rats. These adaptations are associated with an intense cocaine-taking phenotype, which is prevented by CRF receptor antagonists. OBJECTIVE: The present studies examine whether infusion of CRF into the VTA is sufficient to escalate cocaine-taking behavior, in the absence of social defeat experience...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712571/hierarchical-status-predicts-behavioral-vulnerability-and-nucleus-accumbens-metabolic-profile-following-chronic-social-defeat-stress
#2
Thomas Larrieu, Antoine Cherix, Aranzazu Duque, João Rodrigues, Hongxia Lei, Rolf Gruetter, Carmen Sandi
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699310/the-effects-of-seh-inhibitor-on-depression-like-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-male-mice
#3
Qiong Wu, Hongyang Cai, Jingfang Song, Quanzhong Chang
Currently antidepressants take several weeks to be effective, which is one of the main reasons why patients with depression quit therapy. In the present study, we examine the acute and subacute effects of soluble epoxide hydolase (sEH) inhibitor (sEHI), a compound shown to have antidepressant effects, on mice. We found that acute administration of sEHI TPPU decreases immobility time in the forced swimming test and reduces latency to feed in the novelty suppressed-feeding test in adult male mice. Intraperitoneal administration of TPPU for seven days also increased interaction time of socially defeated mice in the social defeat test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698920/prevention-and-reversal-of-social-stress-escalated-cocaine-self-administration-in-mice-by-intra-vta-crfr1-antagonism
#4
Xiao Han, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined...
July 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692653/social-exclusion-and-psychopathology-in-an-online-cohort-of-moroccan-dutch-migrants-results-of-the-medina-study
#5
Madelien H van de Beek, Lian van der Krieke, Robert A Schoevers, Wim Veling
INTRODUCTION: Migration is seen as a risk factor for developing psychiatric symptoms and experiencing social exclusion. In the Netherlands, the Moroccan-Dutch population is the second largest migrant group. 70% of all young Moroccan-Dutch people meet each other in the online community www.marokko.nl. Within this community, we investigated the association between experiences of social exclusion and self-reported depressive symptoms and psychotic experiences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were recruited via the website www...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689640/distinct-ventral-pallidal-neural-populations-mediate-separate-symptoms-of-depression
#6
Daniel Knowland, Varoth Lilascharoen, Christopher Pham Pacia, Sora Shin, Eric Hou-Jen Wang, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression...
July 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688339/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-plays-a-role-in-resilience-to-stress-promoted-by-isoquinoline-in-defeated-mice
#7
Ana Paula Pesarico, Suzan G Rosa, Franciele Martini, Tales A Goulart, Gilson Zeni, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Certain stressful life events have been associated with the onset of depression. This study aims to investigate if 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI) is effective against social avoidance induced by social defeat stress model in mice. Furthermore, it was investigated the effects of FDPI in the mouse prefrontal cortical plasticity-related proteins and some parameters of toxicity. Adult Swiss mice were subjected to social defeat stress for 10 days. Two protocols with FDPI were carried out: 1- FDPI (25 mg/kg, intragastric) was administered to mice 24 h after the last social defeat stress episode; 2- FDPI (1-25 mg/kg, intragastric) was administered to mice once a day for 10 days concomitant with the social defeat stress...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675388/disrupted-hippocampal-neuregulin-1-erbb3-signaling-and-dentate-gyrus-granule-cell-alterations-in-suicide
#8
I Mahar, B Labonte, S Yogendran, E Isingrini, L Perret, M A Davoli, A Rachalski, B Giros, G Turecki, N Mechawar
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and ErbB receptors have been associated with psychopathology, and NRG1-ErbB3 signaling has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and induce antidepressant-like effects. In this study, we aimed to determine whether deficits in NRG1 or ErbBs might be present in the hippocampus of suicide completers. In well-characterized postmortem hippocampal samples from suicides and matched sudden-death controls, we assessed gene expression and methylation using qRT-PCR and EpiTYPER, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#9
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673099/suicidal-ideation-and-schizophrenia-contribution-of-appraisal-stigmatization-and-cognition
#10
Emmanuel Stip, Jean Caron, Michel Tousignant, Yves Lecomte
OBJECTIVE: To predict suicidal ideation in people with schizophrenia, certain studies have measured its relationship with the variables of defeat and entrapment. The relationships are positive, but their interactions remain undefined. To further their understanding, this research sought to measure the relationship between suicidal ideation with the variables of loss, entrapment, and humiliation. METHOD: The convenience sample included 30 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668281/disruption-of-glua2-phosphorylation-potentiates-stress-responsivity
#11
Alexandra S Ellis, Anne Q Fosnocht, Kelsey E Lucerne, Lisa A Briand
Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs...
June 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654094/inflammation-and-vascular-remodeling-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-contributes-to-vulnerability-to-stress
#12
J Pearson-Leary, D Eacret, R Chen, H Takano, B Nicholas, S Bhatnagar
During exposure to chronic stress, some individuals engage in active coping behaviors that promote resiliency to stress. Other individuals engage in passive coping that is associated with vulnerability to stress and with anxiety and depression. In an effort to identify novel molecular mechanisms that underlie vulnerability or resilience to stress, we used nonbiased analyses of microRNAs in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to identify those miRNAs differentially expressed in active (long-latency (LL)/resilient) or passive (short-latency (SL)/vulnerable) rats following chronic social defeat...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651788/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-independent-antidepressant-effects-of-r-ketamine-in-a-social-defeat-stress-model
#13
Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Youge Qu, Ji-Chun Zhang, Min Ma, Chao Dong, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: The role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the antidepressant effects of ketamine is controversial. In addition to mTOR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a key signaling molecule in prominent pathways that regulate protein synthesis. (R)-Ketamine has a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine. Here we investigated whether mTOR signaling and ERK signaling play a role in the antidepressant effects of two enantiomers...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648389/stress-primes-microglial-polarization-after-global-ischemia-therapeutic-potential-of-progesterone
#14
Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Iqbal Sayeed, Seema Yousuf, Fahim Atif, Elena G Sergeeva, Gretchen N Neigh, Donald G Stein
Despite the fact stress is associated with increased risk of stroke and worsened outcome, most preclinical studies have ignored this comorbid factor, especially in the context of testing neuroprotective treatments. Preclinical research suggests that stress primes microglia, resulting in an enhanced reactivity to a subsequent insult and potentially increasing vulnerability to stroke. Ischemia-induced activated microglia can be polarized into a harmful phenotype, M1, which produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, or a protective phenotype, M2, which releases anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
June 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629758/implications-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-vulnerability-to-the-social-avoidance-effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-in-male-mice
#15
Joanna Kasia Szyszkowicz, Alex Wong, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Marie-Claude Audet
Appreciable evidence suggests that perturbations within the gut microbiome and the immune system may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression stemming from earlier stressful experiences. In the present investigation we examined whether microbial changes in cecum contents were associated with social avoidance behaviors, a feature of depression, and pro-inflammatory variations among socially stressed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice experienced social defeat or a control condition once a day for 10 consecutive days...
June 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625549/the-long-term-effects-of-stress-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-on-conditioned-place-aversion-in-male-and-female-california-mice
#16
Abigail R Laman-Maharg, Tiffany Copeland, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez, Katharine L Campi, Brian C Trainor
Psychosocial stress leads to the activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs), which induce dysphoria and facilitate depression-like behaviors. However, less is known about the long-term effects of stress and KORs in females. We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619944/early-life-stress-confers-lifelong-stress-susceptibility-in-mice-via-ventral-tegmental-area-otx2
#17
Catherine J Peña, Hope G Kronman, Deena M Walker, Hannah M Cates, Rosemary C Bagot, Immanuel Purushothaman, Orna Issler, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Tin Leong, Drew D Kiraly, Emma Goodman, Rachael L Neve, Li Shen, Eric J Nestler
Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a brain reward region-to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile-but not adult-knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614496/the-republic-in-crisis-and-future-possibilities
#18
José Maurício Domingues
This text gives a brief reconstruction of the process of impeachment of Brazil's President Dilma Rousseff, which was a 'coup' effected through parliament, and situates it at the end of three periods of politics in the Brazilian republic: the first, broader, and democratizing; the second, the age of the PT (Workers' Party) as the force with the hegemony on the left; and the third, shorter, the cycle of its governments. Together, these phases constitute a crisis of the republic, although not a rupture of the country's institutional structure, nor a 'State of Exception'...
June 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606772/dominance-status-alters-restraint-induced-neural-activity-in-brain-regions-controlling-stress-vulnerability
#19
Matthew A Cooper, Sahba Seddighi, Abigail K Barnes, J Alex Grizzell, Brooke N Dulka, Catherine T Clinard
Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. In Syrian hamsters, dominant and subordinate animals exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to social defeat stress, with dominants showing stress resistance and subordinates showing stress vulnerability. We previously found that dominant and subordinate hamsters show different levels of defeat-induced neural activity in brain regions that modulate coping with stress, although the extent to which status-dependent differences in stress vulnerability generalize to non-social stressors is unknown...
June 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589967/in-vivo-fiber-photometry-reveals-signature-of-future-stress-susceptibility-in-nucleus-accumbens
#20
Jessie Muir, Zachary S Lorsch, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Erin S Calipari, Rosemary C Bagot
Recognizing why chronic stress causes only a subset of individuals to become depressed is critical to understanding depression on a basic level and, also, to developing treatments that increase resilience. Stress-induced alterations in the activity of reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are linked to the pathophysiology of depression. However, it has been difficult to determine if differences in stress susceptibility are pre-existing or merely an effect of chronic stress. The NAc consists largely of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), distinguished by their predominant expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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