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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163940/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-rifampin-a-potential-risk-factor-for-resuscitation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Shahin Pourazar Dizaji, Alireza Taala, Morteza Masoumi, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Abolfazl Fateh, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses five resuscitation-promoting factors, Rpf A to E, which are required for the resuscitation of dormancy in mycobacteria. This study explores the transcriptional profile of all five rpfs of M. tuberculosis, in response to sub-MIC concentration of rifampin, in multidrug and mono-rifampin resistant clinical isolates. Methods: Thirteen multidrug and two rifampin mono resistant clinical isolates were analyzed. Drug susceptibility testing and determination of MIC were performed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163415/combination-susceptibility-testing-of-common-antimicrobials-in-vitro-and-the-effects-of-sub-mic-of-antimicrobials-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#2
Bing Yang, Zhixin Lei, Yishuang Zhao, Saeed Ahmed, Chunqun Wang, Shishuo Zhang, Shulin Fu, Jiyue Cao, Yinsheng Qiu
The current study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial combination efficacies, and whether the sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of antibiotics can influent on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of common antibacterial drugs was determined in vitro against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) alone and in combination with each other by using the broth microdilution method and the checkerboard micro-dilution method analyzed with the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162308/a-novel-series-of-enoyl-reductase-inhibitors-targeting-the-eskape-pathogens-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
Jieun Kwon, Tina Mistry, Jinhong Ren, Michael E Johnson, Shahila Mehboob
S. aureus and A. baumannii are among the ESKAPE pathogens that are increasingly difficult to treat due to the rise in the number of drug resistant strains. Novel therapeutics targeting these pathogens are much needed. The bacterial enoyl reductase (FabI) is as potentially significant drug target for developing pathogen-specific antibiotics due to the presence of alternate FabI isoforms in many other bacterial species. We report the identification and development of a novel N-carboxy pyrrolidine scaffold targeting FabI in S...
November 11, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158283/antimicrobial-octapeptin-c4-analogues-active-against-cryptococcus-species
#4
Jessica L Chitty, Mark S Butler, Azzah Suboh, David J Edwards, Matthew A Cooper, James A Fraser, Avril A B Robertson
Resistance to antimicrobials is a growing problem in both developed and developing countries. In nations where AIDS is most prevalent, the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant contributor to mortality, and its growing resistance to current antifungals an ever-expanding threat. We investigated octapeptin C4, from the cationic cyclic lipopeptide class of antimicrobials, as a potential new antifungal. Octapeptin C4 was a potent, selective inhibitor of this fungal pathogen with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158273/revisiting-activation-of-and-the-mechanism-of-resistance-to-the-compound-iqg-607-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Bruno L Abbadi, Anne D Villela, Valnês S Rodrigues-Junior, Fernanda T Subtil, Pedro F Dalberto, Ana P S Pinheiro, Diógenes S Santos, Pablo Machado, Luiz A Basso, Cristiano V Bizarro
IQG-607 is a metal complex previously reported as a promising anti-TB drug against isoniazid (INH)-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis Unexpectedly, we found that INH-resistant clinical isolates were resistant to IQG-607. Spontaneous mutants resistant to IQG-607 were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and all sequenced colonies carried alterations in the katG gene. The katG(S315T) mutation was sufficient to confer resistance to IQG-607 in both MIC assays and inside macrophages. Moreover, overexpressing the InhA(S94A) protein caused IQG-607's resistance...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156492/bayesian-monotonic-errors-in-variables-models-with-applications-to-pathogen-susceptibility-testing
#6
Glen DePalma, Bruce A Craig
Drug dilution (MIC) and disk diffusion (DIA) are the 2 most common antimicrobial susceptibility assays used by hospitals and clinics to determine an unknown pathogen's susceptibility to various antibiotics. Since only one assay is commonly used, it is important that the 2 assays give similar results. Calibration of the DIA assay to the MIC assay is typically done using the error-rate bounded method, which selects DIA breakpoints that minimize the observed discrepancies between the 2 assays. In 2000, Craig proposed a model-based approach that specifically models the measurement error and rounding processes of each assay, the underlying pathogen distribution, and the true monotonic relationship between the 2 assays...
November 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156457/discovery-of-novel-thiazol-2-amines-and-their-analogues-as-bioactive-molecules-design-synthesis-docking-and-biological-evaluation
#7
Anil Kumar Verma, Abha Bishnoi, Shaheen Fatma, Huda Parveen, Vineeta Singh
A simple and highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of novel thiazol-2-amines, via Mannich reaction with secondary amines, is described. The newly synthesized derivatives 8(a-e) and 9(a-e) were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the derivatives were evaluated for their in-vitro anti-microbial activity against a panel of pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. The SAR showed that the secondary amines had a significant impact on the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of this class of agents...
November 20, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154899/combining-diagnostic-methods-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-a-comparative-approach
#8
Sylvia Natalie Kłodzińska, Petra Alexandra Priemel, Thomas Rades, Hanne Mørck Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is a measure of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of a given antibiotic, but provides insufficient information when bacterial killing is crucial, e.g. when treating immunocompromised patients. In these cases, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) is a more reliable measure of antibiotic activity. Here, we aim to demonstrate and recommend combinations of methods for MIC and MBC measurements. We also aim to emphasize the importance of uniform protocols for these procedures including the time point for reading MIC results, which the authors suggest to be 20h...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153061/-defining-of-gene-mutations-and-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-in-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#9
Esra Yıldırım, Meltem Uzun
Tuberculosis is a very important disease all over the world despite the advanced diagnostic and treatment regimens. Resistant tuberculosis, which has increased in recent years in particular, is a global problem and prevents the fight against tuberculosis. For this reason, it is important to determine the etiologic agent early and its sensitivity against antituberculosis drugs. Resistance profiles of the isolates and the gene mutations causing resistance are determined for epidemiological purposes and mutation regions of the isolates are being investigated on the basis of countries...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151652/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-synthetic-pyranochromenones-and-coumarinyloxy-acetamides
#10
Abhishek K Singh, Suchita Prasad, Bipul Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Amitesh Anand, Shashank S Kamble, Sunil K Sharma, Hemant K Gautam
Four (1, 2, 4 and 6) synthetic quaternary ammonium derivatives of pyranochromenones and (coumarinyloxy)acetamides were synthesized and investigated for their antimicrobial efficacy on MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. One of the four compounds screened i.e. N,N,N-triethyl-10-((4,8,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-2,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrano[3,2-g]chromen-10-yl)oxy)decan-1-aminium bromide (1), demonstrated significant activity against S...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#11
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150378/enhanced-antibacterial-effects-of-green-synthesized-zno-nps-using-aristolochia-indica-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens-from-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#12
Katherin Steffy, G Shanthi, Anson S Maroky, S Selvakumar
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of Multi-drug resistance in microorganisms has become the greatest challenge in the treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and urges the need of a new antimicrobial agent. In this study, we determined the bactericidal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) green synthesized from Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) isolated from pus samples of DFU patients attending in a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-vis-DRS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and for its zeta potential value...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142426/in-silico-and-in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-isolated-novel-marker-compound-from-chemically-modified-bioactive-fraction-from-curcuma-longa-nccl
#13
Arshi Naqvi, Richa Malasoni, Swati Gupta, Akansha Srivastava, Rishi R Pandey, Anil Kumar Dwivedi
Background: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is reported to possess wide array of biological activities. Herbal Medicament (HM) is a standardized hexane-soluble fraction of C. longa and is well known for its neuroprotective effect. Objective: In this study, we attempted to synthesize a novel chemically modified bioactive fraction from HM (NCCL) along with isolation and characterization of a novel marker compound (I). Materials and Methods: NCCL was prepared from HM...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136948/gastroprotective-effect-and-mode-of-action-of-methanol-extract-of-sphenodesme-involucrata-var-paniculata-c-b-clarke-munir-lamiaceae-leaves-on-experimental-gastric-ulcer-models
#14
Puthanpura Sasidharan Sreeja, Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Sathyanarayanan Saikumar, Muniyandi Kasipandi, Sivaraj Dhivya, Rajan Murugan, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan
Sphenodesme involucrata var. paniculata (C. B. Clarke) Munir, endemic to South Asia, is used by tribal for alleviation from abdominal disorders, inflammation and body pain. However, the gastroprotective properties of this species have not yet been studied. The leaves of S. involucrata were extracted by Soxhlet extraction using different solvents successively and the extracts were analyzed for antioxidant and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities using different in vitro assays. The chemical composition of methanol extract of S...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135059/effect-of-incorporation-of-antifungal-agents-on-the-ultimate-tensile-strength-of-temporary-soft-denture-liners
#15
Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek, Jozely Francisca Mello Lima, Juliana Hotta, Lucas Lulo Galitesi, Ana Lucia Pompéia Fraga Almeida, Vanessa Migliorini Urban
PURPOSE: To investigate the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314) determined in previous microbiological research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dumbbell-shaped specimens (n = 7) with a central cross-sectional area of 6 × 3 × 33 mm were produced by Softone and Trusoft, without (control) or with incorporation of drugs in powder form at MICs for C...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134292/simultaneous-determination-of-brazilin-and-protosappanin-b-in-caesalpinia-sappan-by-ionic-liquid-dispersive-liquid-phase-microextraction-method-combined-with-hplc
#16
Zhaoyang Xia, Dongdong Li, Qing Li, Yan Zhang, Wenyi Kang
The conditions of heating, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography were optimized to simultaneously isolate and determinate brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan. Ionic liquids, including [BMIM]Br, [BMIM]BF4, [BMIM]PF6 and [HMIM]PF6, were selected as extraction solvents while methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and water were selected as dispersants. The chromatographic column was Purospher star RP-C18 (250 mm × 4...
November 13, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133561/outcomes-of-vancomycin-plus-a-%C3%AE-lactam-versus-vancomycin-only-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#17
James Truong, John J Veillette, Steve C Forland
The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the rates of treatment failure, which was a composite of clinical and microbiologic failure, of patients receiving vancomycin and a β-lactam to those receiving vancomycin only for MRSA bacteremia. Patients 16 to 89 years of age with MRSA bacteremia admitted to a university-affiliated hospital from January 1(st), 2014 to December 31(st), 2016 were screened for study inclusion. Patients were eligible if they received >48 hours of vancomycin and a β-lactam (combination group) or vancomycin only (standard group) within 48 hours following bacteremia onset...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133554/what-is-resistance-impact-of-phenotypic-versus-molecular-drug-resistance-testing-on-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-therapy
#18
Jan Heyckendorf, Sönke Andres, Claudio U Köser, Ioana D Olaru, Thomas Schön, Erik Sturegård, Patrick Beckert, Viola Schleusener, Thomas A Kohl, Doris Hillemann, Danesh Moradigaravand, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Stefan Niemann, Christoph Lange, Matthias Merker
Rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for the treatment of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). We compared the utility of genotypic DST assays with phenotypic DST (pDST) using BACTEC 960 MGIT or Löwenstein-Jensen to construct M/XDR-TB treatment regimens for a cohort of 25 consecutive M/XDR-TB patients and 15 possible anti-TB drugs.Genotypic DST results from Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and line probe assays (LPAs: Hain GenoType MTBDRplus 2.0 and MTBDRsl 2...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130630/a-structure-based-strategy-toward-the-development-of-novel-candidates-for-antimycobacterial-activity-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-docking-study
#19
Linhu Li, Yuanyuan Jin, Bin Wang, Zhaoyong Yang, Mingliang Liu, Huiyuan Guo, Jun Zhang, Yu Lu
Bacterial resistance to most of the available antibiotics has stimulated the discovery of novel efficacious antibacterial agents. Bedaquiline is first of its type that has been specifically introduced for the management of MDR-TB in combination with other drugs. In the current study, a series of isoniazid/ethambutol/pyrazinamide -quinoline conjugates based on the structures of Bedaquiline were designed and synthesized. Biological activity tests revealed that some of isoniazid/ethambutol-quinoline conjugates have useful antibiotic activity against MTB H37Rv (MIC: 2...
November 11, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130500/purification-characterization-and-application-of-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-from-andrias-davidianus-blood
#20
Jinjin Pei, Zhenzhen Feng, Ting Ren, Haiyan Sun, Hao Han, Wengang Jin, Jun Dang
The Andrias davidianus has been known as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Its blood is considered as a waste or by-product of the meat production industry. Although there are reports on isolation of the antimicrobial peptides from different resources, there are no reports of their isolation from Andrias davidianus blood. In this work, an antimicrobial peptide, andricin B, was isolated from the blood of Andrias davidianus by an innovative method in which the magnetic liposome adsorption was combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
November 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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