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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674268/frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-continuous-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Zengjian Wang, Jiliang Fang, Jun Liu, Peijing Rong, Kristen Jorgenson, Joel Park, Courtney Lang, Yang Hong, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) may be a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this exploratory study, fMRI scans were acquired during continuous real or sham tVNS from 41 MDD patients. Then, all patients received real or sham tVNS treatment for four weeks. We investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different frequency bands during real and sham tVNS and explored their associations with depressive symptom changes after one month of treatment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674090/oscillatory-local-field-potentials-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-heroin-addicts
#2
Shunnan Ge, Xinyi Geng, Xuelian Wang, Nan Li, Lei Chen, Xinjing Zhang, Yongzhi Huang, Yang Li, Yukun Chen, Shouyan Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVES: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to regulate the motivation and underlie addictive behaviors, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is involved in several psychiatric disorders. Our study aimed to explore the functions of NAc and ALIC electrophysiologically. METHODS: The local field potentials (LFPs) of the NAc and ALIC were recorded from 7 heroin addicts treated with deep brain stimulation. Correlation analysis was made between LFP powers in various frequency bands and the subjects' neuropsychological test scores; coherence was calculated for the LFPs in NAc and ALIC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672454/pronociceptive-effects-mediated-by-adenosinergic-a2a-activity-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-but-what-about-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#3
James K Ruffle, Qasim Aziz, Adam D Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671049/parent-offspring-cohabitation-after-weaning-inhibits-partner-preference-and-alters-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-adult-mandarin-vole
#5
Ruiyong Wu, Zhenzhen Song, Fadao Tai
In some mammals, offspring may live with their parents for a very long time after weaning, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning parent-offspring cohabitation on the behavioral and neurobiological development of offspring. Here, we explored the effect of this experience on partner preference in adult mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of central oxytocin (OT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as OT receptor (OTR), dopamine D1-type and D2-type receptors (D1R and D2R) mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial amygdala (MeA) were also measured...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668112/pharmacogenetic-manipulation-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-alters-binge-like-alcohol-drinking-in-mice
#6
Kush Purohit, Puja K Parekh, Joseph Kern, Ryan W Logan, Zheng Liu, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung, John C Crabbe, Angela R Ozburn
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol intake leads to long-lasting changes in reward- and stress-related neuronal circuitry. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an integral component of this circuitry. Here, we investigate the effects of DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) on neuronal activity in the NAc and binge-like drinking. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were stereotaxically injected with AAV2 hSyn-HA hM3Dq, -hM4Di, or -eGFP bilaterally into NAc [core + shell, core or shell]...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666571/pleiotropic-contribution-of-mecom-and-avpr1a-to-aggression-and-subcortical-brain-volumes
#7
Marjolein M J van Donkelaar, Martine Hoogman, Irene Pappa, Henning Tiemeier, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Janita Bralten
Reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression have been recognized to help parse etiological heterogeneity of this complex phenotype. With a heritability of about 50%, genetic factors play a role in the development of aggressive behavior. Imaging studies implicate brain structures related to social behavior in aggression etiology, most notably the amygdala and striatum. This study aimed to gain more insight into the pathways from genetic risk factors for aggression to aggression phenotypes. To this end, we conducted genome-wide gene-based cross-trait meta-analyses of aggression with the volumes of amygdala, nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus to identify genes influencing both aggression and aggression-related brain volumes...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665228/ultra-high-field-fmri-insights-on-insight-neural-correlates-of-the-aha-moment
#8
Martin Tik, Ronald Sladky, Caroline Di Bernardi Luft, David Willinger, André Hoffmann, Michael J Banissy, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Christian Windischberger
Finding creative solutions to difficult problems is a fundamental aspect of human culture and a skill highly needed. However, the exact neural processes underlying creative problem solving remain unclear. Insightful problem solving tasks were shown to be a valid method for investigating one subcomponent of creativity: the Aha!-moment. Finding insightful solutions during a remote associates task (RAT) was found to elicit specific cortical activity changes. Considering the strong affective components of Aha!-moments, as manifested in the subjectively experienced feeling of relief following the sudden emergence of the solution of the problem without any conscious forewarning, we hypothesized the subcortical dopaminergic reward network to be critically engaged during Aha...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664745/cross-tolerance-between-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-and-atypical-antipsychotics-modify-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-diaphorase-activity-in-mouse-lateral-striatum
#9
Sonia G Prieto, João C S Silva, Mairon O de Lima, Maria C Almeida, Marcela B Echeverry
Previous research indicates that the subchronic administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) produces tolerance to haloperidol-induced catalepsy in Swiss mice. The present study aimed to further investigate whether intermittent subchronic systemic administration of L-NOARG induces tolerance to the cataleptic effects of haloperidol as well as olanzapine or clozapine (Clz) in C57Bl mice after subchronic administration for 5 consecutive days. Striatal FosB protein expression was measured in an attempt to gain further insights into striatal mechanisms in antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms side effects...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664737/insulin-regulates-astrocyte-gliotransmission-and-modulates-behavior
#10
Weikang Cai, Chang Xue, Masaji Sakaguchi, Masahiro Konishi, Alireza Shirazian, Heather A Ferris, Mengyao Li, Ruichao Yu, Andre Kleinridders, Emmanuel N Pothos, C Ronald Kahn
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout body, including central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor in brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities, however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well-studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662447/neural-mechanisms-underlying-time-perception-and-reward-anticipation
#11
Nihal Apaydın, Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, İpek Çelikağ, Halise D Özgüven, Bora Baskak, Metehan Çiçek
Findings suggest that the physiological mechanisms involved in the reward anticipation and time perception partially overlap. But the systematic investigation of a potential interaction between time and reward systems using neuroimaging is lacking. Eighteen healthy volunteers (all right-handed) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that employs a visual paradigm that consists monetary reward to assess whether the functional neural representations of time perception and reward prospection are shared or distinct...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660441/silencing-the-insular-striatal-circuit-decreases-alcohol-self-administration-and-increases-sensitivity-to-alcohol
#12
Anel A Jaramillo, Kalynn Van Voorhies, Patrick A Randall, Joyce Besheer
Internal drug states/cues can impact drug taking, as pretreatment with a moderate to high alcohol dose (i.e., loading dose) can decrease subsequent alcohol self-administration, alcohol-seeking, and relapse-like drinking. The insular cortex (IC) is implicated in processing information about internal states and findings show that silencing the IC and its projections to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) enhance sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to determine the functional role of IC-AcbC projections in modulating the effects of alcohol pretreatment on operant alcohol self-administration...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659656/sexual-risk-taking-and-subcortical-brain-volume-in-adolescence
#13
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Karen A Hudson, Justin Caouette, Andrew R Mayer, Rachel E Thayer, Sephira G Ryman, Angela D Bryan
Background : The developmental period of adolescence marks the initiation of new socioemotional and physical behaviors, including sexual intercourse. However, little is known about neurodevelopmental influences on adolescent sexual decision-making. Purpose: We sought to determine how subcortical brain volume correlated with condom use, and whether those associations differed by gender and pubertal development. Methods: We used FreeSurfer to extract subcortical volume among N = 169 sexually experienced youth (mean age 16...
April 6, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658920/identification-of-dopamine-d1-alpha-receptor-within-rodent-nucleus-accumbens-by-an-innovative-rna-in-situ-detection-technology
#14
Hailong Li, Jessica M Illenberger, Kristen A McLaurin, Charles F Mactutus, Rosemarie M Booze
In the central nervous system, the D1-alpha subtype receptor (Drd1α) is the most abundant dopamine (DA) receptor, which plays a vital role in regulating neuronal growth and development. However, the mechanisms underlying Drd1α receptor abnormalities mediating behavioral responses and modulating working memory function are still unclear. Using a novel RNA in situ hybridization assay, the current study identified dopamine Drd1α receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) RNA expression from DA-related circuitry in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) area and substantia nigra region (SNR), respectively...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656874/regional-heterogeneity-of-d2-receptor-signaling-in-the-dorsal-striatum-and-nucleus-accumbens
#15
Pamela F Marcott, Sheng Gong, Prashant Donthamsetti, Steven G Grinnell, Melissa N Nelson, Amy H Newman, Lutz Birnbaumer, Kirill A Martemyanov, Jonathan A Javitch, Christopher P Ford
Dopamine input to the dorsal and ventral striatum originates from separate populations of midbrain neurons. Despite differences in afferent inputs and behavioral output, little is known about how dopamine release is encoded by dopamine receptors on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) across striatal subregions. Here we examined the activation of D2 receptors following the synaptic release of dopamine in the dorsal striatum (DStr) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. We found that D2 receptor-mediated synaptic currents were slower in the NAc and this difference occurred at the level of D2-receptor signaling...
April 10, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656870/distinct-accumbens-shell-output-pathways-promote-versus-prevent-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking
#16
Gabrielle D Gibson, Asheeta A Prasad, Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Joanna O Y Yau, E Zayra Millan, Yu Liu, Erin J Campbell, Jun Lim, Nathan J Marchant, John M Power, Simon Killcross, Andrew J Lawrence, Gavan P McNally
Contexts exert bi-directional control over relapse to drug seeking. Contexts associated with drug self-administration promote relapse, whereas contexts associated with the absence of self-administration protect against relapse. The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) is a key brain region determining these roles of context. However, the specific cell types, and projections, by which AcbSh serves these dual roles are unknown. Here, we show that contextual control over relapse and abstinence is embedded within distinct output circuits of dopamine 1 receptor (Drd1) expressing AcbSh neurons...
April 6, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#17
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655598/individual-differences-in-the-energizing-effects-of-caffeine-on-effort-based-decision-making-tests-in-rats
#18
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651138/gene-expression-links-functional-networks-across-cortex-and-striatum
#19
Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642450/mechanistic-insights-into-the-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-and-their-discrimination-by-the-dopamine-transporter-in-silico-and-in-vitro-exploration-of-dissociative-diarylethylamines
#20
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, Neelakshi Dutta, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) may have unsuspected addiction potential through possessing stimulant properties. Stimulants normally act at the dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus increase dopamine (DA) availability in the brain, including nucleus accumbens, within the reward and addiction pathway. This paper aims to assess DAT responses to dissociative diarylethylamine NPS by means of in vitro and in silico approaches. We compared diphenidine (DPH) and 2-methoxydiphenidine (methoxphenidine, 2-MXP/MXP) for their binding to rat DAT, using autoradiography assessment of [125 I]RTI-121 displacement in rat striatal sections...
April 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
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