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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055240/automatic-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-social-anhedonia
#1
Vivien Günther, Juliane Zimmer, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow
Anhedonia is an important feature of major depression and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated neural alterations in high anhedonia, isolated from other psychopathological variables, by including only participants without clinical diagnoses. The present study examined healthy individuals scoring high (N = 18) vs. low (N = 19) in social anhedonia, who were carefully selected from a sample of N = 282 participants. To examine differences in automatic brain responses to social-affective stimuli between high vs...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055101/substance-p-and-dopamine-interact-to-modulate-the-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#2
Emily Heath, Billy Chieng, Macdonald J Christie, Bernard W Balleine
It recently been demonstrated that predictive learning induces a persistent accumulation of delta-opioid receptors (DOPr's) at the somatic membrane of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the nucleus accumbens shell (Nac-S). This accumulation is required for predictive learning to influence subsequent choice between goal-directed actions. The current experiments investigated the local neurochemical events responsible for this translocation. We found that (1) local administration of substance P into multiple striatal sub-territories induced DOPr translocation and (2) that this effect was mediated by the NK1 receptor, likely through its expression on CINs...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054857/diazepam-concurrently-increases-the-frequency-and-decreases-the-amplitude-of-dopamine-transient-release-events-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Scott A Schelp, Zachary D Brodnik, Dylan R Rakowski, Katherine J Pultorak, Asha T Sambells, Rodrigo A Espana, Erik B Oleson
Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed anxiolytics that pose abuse liability in susceptible individuals. While it is well established that all drugs of abuse increase brain dopamine levels and benzodiazepines are allosteric modulators of the GABAAR, it remains unclear how they alter dopamine release. Using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured diazepam (trade name valium) induced changes in the frequency and amplitude of transient dopamine release events. We found that diazepam concurrently increase the frequency and decreases the amplitude of transient dopamine release events in the awake and freely-moving rat...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054430/nmda-receptor-dependent-changes-in-c-fos-and-p-creb-signaling-following-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-place-preference
#4
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Yasaman Razavi, Abbas Haghparast
Neural circuitry comprising the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has a main role in reward phenomena. Previous behavioral studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of AP5 (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist) and CNQX (AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist) during the extinction and before reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) reduced the extinction period and reinstatement of morphine-CPP. Therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of antagonism of NMDA glutamate receptors on the p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos expression in the NAc, PFC and HIP during these two phases of morphine-CPP in male adult albino Wistar rats...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054286/functional-roles-of-orexin-hypocretin-receptors-in-reward-circuit
#5
Abbas Haghparast, Zahra Fatahi, Reza Arezoomandan, Sara Karimi, Zahra Taslimi, Shahram Zarrabian
Since its first discovery in 1998, it has become clear that the orexinergic system plays an important role in regulating a number of functions including food, sex, social connections, and most prominently reward-related behaviors. Orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project extensively to other brain areas, two most important of which are the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens that are involved in reward processing. In this review, we have presented the work in our laboratory along with the work of others and have discussed the possible functions we can infer from the research...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#6
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039413/vta-mtor-signaling-regulates-dopamine-dynamics-cocaine-induced-synaptic-alterations-and-reward
#7
Xiaojie Liu, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Casey R Vickstrom, Qing-Song Liu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates long-term synaptic plasticity, learning and memory by controlling dendritic protein synthesis. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Using viral vectors to selectively delete mTOR in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in adult male mTOR(loxP/loxP) mice, we investigated the role of mTOR in regulating neuronal morphology, basal synaptic transmission, dopamine dynamics and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039297/the-impact-of-periconceptional-alcohol-exposure-on-fat-preference-and-gene-expression-in-the-mesolimbic-reward-pathway-in-adult-rat-offspring
#8
E S Dorey, C L Cullen, D Lucia, K M Mah, M-L Roy Manchadi, B S Muhlhausler, K M Moritz
Alcohol consumption around the time of conception is highly prevalent in Western countries. Exposure to ethanol levels during gestation has been associated with altered development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in rats and increased propensity to addiction, however the effect of exposure only around the time of conception is unknown. The current study investigated the effects of periconceptional alcohol exposure (PC:EtOH) on alcohol and palatable food preferences and gene expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens of the adult offspring...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039077/chronic-light-exposure-alters-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-systems-in-the-rat-brain-and-reverses-maternal-separation-induced-increase-in-orexin-receptors-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
J J Dimatelis, A Mtintsilana, V Naidoo, D J Stein, V A Russell
Maternal separation (MS) is a well-established rodent model of depression. Chronic constant light (CCL) treatment during adolescence has been shown to reverse the depression-like behaviour induced by MS. We aimed to further delineate the antidepressant effect of light by investigating the involvement of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems. MS was used to induce changes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, some of whom were also treated with CCL for 3 weeks during adolescence. At P80, rats were decapitated and brain tissue collected for analysis of glutamate- and potassium-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) using an in vitro superfusion technique...
October 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038922/lower-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-gray-matter-of-amygdala-hippocampus-nucleus-accumbens-circuit-in-methamphetamine-users-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#10
Yadi Li, Wenhua Zhou, Haibo Dong, Wenwen Shen, Jianbing Zhang, Feng Li, Lingjun Zhang
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal ventral subiculum, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) comprise the amygdala-hippocampus-NAc (AHN) circuit, which is implicated in drug seeking and reward. The goal of this study was to evaluate microstructural changes and relevant clinical features of the AHN circuit gray matter (GM) in methamphetamine (MA) users using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty MA users and 30 age-matched normal volunteers underwent 3-T MR imaging to obtain structural T1-weighted images and DTI data...
October 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038792/neuroanatomical-relationships-between-orexin-hypocretin-containing-neurons-nerve-fibers-and-nicotine-induced-c-fos-activated-cells-of-the-reward-addiction-neurocircuitry
#11
Ozra Dehkordi, Jed E Rose, Martha I Dávila-García, Richard M Millis, Samar Ali Mirzaei, Kebreten F Manaye, Annapurni Jayam-Trouth
Orexin/hypocretin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamus (LH) are implicated in the neurobiology of nicotine addiction. However, the neuroanatomical relationships between orexin-neurons/nerve fibers and nicotine-activated cells within the reward-addiction neurocircuitry is not known. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by an acute single injection of nicotine (NIC, 2 mg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to identify the location of orexin-containing neurons and nerve fibers with respect to NIC-induced c-Fos activated cells and/or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) cells of the mesocorticolimbic reward-addiction pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037790/glucocorticoid-receptor-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-its-roles-in-propofol-addictions
#12
Binbin Wu, Wenxuan Lin, Hong Wang, Taha Abdullah, Benfu Wang, Ying Su, Ren-Shan Ge, Qingquan Lian
Propofol has been demonstrated as a drug of abuse in humans. Our previous study indicated that dexamethasone, a potent agonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), inhibited propofol-maintained rat self-administration behaviors by systematic injection. However, the direct effect of GR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on propofol self-administration behavior has not been explored. The propofol-maintained self-administration was established in rats after a successive 3-h daily self-administration of propofol for 14days...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033782/neural-correlates-of-direct-access-trading-in-a-real-stock-market-an-fmri-investigation
#13
GianMario Raggetti, Maria G Ceravolo, Lucrezia Fattobene, Cinzia Di Dio
Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources. Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion) and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell) of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT) platforms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032922/serotonin-transporter-density-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-pathological-gambling-a-pet-study-with-11-c-madam
#14
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Riitta Parkkola, Hannu Alho, Eveliina Arponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [(11)C]MADAM...
October 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030974/dopamine-transporter-gene-methylation-is-associated-with-nucleus-accumbens-activation-during-reward-processing-in-healthy-but-not-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#15
Christine Muench, Corinde E Wiers, Carlos R Cortes, Reza Momenan, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: Alcohol's reinforcement is mediated by dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum, which is modulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). We hypothesized that methylomic variation in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) affects DAT expression thus contributing to differences in brain reward circuitry in individuals with alcohol dependence (ALC). METHODS: Blood from 45 recently detoxified ALC and 45 healthy control (HC) individuals was used to assess DNA methylation across 5 functional regions of SLC6A3...
October 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#16
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030218/acupuncture-suppresses-intravenous-methamphetamine-self-administration-through-gaba-receptor-s-mediation
#17
Yi Jeong Choi, Nam Jun Kim, Rong Jie Zhao, Da Hye Kim, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim, Young S Gwak, Eun Young Jang, Jae Su Kim, Yun Kyu Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Sang Nam Lee, Sung Chul Lim, Bong Hyo Lee
OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. In spite of a number of studies, there is still little successful therapy to suppress the methamphetamine abuse. Acupuncture has shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant. Based on, the present study investigated if acupuncture could suppress intravenous methamphetamine self-administration behavior. In addition, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were trained to intake food pellet...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027032/cocaine-increases-dopaminergic-connectivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#18
Marc Dos Santos, Emma N Cahill, Gregory Dal Bo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Bruno Giros, Nicolas Heck
The development of addictive behavior is associated with functional and structural plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Increased connectivity upon cocaine administration has been inferred from increases in dendritic spine density, but without observations of presynaptic elements. Recently, we established a method that enables analyses of both dendritic spines and glutamatergic boutons and presented evidence that cocaine induces changes in striatal connectivity. As the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cocaine directly implicate dopaminergic neurons and their afferents, a remaining question is whether dopaminergic striatal innervations also undergo structural plasticity...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026117/involvement-of-the-accumbal-osteopontin-interacting-transmembrane-protein-168-in-methamphetamine-induced-place-preference-and-hyperlocomotion-in-mice
#19
Kequan Fu, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Kazuya Otake, Kazuyuki Sumi, Eriko Saika, Shohei Matsumura, Naoki Sato, Yuka Ueno, Seunghee Seo, Kyosuke Uno, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Atsumi Nitta
Chronic exposure to methamphetamine causes adaptive changes in brain, which underlie dependence symptoms. We have found that the transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168) is overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens of mice upon repeated methamphetamine administration. Here, we firstly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of TMEM168 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes in mice, and attempt to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. We overexpressed TMEM168 in the nucleus accumbens of mice by using an adeno-associated virus vector (NAc-TMEM mice)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022871/a-postmortem-analysis-of-nmda-ionotropic-and-group-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-schizophrenia
#20
Jeremy S Lum, Samuel J Millard, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in the pathology and treatment of schizophrenia. Recent postmortem evidence suggests a hyperglutamatergic state in the NAcc. With the present study we aimed to explore possible glutamatergic alterations in the NAcc of a large schizophrenia cohort. METHODS: We performed immunoblots on postmortem NAcc samples from 30 individuals who had schizophrenia and 30 matched controls. We examined the protein expression of primary glutamatergic receptors, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits) and the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1 and mGluR5; dimeric and monomeric forms)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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