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Nucleus accumbens

Chen Yuan-Hao, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Barry J Hoffer, Jen-Hsin Kao, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Jonathan Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to impact dopamine-mediated reward pathways, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully established. Methods: Nicotine-induced conditional place preference (CPP) was used to study rats exposed to a 6-psi fluid percussion injury (FPI) with and without prior exposure to nicotine. Preference was quantified as a score defined as (C1-C2) / (C1+C2), where C1 is time in the nicotine-paired compartment and C2 is time in the saline-paired compartment...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Augusto P I Gargiulo, María P Gargiulo De Aranda, Mercedes M L Gargiulo, Angel J M Gargiulo, Andres Acuña, Gustavo C Baiardi, José V Lafuente, Adriana I Landa De Gargiulo, Manuel A Guevara, Pascual A Gargiulo
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, we have observed that specific N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonists and non-NMDA antagonists injected within the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the plus maze test in rats. In the present study, the effect of intracanalicular blockade of NMDA receptors using dizocilpine in the plus maze was studied in male rats bilaterally cannulated NAS. METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups that received either 1 μL injections of saline or dizocilpine (MK-801, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine) in different doses (0...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Caitlin C Clements, Alisa R Zoltowski, Lisa D Yankowitz, Benjamin E Yerys, Robert T Schultz, John D Herrington
Importance: The social motivation hypothesis posits that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) find social stimuli less rewarding than do people with neurotypical activity. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reward processing have yielded mixed results. Objectives: To examine whether individuals with ASD process rewarding stimuli differently than typically developing individuals (controls), whether differences are limited to social rewards, and whether contradictory findings in the literature might be due to sample characteristics...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Yentl Gautier, Isabelle Luneau, Nicolas Coquery, Paul Meurice, Charles-Henri Malbert, Sylvie Guerin, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Caroline Clouard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Sophie Blat, David Val-Laillet
This study explores the long-term effects of exposure to a maternal Western diet (WD) vs. standard diet (SD) in the Yucatan minipig, on the adult progeny at lean status ( n = 32), and then overweight status. We investigated eating behavior, cognitive abilities, brain basal glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter availability, microbiota activity, blood lipids, and glucose tolerance. Although both groups demonstrated similar cognitive abilities in a holeboard test, WD pigs expressed a higher stress level than did SD pigs (immobility, P < 0...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Colin Davidson, Christopher A R Raby, Vincenzo Barrese, John Ramsey
3,4-dichloromethylphenidate (3,4-CTMP) and ethylphenidate are new psychoactive substances and analogs of the attention deficit medication methylphenidate. Both drugs have been reported on online user fora to induce effects similar to cocaine. In the UK, 3,4-CTMP appeared on the drug market in 2013 and ethylphenidate has been sold since 2010. We aimed to explore the neurochemical effects of these drugs on brain dopamine and noradrenaline efflux. 3,4-CTMP and ethylphenidate, purchased from online vendors, were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to confirm their identity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tomoaki M Kato, Mie Kubota-Sakashita, Noriko Fujimori-Tonou, Fumihito Saitow, Satoshi Fuke, Akira Masuda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Hidenori Suzuki, Tadafumi Kato
Although mitochondrial and serotonergic dysfunctions have been implicated in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD), the relationship between these unrelated pathways has not been elucidated. A family of BD and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) caused by a mutation of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1, SLC25A4) implicated that ANT1 mutations confer a risk of BD. Here, we sequenced ANT1 in 324 probands of NIMH bipolar disorder pedigrees and identified two BD patients carrying heterozygous loss-of-function mutations...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Gino Del Ferraro, Andrea Moreno, Byungjoon Min, Flaviano Morone, Úrsula Pérez-Ramírez, Laura Pérez-Cervera, Lucas C Parra, Andrei Holodny, Santiago Canals, Hernán A Makse
Global integration of information in the brain results from complex interactions of segregated brain networks. Identifying the most influential neuronal populations that efficiently bind these networks is a fundamental problem of systems neuroscience. Here, we apply optimal percolation theory and pharmacogenetic interventions in vivo to predict and subsequently target nodes that are essential for global integration of a memory network in rodents. The theory predicts that integration in the memory network is mediated by a set of low-degree nodes located in the nucleus accumbens...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Hossein Aleyasin, Meghan E Flanigan, Sam A Golden, Aki Takahashi, Caroline Menard, Madeline L Pfau, Jacob Multer, Jacqueline Pina, Kathryn A McCabe, Naemal Bhatti, Georgia E Hodes, Mitra Heshmati, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller, Scott J Russo
A growing number of studies implicate the brain's reward circuitry in aggressive behavior. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms within brain reward regions that modulate the intensity of aggression as well as motivation for it have been underexplored. Here, we investigate the cell-type-specific influence of ΔFosB, a transcription factor known to regulate a range of reward and motivated behaviors, acting in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)-a key reward region-in male aggression in mice. We show that ΔFosB is specifically increased in dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1) expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in NAc after repeated aggressive encounters...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Victoria Chareunsouk, Jeffrey Hyde, Daniela Medina Camacho, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Peter W Kalivas
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a variety of physiological processes, and several studies have explored the role of BDNF in addiction-related brain regions like the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore). We sought to understand the rapid effects of endogenous BDNF on cocaine seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and extinguished. We then microinjected two inhibitors of BDNF stimulation of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), the non-competitive receptor antagonist ANA-12 and TrkB/Fc, a fusion protein that binds BDNF and prevents TrkB stimulation...
June 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Giorgio Bergamini, Jonas Mechtersheimer, Damiano Azzinnari, Hannes Sigrist, Michaela Buerge, Robert Dallmann, Robert Freije, Afroditi Kouraki, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Erich Seifritz, Boris Ferger, Tobias Suter, Christopher R Pryce
Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for depression, stress leads to peripheral and central immune activation, immune activation is associated with blunted dopamine (DA) neural function, DA function underlies reward interest, and reduced reward interest is a core symptom of depression. These states might be inter-independent in a complex causal pathway. Whilst animal-model evidence exists for some specific steps in the pathway, there is currently no animal model in which it has been demonstrated that social stress leads to each of these immune, neural and behavioural states...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Akiko Sumitomo, Ayumi Saka, Keisho Ueta, Kouta Horike, Kazuko Hirai, Nao J Gamo, Takatoshi Hikida, Keiichi I Nakayama, Akira Sawa, Takeshi Sakurai, Toshifumi Tomoda
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that, while prevalent, has a stagnant track record for advances in treatment. The limited availability of animal models with appropriate face and predictive validities has hampered progress in developing novel neurobiological hypotheses and testing new therapeutic options for this condition. Here, we report that mice deficient in Fez1 , a gene specifically expressed in the nervous system with documented functions in neurodevelopment, show hyperactivity and impulsivity phenotypes, which are ameliorated by administering methylphenidate (MPH) or guanfacine (GFC), two pharmacological agents used for ADHD treatment...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Stephanie R Ebner, Erin B Larson, Matthew C Hearing, Anna E Ingebretson, Mark J Thomas
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior show potentiation of synaptic strength at excitatory inputs onto NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Marco Oreste Finocchio Pagliusi Junior, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Elayne Vieira Dias, André Schwambach Vieira, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Carlos Amilcar Parada, Cesar Renato Sartori
Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between pain and depression. There is evidence showing this association since patients with depression show a high chronic pain prevalence and vice-versa. Considering that social stress is critical for the development of depression in humans, we used a social defeat stress (SDS) model which induces depressive-like behavior in mice. In this model, mice are exposed to an aggressor mouse for ten days, suffering brief periods of agonistic contact and long periods of sensory contact...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ying Zeng, Di Hu, Wei Yang, Emi Hayashinaka, Yasuhiro Wada, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Qunli Zeng, Yilong Cui
Placebo analgesia is the beneficial effect that follows despite a pharmacologically inert treatment. Modern neuroimaging studies in humans have delineated the hierarchical brain regions involved in placebo analgesia. However, because of the lack of proper approaches to perform molecular and cellular manipulations, the detailed molecular processes behind it have not been clarified. To address this issue, we developed an animal model of placebo analgesia in rats and analyzed the placebo analgesia related brain activity using small-animal neuroimaging method...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Xi Fang, Chun Yang, Shan Li, Gaofeng Zhan, Jie Zhang, Niannian Huang, Xiangxi Du, Hui Xu, Kenji Hashimoto, Ailin Luo
Although depressive symptoms including anhedonia (i.e., loss of pleasure) frequently accompany pain, little is known about the risk factors contributing to individual differences in pain-induced anhedonia. In this study, we examined if signaling of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) contribute to individual differences in the development of neuropathic pain-induced anhedonia. Rats were randomly subjected to spared nerved ligation (SNI) or sham surgery...
June 7, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ilse Delint-Ramirez, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Amir Segev, Saïd Kourrich
Drug-induced enhanced dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain is a canonical mechanism that initiates addiction processes. However, indirect evidence suggests that cocaine also triggers non-canonical, DA-independent, mechanisms that contribute to behavioral responses to cocaine, including psychomotor sensitization and cocaine self-administration. Identifying these mechanisms and determining how they are initiated is fundamental to further our understanding of addiction processes. Using physiologically relevant in vitro tractable models, we found that cocaine-induced hypoactivity of nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), one hallmark of cocaine addiction, is independent of DA signaling...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jochem P Spaans, Sarah M Burke, Sibel Altikulaç, Barbara R Braams, Zdeňa A Op de Macks, Eveline A Crone
Mother-child relationships change considerably in adolescence, but it is not yet understood how mothers experience vicarious rewards for their adolescent children. In the current study, we investigated neural responses of twenty mothers winning and losing money for their best friend and for their adolescent child in a gambling task. During the task, functional neuroimaging data were acquired. We examined the activation patterns when playing for or winning for self, adolescent children and friends in four a-priori selected ROIs (nucleus accumbens, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and temporo-parietal junction)...
2018: PloS One
Catherine Chaumontet, Isidra Recio, Gilles Fromentin, Simon Benoit, Julien Piedcoq, Nicolas Darcel, Daniel Tomé
Background: Protein status is controlled by the brain, which modulates feeding behavior to prevent protein deficiency. Objective: This study tested in rats whether protein status modulates feeding behavior through brain reward pathways. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Wistar rats (mean ± SD weight; 230 ± 16 g). In experiment 1, rats adapted for 2 wk to a low-protein (LP; 6% of energy) or a normal-protein (NP; 14% of energy) diet were offered a choice between 3 cups containing high-protein (HP; 50% of energy), NP, or LP feed; their intake was measured for 24 h...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Wei-Yi Ong, Christian S Stohler, Deron R Herr
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is not only important in executive functions, but also pain processing. The latter is dependent on its connections to other areas of the cerebral neocortex, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), thalamus, amygdala, and basal nuclei. Changes in neurotransmitters, gene expression, glial cells, and neuroinflammation occur in the PFC during acute and chronic pain, that result in alterations to its structure, activity, and connectivity. The medial PFC (mPFC) could serve dual, opposing roles in pain: (1) it mediates antinociceptive effects, due to its connections with other cortical areas, and as the main source of cortical afferents to the PAG for modulation of pain...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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