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HPV structure

Anna Godi, Marianna Martinelli, Mahmoud Haque, Shaowei Li, Qinjian Zhao, Ningshao Xia, Clementina E Cocuzza, Simon Beddows
Background: Naturally-occurring variants of Human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 have been defined as lineages and sublineages but little is known about the impact of this diversity on protein function. We investigate the impact of variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins of HPV58 on susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. Methods: Pseudovirus (PsV) representing A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C, D1 and D2 variants were evaluated for their susceptibility to antibodies elicited during natural infection, preclinical antisera generated against virus-like particles and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bach Xuan Tran, Phung Tat Quoc Than, Tien Thuy Ngoc Doan, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Trang Huyen Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Carl A Latkin, Melvyn Wb Zhang, Roger Cm Ho
Background: Despite its effectiveness in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the rate of uptake of the HPV vaccine is low in Vietnam. This study aimed to investigate barriers related to knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) about the HPV vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine among those using services in an urban vaccination clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a vaccination clinic of the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March to April 2016...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Emanuela Noris
Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be used as antiviral vaccines as they mimic the structure of virus particles, with preserved conformation and immunogenicity characteristics. L1, the major capsid protein of papillomaviruses (PV) can self-assemble into VLPs currently used as highly effective vaccines. VLPs can be produced in heterologous systems, including plants. Here, a method for the expression of the L1 protein of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) and the production of highly purified preparations of HPV 16 L1 VLPs is described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Camilla Hiul Suppli, Julie Werenberg Dreier, Mette Rasmussen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Tyra Grove Krause
We aimed to identify sociodemographic predictors of compliance after receiving a personalised reminder on lacking vaccinations against MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) and/or HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) among parents of Danish adolescent girls. A nationwide register-based study, including all 14-year-old girls (15 May 2014-14 May 2015) lacking either MMR, HPV-vaccination or both. Vaccination-compliance following a postal reminder was modelled using multivariable logistic regression and included the following socio-demographic predictors: maternal age, education, employment and ethnicity...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Roberto V Reyes, Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Ismael Hernandez, Emilio A Herrera, Germán Ebensperger, Aníbal J Llanos
The pulmonary arteries are exquisitely responsive to oxygen changes. They rapidly and proportionally contract as arterial PO2 decrease, and they relax as arterial PO2 is re-established. The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is intrinsic since it does not require neural or endocrine factors, as evidenced in isolated vessels. On the other hand, pulmonary arteries also respond to sustained hypoxia with structural and functional remodeling, involving growth of smooth muscle medial layer and later recruitment of adventitial fibroblasts, secreted mitogens from endothelium and changes in the response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sushmita Poddar, Pei She Loh, Zi Hao Ooi, Farhana Osman, Joachim Eul, Volker Patzel
Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing enables correction or labeling of pre-mRNA, but therapeutic applications are hampered by issues related to the activity and target specificity of trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA). We employed computational RNA structure design to improve both on-target activity and specificity of tsRNA in a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir suicide gene therapy approach targeting alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) pre-mRNA...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Peris Bentley, Min Jie Alvin Tan, Alison A McBride, Elizabeth A White, Peter M Howley
The papillomavirus E2 protein executes numerous essential functions related to viral transcription, replication of viral DNA, and viral genome maintenance. Because E2 lacks enzymatic activity, many of these functions are mediated by interactions with host cellular proteins. Unbiased proteomics approaches have successfully identified a number of E2-host protein interactions. We have extended such studies and have identified and validated the cellular proteins SMC5 and SMC6 as interactors of the viral E2 protein...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sanjog Bastola, Alexandra Halalau, Ojbindra Kc, Anju Adhikari
Buschke-Löwenstein tumor of anorectal and perianal area is a rare but highly aggressive tumor, frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. It often grows over years in immunocompetent patients and can be highly destructive to local tissue. We present a case of a 61-year-old male with HIV infection who presented with worsening pain and swelling in the anorectal area for one-year duration. Exam revealed a 15 × 10 cm mass in the anorectal area with multiple sinuses and fistulas...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Sarah E Dilley, Sylvia Peral, J Michael Straughn, Isabel C Scarinci
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is an important tool for cancer prevention. However, vaccination rates in Alabama, a state with high rates of HPV-related cancers, remain below the national average. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive assessment of HPV vaccination in our state, with the goal to make recommendations for tailored multilevel interventions. A multimodal approach with quantitative and qualitative data was used to determine barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination in Alabama. This included a survey of pediatric care providers and structured interviews with pediatricians, parents, nurses and community stakeholders...
May 22, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Linda M Niccolai, Anna L North, Alison Footman, Caitlin E Hansen
Background: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians' recommendations. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
Simon Jonas Larsen, Luisa Matos do Canto, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Jan Baumbach
BACKGROUND: Copy number variations (CNVs) are large segments of the genome that are duplicated or deleted. Structural variations in the genome have been linked to many complex diseases. Similar to how genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have helped discover single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to disease phenotypes, the extension of GWAS to CNVs has aided the discovery of structural variants associated with human traits and diseases. RESULTS: We present CoNVaQ, an easy-to-use web-based tool for CNV-based association studies...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Michelle Wyndham-West, Nancy Durand, Aimee Santoro
Background This research fuses the experiences of a precancer diagnosis with the decision-making surrounding a vaccine that can protect against human papillomavirus strains that women may not have been exposed to. The interviewee cohort is of note as half the women were in their 30s and 40s and 75% were over the age of 26. These groupings are often overlooked in media discourses and narrative research surrounding human papillomavirus and the human papillomavirus vaccine. Purpose Womens' diagnoses and treatment experiences, including colposcopies, biopsies, and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedures, are chronicled to highlight a liminal, precancerous state-one in which they are not deemed healthy, but nor have they been diagnosed with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
Jane M Garbutt, Sherry Dodd, Emily Walling, Amanda A Lee, Katharine Kulka, Rebecca Lobb
BACKGROUND: In the United States, the effective, safe huma papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is underused and opportunities to prevent cancer continue to be missed. National guidelines recommend completing the 2-3 dose HPV vaccine series by age 13, well before exposure to the sexually transmitted virus. Accurate characterization of the facilitators and barriers to full implementation of HPV vaccine recommendations in the primary care setting could inform effective implementation strategies...
May 7, 2018: BMC Family Practice
R S Akram Husain, R Rajakeerthana, Anoop Sreevalsan, P Prema Jayaprasad, Shiek S S J Ahmed, V Ramakrishnan
Cervical cancer (CC) is a major fatal health problem in women with high mortality worldwide. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is considered as one of the causative factors for CC. The HPV prevalence and their genotype distribution among women population are essential to evaluate the deteriorating impact of HPV. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 212 participants to identify the prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in south India using PCR and DNA Sequencing. The results obtained from cross-sectional study were used to conduct a meta-analysis of the previous published studies on HPV prevalence and genotype distribution across six geographical regions (North, Northeast, East, Central, West, and South) of India...
April 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Juemin Xi, Junying Chen, Miaoling Xu, Hongying Yang, Songjiao Wen, Yue Pan, Xiaodan Wang, Chao Ye, Lijuan Qiu, Qiangming Sun
BACKGROUD: Variations in HPV LCR/E6/E7 have been shown to be associated with the viral persistence and cervical cancer development. So far, there are few reports about the polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in Southwest China. This study aims to characterize the gene polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in women of Southwest China, and assess the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens. METHODS: Twelve LCR/E6/E7 of the HPV-58 isolates were amplified and sequenced...
April 25, 2018: Virology Journal
Azucena Bardají, Carolina Mindu, Orvalho J Augusto, Aina Casellas, Olga Cambaco, Egas Simbine, Graça Matsinhe, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe
Sub-Saharan Africa concentrates the largest burden of cervical cancer worldwide. The introduction of the HPV vaccination in this region is urgent and strategic to meet global health targets. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Mozambique prior to the first round of the HPV vaccine demonstration programme. It targeted girls aged 10-19 years old identified from schools and households. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted. A total of 1147 adolescents were enrolled in three selected districts of the country...
June 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Elizabeth R Smith, Sophia H George, Erin Kobetz, Xiang-Xi Xu
The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr...
June 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
KEY POINTS: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors such as acetazolamide inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in humans and other mammals, but the mechanism of this action remains unknown. It has been postulated that carbonic anhydrase may act as a nitrous anhydrase in vivo to generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and that this formation is increased in the presence of acetazolamide. Acetazolamide reduces HPV in pigs without evidence of any NO generation, whereas nebulized sodium nitrite reduces HPV by NO formation; however; combined infusion of acetazolamide with sodium nitrite inhalation did not further increase exhaled NO concentration over inhaled nitrite alone in pigs exposed to alveolar hypoxia...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Loreto Fernández González
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Maria J Abou El-Ola, Mariam A Rajab, Dania I Abdallah, Ismail A Fawaz, Lyn S Awad, Hani M Tamim, Ahmad O Ibrahim, Anas M Mugharbil, Rima A Moghnieh
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established predisposing factor of cervical cancer. In this study, we assessed the awareness about genital warts, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine among mothers having girls who are at the age of primary HPV vaccination attending a group of schools in Lebanon. We also assessed the rate of HPV vaccination among these girls and the barriers to vaccination in this community. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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