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Jane Hawkey, David B Ascher, Louise M Judd, Ryan R Wick, Xenia Kostoulias, Heather Cleland, Denis W Spelman, Alex Padiglione, Anton Y Peleg, Kathryn E Holt
Acinetobacter baumannii is a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections and a leading cause of infection in burns patients. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is considered a major public-health threat and has been identified by the World Health Organization as the top priority organism requiring new antimicrobials. The most common mechanism for carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is via horizontal acquisition of carbapenemase genes. In this study, we sampled 20 A. baumannii isolates from a patient with extensive burns, and characterized the evolution of carbapenem resistance over a 45 day period via Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Rajendra H Patil, Firoz A Kalam Khan, Kaivalya Jadhav, Manoj Damale, Siddique Akber Ansari, Hamad M Alkahtani, Azmat Ali Khan, Shantanu D Shinde, Rajesh Patil, Jaiprakash N Sangshetti
We report the synthesis of some new piperazine-sulphonamide linked Schiff bases as fungal biofilm inhibitors with antibacterial and antifungal potential. The biofilm inhibition result of Candida albicans proposed that the compounds 6b (IC50  = 32.1 μM) and 6j (IC50  = 31.4 μM) showed higher inhibitory activity than the standard fluconazole (IC50  = 40 μM). Compound 6d (MIC = 26.1 μg/mL) with a chloro group at the para position was found to be the most active antibacterial agent of the series against Bacillus subtilis when compared with the standard ciprofloxacin (MIC = 50 μg/mL)...
March 15, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Z Kamali Sarwestani, S J Hashemi, S Rezaie, M Gerami Shoar, S Mahmoudi, M Elahi, M Bahardoost, A Tajdini, S Abutalebian, R Daie Ghazvini
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus niger is the most commonly reported etiology of otomycosis based on morphological characteristics. This fungus is a member of Aspergillus section Nigri, a set of morphologically indistinguishable species that can harbor various antifungal susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was to accurately identify and determine the susceptibility pattern of a set of black aspergilli isolated from otomycosis patients. METHODS: Forty-three black Aspergillus isolates from otomycosis patients were identified by using the PCR-sequencing of the β-tubulin gene...
March 11, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yong-Zhe Zhu, Jing-Wen Liu, Xue Wang, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Chuan-Jie Zhang
The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus) , which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4- en -3-one, cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol, and hurgadacin...
March 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Mohamad Mahdi Alshahni, Takashi Tamura, Kazuo Satoh, Mahdi Abastabar, Gholam Reza Shokoohi, Bahram Ahmadi, Mohammad Kord, Simin Taghipour, Koichi Makimura, Hamid Badali
The objective was to assess the in vitro activity of the novel triazole antifungal drug, efinaconazole, and five comparators (luliconazole, lanoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole) against a large collection of Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates. The geometric mean MICs were the lowest for luliconazole (0.0005 μg/mL), followed by lanoconazole (0.002 μg/mL), efinaconazole (0.007 μg/mL), terbinafine (0.011 μg/mL), itraconazole (0.095 μg/mL) and fluconazole (12...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Hisashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Nakamura, Minoru Nagi, Satoshi Yamagoe, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Sho Ogura, Takashi Mitsuki, Mitsuhiro Yuasa, Daisuke Kaji, Kosei Kageyama, Aya Nishida, Yuki Taya, Hiroshi Shimazu, Kazuya Ishiwata, Shinsuke Takagi, Go Yamamoto, Yuki Asano-Mori, Naoyuki Uchida, Atsushi Wake, Shuichi Taniguchi, Akiko Yoneyama
Limited data are available on micafungin breakthrough fungemia (MBF), fungemia that develops on administration of micafungin, in patients with hematological disorders. We reviewed medical and microbiological records of patients with hematological disorders who developed MBF between January 2008 and June 2015. A total of 39 patients with MBF were identified and Candida (30 strains) and non- Candida (9 strains) fungal species were recognized as causative strains. Among 35 stored strains, C. parapsilosis (14 strains), Trichosporon asahii (7 strains), C...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mahdi Abastabar, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Mohammad Vafaei Moghaddam, G Sybren de Hoog, Iman Haghani, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Reza Kachuei, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Koichi Makimura, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
A collection of clinical (n=47) and environmental (n=79) Fusarium isolates were tested against 10 antifungal drugs, including two novel imidazoles. Luliconazole and lanoconazole demonstrated very low GM MIC values of 0.005 μg/ml and 0.013 μg/ml, respectively, in comparison with 0.51 μg/ml for micafungin, 0.85 μg/ml for efinaconazole, 1.12 μg/ml for natamycin, 1.18 μg/ml for anidulafungin, 1.31 μg/ml for voriconazole, 1.35 μg/ml for caspofungin, 1.9 μg/ml for amphotericin B and 4.08 μg/ml for itraconazole...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
David D Walker, Michael Z David, Dominic Catalano, Robert Daum, Michael B Gluth
Objective Despite the rising incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) otologic infections, choice of treatment remains controversial. Only fluoroquinolone-containing ototopical preparations are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for middle ear application. Furthermore, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation guidelines advocate ototopical monotherapy for both tympanostomy tube otorrhea and acute otitis externa. Unfortunately, MRSA may be ciprofloxacin resistant...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Swetha K Maddili, Ramesh Katla, Vijaya Kumar Kannekanti, Naveen Kumar Bejjanki, Balaraju Tuniki, Cheng-He Zhou, Himabindu Gandham
The binding behaviour between calf thymus DNA and synthesized benzothiazolyl triazolium derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents was explored by means of spectroscopic applications together with molecular docking study at the sub-domain IIA, binding site I of human serum albumin (HSA). Most of the synthesized derivatives presented significant antimicrobial inhibition when compared with the clinical Norfloxacin, Chloromycin, and Fluconazole. In particular, compound 5q presented efficient anti-Bacillus subtilis, anti-Escherichia coli, anti-Salmonella typhi, and anti-Psuedomonas aeruginosa activity with low MIC values of 2-8 μg/mL which were relatively superior to the reference drugs...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gautam Achar, C R Shahini, Siddappa A Patil, Jan Grzegorz Małecki, Szu-Hua Pan, Albert Lan, Xuan-Ren Chen, Srinivasa Budagumpi
In this contribution, a series of sterically-encumbered coumarin substituted benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors (1-12) and their silver(I)-NHC complexes (13-24) are reported. Molecular structure of NHC precursors 8 and 12 and cationic complexes 15 and 16 was established by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The silver(I) complexes demonstrated various significant intramolecular agostic-like interactions operating between the metal center and the hydrogen atoms of the substituents alongside a variety of feeble π-π stacking interactions...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Nicolás Cordeiro, Matilde Outeda, Leticia Caiata, Virginia García-Fulgueiras, Verónica Seija, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to characterise the mechanisms underlying quinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate obtained from the ICU in Uruguay's University Hospital. METHODS: Citrobacter freundii strain CF638 was isolated from a urine culture. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK® 2 system, and MIC determination and disc diffusion assay, respectively. Resistance genes and mobile genetic elements were identified, by PCR and sequencing...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Caleb J P Economou, Jan T Kielstein, David Czock, Jiao Xie, Jonathan Field, Brent Richards, Mandy Tallot, Adam Visser, Christina Koenig, Carsten Hafer, Julius J Schmidt, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin during prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. METHODS: Critically ill patients prescribed vancomycin across two sites had blood samples collected during 1-3 dosing intervals during which PIRRT was performed. Plasma samples were assayed with a validated immunoassay method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Pmetrics® ...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
P Dallé Rosa, M Ramirez-Castrillon, P Valente, A Meneghello Fuentefria, A D Van Diepeningen, L Z Goldani
Invasive fusariosis has a high mortality and is predominantly observed in patients with leukemia. We report the first case of a novel species of Fusarium, Fusarium riograndense sp. nov, isolated from a lesion in the nasal cavity lesion of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The etiological agent was identified by Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST), including RPB2, TEF-1α, and ITS-LSU sequences, the gold standard technique to identify new species of Fusarium. MLST and phenotypic data strongly supported its inclusion in the F...
March 7, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Sunil Kumar, Rukmankesh Mehra, Sumit Sharma, Naveen Prakash Bokolia, Diksha Raina, Amit Nargotra, Parvinder Pal Singh, Inshad Ali Khan
A limited number of anti-tuberculosis drug candidates with novel mode of action have entered clinical trials in recent years. ATP synthase is one such validated drug target which has yielded a drug recently. The aim of this study was to identify the novel chemical scaffolds targeting the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) ATP synthase. In this study, inverted membrane vesicles of Mycobacterium smegmatis were prepared to establish luciferin based ATP estimation assay. This assay was used to screen 700 compounds which were earlier found to be active on the whole cell of M...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Jeannet C Bos, Jan M Prins, Mabor C Mistício, Ginto Nunguiane, Cláudia N Lang, José C Beirão, Ron A A Mathôt, Reinier M van Hest
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highly albumin-bound β-lactam ceftriaxone is frequently used for the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections. Systemic drug exposure of β-lactams can be altered in critically ill ICU patients, but pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for non-ICU SSA populations are lacking. Methods: We performed a population pharmacokinetic study in an adult hospital population in Mozambique, treated with ceftriaxone for presumptive severe bacterial infection from October 2014 to November 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kalaiselvi Kumarasingam, Mangayarkarasi Vincent, Shivshankar R Mane, Raja Shunmugam, S Sivakumar, K R Uma Devi
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has been identified in skeletons over 6000 years old and still remains as the most prevalent infectious disease in the world; thus, there is a need for development of new drugs or tuning of old drugs. Nanotechnology, an advanced technology, plays a vital role in research for the diagnosis and treatment of TB, thus preventing adverse effects and drug resistance. The objective of this study was to enhance the antimycobacterial activity of isoniazid- (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-incorporated norbornene (NOR) nanoparticles in comparison with plain INH and RIF without nanoparticles...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Vasudeva Reddy Netala, Suman Bukke, Latha Domdi, S Soneya, Sindhu G Reddy, Murali Satyanarayana Bethu, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakdi, K V Saritha, Vijaya Tartte
The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (IH-AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Indigofera hisruta L. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs were found to be FCC crystals, 5-10 nm in size, spherical in shape and stable. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs showed dose-dependant cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) (IC50  = 68.5 μg/mL), colon cancer (COLO205) (IC50  = 85.2 μg/mL), and mouse melanoma (B16F10) (IC50  = 80.9 μg/mL). IH-AgNPs were found to be nontoxic towards normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Ali Mohd Lone, Mubashir Maqbool, Shajrul Amin, Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad
The presented study reports in vitro antituberculosis potential of 2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl) amino)methylene)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (PAMCHD) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. PAMCHD proved to be tuberculostatic as well as tuberculocidal agent by agar and broth dilution methods with MIC and MBC values equivalent to some standard antituberculosis drugs (ATDs). The dynamics of M. tuberculosis killing revealed its time as well as concentration dependent antituberculosis activity and it sterilized M...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Sani Ousmane, Bouli A Diallo, Rasmata Ouedraogo
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is the first cause of pneumococcal meningitis Niger. To determine the underlying mechanism of resistance to tetracycline in serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae , a collection of 37 isolates recovered from meningitis patients over the period of 2002 to 2009 in Niger were analyzed for drug susceptibility, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for molecular analyses. MIC level was determined for 31/37 (83.8%) isolates and allowed detection of full resistance (MIC = 8 µg) in 24/31 (77...
March 6, 2018: Antibiotics
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