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design of experiments

Janina Wirth, Kory K Green, Megan O'Connor, Shuang F Lim
Upconverting nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of photovoltaics and array-based detection devices. While fluorescence enhancement using interference of incident radiation is well known in Stokes-shift type systems such as fluorescent dyes; the effect of such interference geometry in nonlinear Anti-Stokes type emission, such as in upconversion rare earth photophysics is demonstrated for the first time. This work describes in detail the influence of the interference modulation on both the excitation (interion energy transfer) and radiative decay with nonradiative decay processes active between emissive levels...
December 2, 2016: Small
Cynthia Hanson, Nathan D Israelsen, Michael Sieverts, Elizabeth Vargis
Immunoassays are used to detect proteins based on the presence of associated antibodies. Because of their extensive use in research and clinical settings, a large infrastructure of immunoassay instruments and materials can be found. For example, 96- and 384-well polystyrene plates are available commercially and have a standard design to accommodate ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy machines from various manufacturers. In addition, a wide variety of immunoglobulins, detection tags, and blocking agents for customized immunoassay designs such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lara Martínez-Fernández, Giovanni Granucci, Marvin Pollum, Carlos Crespo-Hernández, Maurizio Persico, Ines Corral Perez
Photosensitization of DNA by thionucleosides is a promising photo-chemotherapeutic treatment option for a variety of malignancies. DNA metabolization of thiated prodrugs can lead to cell death upon exposure to a low dose of UVA light. The exact mechanisms of thionucleoside phototoxicity are still not fully understood. In this work, we have combined femtosecond broadband transient absorption experiments with state-of-the-art molecular simulations to provide mechanistic insights for the ultrafast and efficient population of the triplet-state in the UVA-activated pyrimidine anticancer drug: 4-thiothymine...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chen Zhang, Wei Li, Yi Hu, Tao Yang, Ge Jin, Xiao Jiang
In this paper, we demonstrate a coincidence counting system with 48 input channels which is aimed to count all coincidence events, up to 531 441 kinds, in a multiphoton experiment. Using the dynamic delay adjusting inside the Field Programmable Gate Array, the alignment of photon signals of 48 channels is achieved. After the alignment, clock phase shifting is used to sample signal pulses. Logic constraints are used to stabilize the pulse width. The coincidence counting data stored in a 1G bit external random access memory will be sent to the computer to analyze the amount of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coincidence events...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P S Datte, J S Ross, D H Froula, K D Daub, J Galbraith, S Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, D Manha, A M Manuel, W Molander, D Montgomery, J Moody, G F Swadling, J Weaver
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs. We report on the design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beam splitter and gratings before the shot...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
M L Reinke, M Han, G Liu, G G van Eden, R Evenblij, M Haverdings, B C Stratton
Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C Reverdin, A Casner, F Girard, L Lecherbourg, B Loupias, V Tassin, F Philippe
Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-Injection Device (XCCS-CID), records three spectra with three crystals coupled to a time integrated CID camera. The second one, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer (XCCS) with a framing camera, is time resolved and records four spectra with two crystals on the four frames of a framing camera...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C Bentley, P Allan, K Brent, N Bruce, D Hoarty, A Meadowcroft, J Percival, C Opie
Accurately calibrated and characterised x-ray diagnostics are a key requirement in the fielding of experiments on the Orion laser where absolute measurements of x-ray emission are used to underpin the validity of models of emissivity and opacity. Diffraction crystals are used in spectrometers on Orion to record the dispersed spectral features emitted by the laser produced plasma to obtain a measurement of the plasma conditions. The ability to undertake diffraction crystal calibrations supports the successful outcome of these Orion experiments...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A M Saunders, A Jenei, T Döppner, R W Falcone, D Kraus, A Kritcher, O L Landen, J Nilsen, D Swift
X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is a powerful diagnostic for probing warm and hot dense matter. We present the design and results of the first XRTS experiments with hohlraum-driven CH2 targets on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester, NY. X-rays seen directly from the XRTS x-ray source overshadow the elastic scattering signal from the target capsule but can be controlled in future experiments. From the inelastic scattering signal, an average plasma temperature is inferred that is in reasonable agreement with the temperatures predicted by simulations...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
K B Fournier, C G Brown, M F Yeoman, J H Fisher, S W Seiler, D Hinshelwood, S Compton, F R Holdener, G E Kemp, C D Newlander, R P Gilliam, N Froula, M Lilly, J F Davis, Maj A Lerch, B E Blue
Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility's diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
F Leipold, R Reichle, C Vorpahl, E E Mukhin, A M Dmitriev, A G Razdobarin, D S Samsonov, L Marot, L Moser, R Steiner, E Meyer
First mirrors of optical diagnostics in ITER are subject to charge exchange fluxes of Be, W, and potentially other elements. This may degrade the optical performance significantly via erosion or deposition. In order to restore reflectivity, cleaning by applying radio frequency (RF) power to the mirror itself and thus creating a discharge in front of the mirror will be used. The plasma generated in front of the mirror surface sputters off deposition, restoring its reflectivity. Although the functionality of such a mirror cleaning technique is proven in laboratory experiments, the technical implementation in ITER revealed obstacles which needs to be overcome: Since the discharge as an RF load in general is not very well matched to the power generator and transmission line, power reflections will occur leading to a thermal load of the cable...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jolien Dendooven, Eduardo Solano, Matthias M Minjauw, Kevin Van de Kerckhove, Alessandro Coati, Emiliano Fonda, Giuseppe Portale, Yves Garreau, Christophe Detavernier
We report the design of a mobile setup for synchrotron based in situ studies during atomic layer processing. The system was designed to facilitate in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at synchrotron facilities. The setup consists of a compact high vacuum pump-type reactor for atomic layer deposition (ALD). The presence of a remote radio frequency plasma source enables in situ experiments during both thermal as well as plasma-enhanced ALD...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C B Yeamans, N Gharibyan
At the National Ignition Facility, the diagnostic instrument manipulator-based neutron activation spectrometer is used as a diagnostic of implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion experiments. Additionally, it serves as a platform for independent neutronic experiments and may be connected to fast recording systems for neutron effect tests on active electronics. As an implosion diagnostic, the neutron activation spectrometers are used to quantify fluence of primary DT neutrons, downscattered neutrons, and neutrons above the primary DT neutron energy created by reactions of upscattered D and T in flight...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Colin Harthcock, Abdolreza Jahanbekam, Jeremy R Eskelsen, David Y Lee
We describe an example of a piecewise gas chamber that can be customized to incorporate a low flux of gas-phase radicals with an existing surface analysis chamber for in situ and stepwise gas-surface interaction experiments without any constraint in orientation. The piecewise nature of this gas chamber provides complete angular freedom and easy alignment and does not require any modification of the existing surface analysis chamber. In addition, the entire gas-surface system is readily differentially pumped with the surface chamber kept under ultra-high-vacuum during the gas-surface measurements...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J R Fein, P A Keiter, J P Holloway, S R Klein, J S Davis, R P Drake
Experiments were performed to mitigate the hard x-ray background commonly observed in backlit pinhole imagers. The material of the scaffold holding the primary backlighter foil was varied to reduce the laser-plasma instabilities responsible for hot electrons and resulting hard x-ray background. Radiographic measurements with image plates showed a factor of >25 decrease in x-rays between 30 and 67 keV when going from a plastic to Al or V scaffold. A potential design using V scaffold offers a signal-to-background ratio of 6:1, a factor of 2 greater than using the bare plastic scaffold...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
L Makinistian
A novel system of coils for testing in vitro magnetobiological effects was designed, simulated, and built. Opposite to what is usual, the system generates a controlled gradient of magnetic field. This feature is introduced to allow the assessment of multiple values of the field in a single experiment. The apparatus consists of two flattened orthogonal coils, which permit independent control of two of the spatial components of the field. Geometry of design, combined with the use of a standard multi-well microplate for cellular culture, allows for simultaneous testing of 96 different field conditions...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Nagahama, G Schneider, A Mooser, C Smorra, S Sellner, J Harrington, T Higuchi, M Borchert, T Tanaka, M Besirli, K Blaum, Y Matsuda, C Ospelkaus, W Quint, J Walz, Y Yamazaki, S Ulmer
We developed highly sensitive image-current detection systems based on superconducting toroidal coils and ultra-low noise amplifiers for non-destructive measurements of the axial frequencies (550-800 kHz) of single antiprotons stored in a cryogenic multi-Penning-trap system. The unloaded superconducting tuned circuits show quality factors of up to 500 000, which corresponds to a factor of 10 improvement compared to our previously used solenoidal designs. Connected to ultra-low noise amplifiers and the trap system, signal-to-noise-ratios of 30 dB at quality factors of >20 000 are achieved...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A G MacPhee, A K L Dymoke-Bradshaw, J D Hares, J Hassett, B W Hatch, A L Meadowcroft, P M Bell, D K Bradley, P S Datte, O L Landen, N E Palmer, K W Piston, V V Rekow, T J Hilsabeck, J D Kilkenny
We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
G Ciani, M A Arain, S M Aston, D Feldbaum, P Fulda, J Gleason, M Heintze, R M Martin, C L Mueller, D M Nanda Kumar, A Pele, D H Reitze, P Sainathan, D B Tanner, L F Williams, G Mueller
We report on the design and performance of small optic suspensions developed to suppress seismic motion of out-of-cavity optics in the input optics subsystem of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. These compact single stage suspensions provide isolation in all six degrees of freedom of the optic, local sensing and actuation in three of them, and passive damping for the other three.
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
E R Scott, R Barchfeld, P Riemenschneider, C W Domier, C M Muscatello, M Sohrabi, R Kaita, Y Ren, N C Luhmann
The Far-infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system has been refurbished and is being reinstalled on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) to supply real-time line-integrated core electron density measurements for use in the NSTX-U plasma control system (PCS) to facilitate real-time density feedback control of the NSTX-U plasma. Inclusion of a visible light heterodyne interferometer in the FIReTIP system allows for real-time vibration compensation due to movement of an internally mounted retroreflector and the FIReTIP front-end optics...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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