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design of experiments

Sowmya Mekala, Subbarao V Tullimilli, Ramasatyaveni Geesala, Kanakaraju Manupati, Neha R Dhoke, Amitava Das
Apoptotic hepatocytes release factors that activate Hepatic Stellate Cells (HSCs) thereby inducing hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, in vivo and in vitro injury models were established using acetaminophen, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide. Hepatotoxicant-induced diseased hepatic tissue histology correlated with a differential expression of fibrosis-related genes. Marked increase in co-staining of TGFRIIβ-Desmin or α-SMA-PDGFRβ, markers of activated HSCs, in liver sections of these hepatotoxicant-treated mice also depicted an increase in Annexin V-Cytokeratin expressing hepatocytes...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Peter J Carr, Niall S Higgins, Marie L Cooke, Gabor Mihala, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Most people admitted to hospitals worldwide require a vascular access device (VAD). Hundreds of millions of VADs are inserted annually in the USA with reports of over a billion peripheral intravenous catheters used annually worldwide. Numerous reports suggest that a team approach for the assessment, insertion, and maintenance of VADs improves clinical outcomes, the patient experience, and healthcare processes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of the vascular access specialist team (VAST) for VAD insertion and care to a generalist model approach for hospital or community participants requiring a VAD in terms of insertion success, device failure, and cost-effectiveness...
March 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
En Ye, Xin Ye, Chang Liu
The awareness of others' activities has been widely recognized as essential in facilitating coordination in a team among Computer-Supported Cooperative Work communities. Several field studies of software developers in large software companies such as Microsoft have shown that coworker and artifact awareness are the most common information needs for software developers; however, they are also two of the seven most frequently unsatisfied information needs. To address this problem, we built a workspace awareness tool named TeamWATCH to visualize developer activities using a 3-D city metaphor...
2018: PloS One
Sean M Murphy, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Jake R Morgan, Kathryn McCollister, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluation findings assist stakeholders in improving the quality, availability, scalability, and sustainability of evidence-based services, and in maximizing the efficiency of service delivery. The Center for Health Economics of Treatment Interventions for Substance Use Disorders, HCV, and HIV (CHERISH) is a NIDA-funded multi-institutional center of excellence whose mission is to develop and disseminate health-economic research on healthcare utilization, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors that informs substance use disorder treatment policy, and HCV and HIV care of people who use substances...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
F Munell, M A Tormos, M Roig-Quilis
Brainstem dysgenesis designates all those patients with congenital dysfunction of cranial nerves and muscle tone due to prenatal lesions or malformations of the brainstem. This generic term has the advantage over the eponyms Moebius 'expanded' or 'unrestricted', Robin, Cogan or Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndromes in that it has a less restrictive view and provides a frame work that enables a systematic approach to diagnosis and research of most developmental disorders involving the brainstem. The review of the literature and our experience shows that infants with a predominant rombencephalic involvement are due to brainstem prenatal disruptive vascular accidents, while cases with midbrain and cerebellar involvement and widespread malformative syndromes have most likely an underlying genetic cause...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Maja Cindrić, Mihaela Perić, Marijeta Kralj, Irena Martin-Kleiner, Marie-Hélène David-Cordonnier, Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Mario Matijašić, Donatella Verbanac, Grace Karminski-Zamola, Marijana Hranjec
Novel nitro (3a-3f)- and amino (4a-4f and 5a-5f)-substituted 2-benzimidazolyl and 2-benzothiazolyl benzo[b]thieno-2-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as potential antibacterial agents. The antibacterial activity of these compounds has been evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Moraxella catarrhalis). The most promising antibacterial activity was observed for the nitro- and amino-substituted benzimidazole derivatives 3a, 4a, 5a and 5b with MICs 2-8 [Formula: see text]...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Bilal Afsar, Asad Shahjehan, Sadia Cheema, Farheen Javed
INTRODUCTION: People differ considerably in the way in which they express and experience their nursing careers. The positive effects associated with having a calling may differ substantially based on individuals' abilities to live out their callings. In a working world where many individuals have little to no choice in their type of employment and thus are unable to live out a calling even if they have one, the current study examined how perceiving a calling and living a calling interacted to predict organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job stress with career commitment mediating the effect of the interactions on the three outcome variables...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Mitchell L Worley, Evan M Graboyes, Julie Blair, Suhael Momin, Kent E Armeson, Terry A Day, Andrew T Huang
Objective To describe swallowing outcomes in elderly patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract and identify risk factors for poor postoperative swallowing function. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Sixty-six patients aged ≥70 years underwent microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. The primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS); preoperative and postoperative scores were dichotomized to define "good swallowing" and "poor swallowing...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Marius C Florescu, Joseph Runge, John Lof, Elizabeth Stolze, Gretchen Fry, Maurino Flora, George Nio, Kirk W Foster
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is insufficient knowledge about the surgical anatomy and surgical techniques in large animals that can be used to test medical devices designed for human use. We encountered this problem in our study requiring the placement of jugular vein, tunneled, cuffed hemodialysis catheter in 70 kg pigs. Despite the operator's extensive expertise in placing tunneled hemodialysis catheters in humans, the important differences in anatomy made the procedure and choosing the appropriate catheter length challenging...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Yu Tsukanov
BACKGROUND: To study the possibility of minimization of the skin incisions up to a puncture size at stripping by Mayo with the use of the stripper with an oval-ring head for large-diameter veins. METHODS: The problem is solved due to the geometrical changing of the stripper head from a round to an oval one. The laboratory experiment showed that with a vein diameter of 10-20 mm the total cross-sectional area of its walls constituted 13.61 mm2, with a diameter of more than 20 mm it was 19...
March 15, 2018: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Sylvia L Crowder, Katherine G Douglas, M Yanina Pepino, Kalika P Sarma, Anna E Arthur
PURPOSE: It is estimated that more than 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors who underwent chemoradiotherapy experience one or more nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) in the months or years thereafter. Despite the high prevalence, there is limited research addressing long-term impact of NIS on outcomes such as nutrition and quality of life in HNC survivors treated with chemoradiotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The prevalence and consequences of nutrition impact symptoms are substantial among head and neck cancer survivors beyond the acute phase of cancer treatment...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
S C Bertog, P A Sobotka, M D Lobo, K Sievert, L Vaskelyte, H Sievert, Roland E Schmieder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provision of a summary on the physiologic effects of arteriovenous fistula creation and description of previously published human data on the efficacy of a percutaneously implanted device creating an arteriovenous fistula. Though antihypertensive therapy is effective, some patient's blood pressure remains poorly controlled despite adherence to optimal medical therapy. Moreover, some patients are not compliant with recommended medical therapy due to side effects or personal decision...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Anan S Jarab, Tareq L Mukattash, Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Maher Khdour
Background: Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major health problem in Jordan and glycemic goals are often not achieved. Objective: To explore the patients' perspectives regarding type 2 diabetes and its management in order to "fine-tune" future pharmaceutical care intervention programs. Method: Focus groups method was used to explore views from individuals with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient diabetes clinic at the Royal Medical Services Hospital...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Linda Ye, Mingu Kang, Junwei Liu, Felix von Cube, Christina R Wicker, Takehito Suzuki, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, David C Bell, Liang Fu, Riccardo Comin, Joseph G Checkelsky
The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states that could lead to topological and Chern insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3 Sn2 , which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Paul P Lin, Alec J Jaeger, Tung-Yun Wu, Sharon C Xu, Abraxa S Lee, Fanke Gao, Po-Wei Chen, James C Liao
The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (EMP) pathway, commonly known as glycolysis, represents the fundamental biochemical infrastructure for sugar catabolism in almost all organisms, as it provides key components for biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and global regulation. EMP-based metabolism synthesizes three-carbon (C3) metabolites before two-carbon (C2) metabolites and must emit one CO2 in the synthesis of the C2 building block, acetyl-CoA, a precursor for many industrially important products. Using rational design, genome editing, and evolution, here we replaced the native glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli with the previously designed nonoxidative glycolysis (NOG), which bypasses initial C3 formation and directly generates stoichiometric amounts of C2 metabolites...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tamara J Somers, Sarah A Kelleher, Caroline S Dorfman, Rebecca A Shelby, Hannah M Fisher, Krista Rowe Nichols, Keith M Sullivan, Nelson J Chao, Gregory P Samsa, Amy P Abernethy, Francis J Keefe
BACKGROUND: Pain is a challenge for patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a Web-based mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST) protocol designed to address the needs of HCT patients. METHODS: Participants had undergone HCT and reported pain following transplant (N=68). To guide intervention development, qualitative data were collected from focus group participants (n=25) and participants who completed user testing (n=7)...
March 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Wang Song, Liu Qian, Guo Jing, Feng Jie, Shan Xiaosong, Liu Chunhui, Li Yangfang, Li Guilin, Hua Gao, Zhang Yazhuo
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are the most common pituitary tumors and mainly invade the sphenoid, cavernous sinus or dura mate. Aberrant regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), WIF1 genes and the invasion of NFPAs by tissue microassays (TMAs) of samples from 163 patients. Significantly weaker staining of WIF1 and sFRP4 were detected in the invasive group compared with the non-invasive group by TMAs (p = 0...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Danica E DeGroot, Adam Swank, Russell S Thomas, Mark Strynar, Mi-Young Lee, Paul L Carmichael, Steven O Simmons
The US EPA's ToxCast program is designed to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints using a variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. However, existing HTS assays have limited or no xenobiotic metabolism which could lead to false positive (chemical is detoxified in vivo) as well as false negative results (chemical is bioactivated in vivo) and thus potential mischaracterization of chemical hazard. To address this challenge, the ten most prevalent human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were introduced into a human cell line (HEK293T) with low endogenous metabolic capacity...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
R Figueroa, J Leiva, R Moncada, L Rojas, M Santibáñez, M Valente, J Velásquez, H Young, G Zelada, R Yáñez, Y Guillen
Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production...
March 8, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yang Tian, Zhilin Liu, Xiaoqian Li, Lihua Zhang, Ruiqing Li, Ripeng Jiang, Fang Dong
Ultrasonic sonotrodes play an essential role in transmitting power ultrasound into the large-scale metallic casting. However, cavitation erosion considerably impairs the in-service performance of ultrasonic sonotrodes, leading to marginal microstructural refinement. In this work, the cavitation erosion behaviour of ultrasonic sonotrodes in large-scale castings was explored using the industry-level experiments of Al alloy cylindrical ingots (i.e. 630 mm in diameter and 6000 mm in length). When introducing power ultrasound, severe cavitation erosion was found to reproducibly occur at some specific positions on ultrasonic sonotrodes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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