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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339814/modulating-oxidative-stress-relieves-stress-induced-behavioral-and-cognitive-impairments-in-rats
#1
Naimesh Solanki, Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Samina Salim
Background: Persistent psychological stress often leads to anxiety disorders and depression. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are popular treatment options but have limited efficacy, supporting the need for alternative treatment. Based on our recent preclinical work suggesting a causal link between neurobehavioral deficits and elevated oxidative stress, we hypothesized that interventions that mitigate oxidative stress can attenuate/overcome neurobehavioral deficits...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332841/effects-of-diet-quality-and-psychosocial-stress-on-the-metabolic-profiles-of-mice
#2
Tatsuhiko Goto, Shozo Tomonaga, Atsushi Toyoda
There has been an increasing interest in relationship between stress and diet. To address this relationship, we evaluated an animal model of depression: male C57BL/6J mice subjected to subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) for 10 consecutive days using male ICR mice under two different calorie-adjusted diets conditions-non-purified (MF) and semi-purified (AIN) diets made from natural and chemical ingredients mainly, respectively. Our previous study indicates diet quality and purity affect stress susceptibility in sCSDS mice...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332459/fiscal-space-for-domestic-funding-of-health-and-other-social-services
#3
Filip Meheus, Di McIntyre
To progress toward universal health coverage and promote inclusive social and economic development, it will be necessary to strengthen domestic resource mobilization for health. In this paper, we examine options for increasing domestic government revenue in low- and middle-income countries. We analyze the relationship between level of economic development and levels of government revenue and expenditure, and show that a country's level of economic development does not predetermine its spending levels. Government revenue can be increased through improved tax compliance and efficiency in revenue collection, maximizing revenue from mineral and other natural resources, and increasing tax rates where appropriate...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322276/identifying-fast-onset-antidepressants-using-rodent-models
#4
M J Ramaker, S C Dulawa
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316833/developmental-idealism-in-china
#5
Arland Thornton, Yu Xie
This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19(th) century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20(th) century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#6
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#7
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a non-phagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was up-regulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280884/social-defeat-disrupts-reward-learning-and-potentiates-striatal-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-mrna-in-rats
#8
Andre Der-Avakian, Manoranjan S D'Souza, David N Potter, Elena H Chartoff, William A Carlezon, Diego A Pizzagalli, Athina Markou
RATIONALE: Mood disorders can be triggered by stress and are characterized by deficits in reward processing, including disrupted reward learning (the ability to modulate behavior according to past rewards). Reward learning is regulated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatal circuits, both of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. OBJECTIVES: Here, we assessed in rats the effects of a potent stressor (social defeat) on reward learning and gene expression in the ACC, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and striatum...
March 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278165/indomethacin-counteracts-the-effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-emotional-but-not-recognition-memory-in-mice
#9
Aránzazu Duque, Concepción Vinader-Caerols, Santiago Monleón
We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL); non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND); stressed + saline (S+SAL); and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257788/antidepressant-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg5-in-mice-involving-of-hippocampus-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#10
Dawei Xu, Chengniu Wang, Wei Zhao, Shengfeng Gao, Zhiming Cui
Ginsenoside Rg5 is one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng with little toxicity and has been shown to have pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of Rg5 in mice models of depression. The effects of Rg5 were first assessed in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), and then investigated in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression. The changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway after CSDS and Rg5 treatment were also examined...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241050/physical-versus-psychological-social-stress-in-male-rats-reveals-distinct-cardiovascular-inflammatory-and-behavioral-consequences
#11
Julie E Finnell, Calliandra M Lombard, Akhila R Padi, Casey M Moffitt, L Britt Wilson, Christopher S Wood, Susan K Wood
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224183/modelling-depression-in-animals-at-the-interface-of-reward-and-stress-pathways
#12
REVIEW
D A Slattery, J F Cryan
RATIONALE: Despite substantial research efforts the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains poorly understood, which is due in part to the heterogeneity of the disorder and the complexity of designing appropriate animal models. However, in the last few decades, a focus on the development of novel stress-based paradigms and a focus on using hedonic/anhedonic behaviour have led to renewed optimism in the use of animal models to assess aspects of MDD. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, in this review article, dedicated to Athina Markou, we summarise the use of stress-based animal models for studying MDD in rodents and how reward-related readouts can be used to validate/assess the model and/or treatment...
February 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219813/an-adverse-early-life-environment-can-enhance-stress-resilience-in-adulthood
#13
Sara Santarelli, Christoph Zimmermann, Georgia Kalideris, Sylvie L Lesuis, Janine Arloth, Andrés Uribe, Carine Dournes, Georgia Balsevich, Jakob Hartmann, Mercè Masana, Elisabeth B Binder, Dietmar Spengler, Mathias V Schmidt
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments...
February 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197343/chronic-social-defeat-stress-modulates-dendritic-spines-structural-plasticity-in-adult-mouse-frontal-association-cortex
#14
Yu Shu, Tonghui Xu
Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167628/exposure-to-a-social-stressor-induces-translocation-of-commensal-lactobacilli-to-the-spleen-and-priming-of-the-innate-immune-system
#15
William P Lafuse, Rachel Gearinger, Sydney Fisher, Connor Nealer, Amy R Mackos, Michael T Bailey
Studies have shown that exposure to psychological stressors leads to inflammation throughout the body. This has been widely studied using social disruption (SDR), a social stressor that involves repeated social defeat in subordinate mice. Exposure to SDR increases serum cytokine levels, results in accumulation of spleen CD11b(+) myeloid cells, and primes macrophages for increased cytokine and microbicidal activity. Our previous studies showed that intestinal microbes are necessary for SDR-enhancement of innate immunity...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167137/deletion-of-rictor-in-catecholaminergic-neurons-alters-locomotor-activity-and-ingestive-behavior
#16
Sophia Kaska, Rebecca Brunk, Vedrana Bali, Megan Kechner, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
While the etiology of depression is not fully understood, increasing evidence from animal models suggests a role for the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in pathogenesis. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of VTA mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (TORC2) signaling in mediating susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a well-established mouse model of depression. Utilizing genetic and viral knockout of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of target of rapamycin), a requisite component of TORC2, we demonstrate that decreasing Rictor-dependent TORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons, or within the VTA specifically, does not alter susceptibility to CSDS...
February 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154566/histological-architecture-underlying-brain-immune-cell-cell-interactions-and-the-cerebral-response-to-systemic-inflammation
#17
Atsuyoshi Shimada, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150369/bidirectional-relationship-between-alcohol-intake-and-sensitivity-to-social-defeat-association-with-tacr1-and-avp-expression
#18
Britta S Nelson, Michelle K Sequeira, Jesse R Schank
While epidemiological studies show that alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with affective disorders, the causal direction of this association is unclear. We examined this relationship using mouse models including social defeat stress (SDS), social interaction (SI) and voluntary alcohol consumption. C57BL6/J mice exposed to SDS segregate into two subpopulations, those that express depressive-like phenotypes ('susceptible') and those that do not ('resilient'). First, we stratified SDS-exposed mice and measured their voluntary alcohol consumption...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132915/dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-the-increase-in-reinstatement-of-the-conditioned-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-induced-by-acute-social-defeat
#19
Marina Daiana Reguilón, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Carmen Ferrer-Pérez, Concepción Roger-Sánchez, María Asunción Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Social stress modifies the activity of brain areas involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, inducing neuroadaptations in the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and modifying the sensitivity of dopamine receptors. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively) on the short-time effects of acute social defeat (ASD). Male OF1 mice were socially defeated before each conditioning session of the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine plus the corresponding dopamine antagonist...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111268/impact-of-adolescent-social-experiences-on-behavior-and-neural-circuits-implicated-in-mental-illnesses
#20
REVIEW
Andrew R Burke, Cheryl M McCormick, Sergio M Pellis, Jodi L Lukkes
Negative social experiences during adolescence are central features for several stress-related mental illnesses. Social play fighting behavior in rats peaks during early adolescence and is essential for the final maturation of brain and behavior. Manipulation of the rat adolescent social experience alters many neurobehavioral measurements implicated in anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. In this review, we will highlight the importance of social play and the use of three separate social stress models (isolation-rearing, social defeat, and social instability stress) to disrupt the acquisition of this adaptive behavior...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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