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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527828/buffer-formulation-affects-the-interaction-between-lysozyme-and-polymeric-nanoparticles
#1
Martin Lundqvist, Celia Cabaleiro-Lago
The effect of the buffer formulation in terms of buffer identity and ionic strength on the interaction between chicken egg lysozyme and carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles has been systematically studied. The time evolution of the fluorescence of a reporter molecule shows that lysozyme interacts with the nanoparticles in all the studied conditions. The interaction results in changes in protein conformation and decrease of the colloidal stability of nanoparticles. In absence of a background salt the rate of adsorption is affected mainly by the ionic strength of the buffer solution, although, specific buffer effects may contribute to a certain extent...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527805/effects-of-replacement-of-late-harvested-grass-silage-and-barley-with-early-harvested-silage-on-milk-production-and-methane-emissions
#2
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the effects of gradual replacement of a mixture of late-cut grass silage (LS) and barley with early-cut grass silage (ES) on milk production, CH4 emissions, and N utilization in Swedish Red cows. Two grass silages were prepared from the same primary growth of timothy grass sward but harvested 2 wk apart [11.0 and 9.7 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg of dry matter (DM)]. Four diets, fed as a total mixed ration, were formulated to meet the metabolizable energy and protein requirements of 35 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) by gradually replacing a mixture of LS and barley with ES (0, 33, 67, and 100% of the forage component of the diet), whereas the proportion of barley decreased from 47...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#3
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525957/determining-dominant-driving-forces-affecting-controlled-protein-release-from-polymeric-nanoparticles
#4
Josh Smith, Kayla G Sprenger, Rick Liao, Andrea Joseph, Elizabeth Nance, Jim Pfaendtner
Enzymes play a critical role in many applications in biology and medicine as potential therapeutics. One specific area of interest is enzyme encapsulation in polymer nanostructures, which have applications in drug delivery and catalysis. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms governing protein/polymer interactions is crucial for optimizing the performance of these complex systems for different applications. Using a combined computational and experimental approach, this study aims to quantify the relative importance of molecular and mesoscale driving forces to protein release from polymeric nanoparticles...
May 19, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525259/biodegradable-smart-polyphosphazenes-with-intrinsic-multi-functionality-as-intracellular-protein-delivery-vehicles
#5
Andre P Martinez, Bareera Qamar, Thomas R Fuerst, Silvia Muro, Alexander K Andrianov
A series of biodegradable drug delivery polymers with intrinsic multifunctionality have been designed and synthesized utilizing polyphosphazene macromolecular engineering approach. Novel water-soluble polymers, which contain carboxylic acid and pyrrolidone moieties attached to inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen backbone, were characterized by a suite of physico-chemical methods to confirm their structure, composition, and molecular sizes. All synthesized polyphosphazenes displayed composition dependent hydrolytic degradability in aqueous solutions at neutral pH...
May 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524652/optical-characteristics-and-tumor-imaging-capabilities-of-near-infrared-dyes-in-free-and-nano-encapsulated-formulations-comprised-of-viral-capsids
#6
Yadir Guerrero, Sheela Singh, Turong Mai, Ravoori Murali, Leela Tanikella, Atta Zahedi, Vikas Kundra, Bahman Anvari
Near infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecules and nano-sized structures can serve as potential optical probes for image-guided removal of small tumor nodules (≈ < 1 mm diameter). While indocyanine green (ICG) remains as the only FDA-approved NIR dye, other organic dyes are under extensive development for enhanced imaging capabilities. One such dye is BrCy106-NHS where bromine is substituted for aromatic structures in cyanine dyes. Herein, we investigate the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of ICG and BrCy106-NHS, and quantitatively assess their tumor imaging capabilities in free (non-encapsulated) and a nano-encapsulated form that utilizes the capsid protein (CP) from genome-depleted plant-infecting brome mosaic virus as the encapsulating shell...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523180/primary-atypical-carcinoid-tumor-of-the-mediastinum-a-very-rare-finding
#7
Luigi Ventura, Letizia Gnetti, Enrico Maria Silini, Guido Rindi, Paolo Carbognani, Michele Rusca, Luca Ampollini
Primary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the mediastinum are very rare. Prognosis is usually poor despite treatment options. We present the case of a primary atypical carcinoid tumor of the mediastinum successfully treated by multimodal approach. A 50-year-old man presented for asthenia, dyspnea, and substernal sense of weight for two weeks. A chest-CT scan revealed a tumor mass of 107×55×95 mm(3) localized in the anterosuperior mediastinum compressing both brachiocephalic veins, the superior vena cava, the pericardium, and lungs...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521674/sorbitane-monostearate-and-cholesterol-based-niosomes-for-oral-delivery-of-telmisartan-from-bench-to-preclinical-implementation-in-wistar-albino-rats
#8
Abdul Ahad, Mohammad Raish, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea
BACKGROUND: Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles used as drug carriers for encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize niosomes formulations for oral delivery of telmisartan and evaluated for its antihypertensive activity. METHOD: Telmisartan loaded niosomes were prepared using thin film hydration method by varying the Span 60 and cholesterol at several molar ratios and characterized for vesicles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521592/molecular-perturbation-strategies-to-examine-spatiotemporal-features-of-rho-gef-and-rho-gtpase-activity-in-living-cells
#9
Joachim Goedhart, Jakobus van Unen
Much of our current knowledge of Rho GTPase networks and the regulation by Rho guanine exchange factors (Rho GEFs) and Rho GTPase activating proteins (Rho GAPs) is based on population-based techniques. Over the last decades, technologies that enable single cell analysis with high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed that Rho GTPase activity in cells is regulated on second timescales and at submicrometer length scales. Therefore, perturbation methods with matching spatial and temporal resolution are crucial to further our understanding of Rho GTPase signaling...
May 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521043/nutritional-evaluation-of-conventional-and-increased-protein-reduced-fiber-canola-meal-fed-to-broiler-chickens
#10
M Gorski, C Foran, P Utterback, C M Parsons
Experiments were conducted to evaluate conventional canola meal (Conv CM) and a new increased-protein reduced-fiber CM (Test CM). The Test CM contained higher levels of all digestible amino acids than the Conv CM as determined in 2 precision-fed rooster assays wherein Single Comb White Leghorn roosters were fasted for 24 h and then tube-fed 30 g of Conv CM or Test CM. Excreta were then quantitatively collected for 48 hours. All diets in 2 broiler experiments then were formulated to be equal in AMEn and digestible amino acids based on values from precision-fed rooster assays...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515938/accounting-for-adjuvant-induced-artifacts-in-the-characterization-of-vaccine-formulations-by-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#11
Virginie Jakob, Livia Brunner, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Molly Blust, Nicolas Collin, Lauren Carter, Darrick Carter, Kelly M Rausch, Christopher B Fox
OBJECTIVES: Several vaccine adjuvants comprise complex nano- or micro-particle formulations, such as oil-in-water emulsions. In order to characterize interactions and compatibility of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants with protein antigens in vaccines, effective protein characterization methods that can accommodate potential interference from high concentrations of lipid-based particles are needed. METHODS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a standard protein characterization technique which is affected by the presence of adjuvants such as oil-in-water emulsions...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511928/rational-design-of-nanoparticles-towards-targeting-antigen-presenting-cells-and-improved-t-cell-priming
#12
Eva Zupančič, Caterina Curato, Maria Paisana, Catarina Rodrigues, Ziv Porat, Ana S Viana, Carlos A M Afonso, João Pinto, Rogério Gaspar, João N Moreira, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Steffen Jung, Helena F Florindo
Vaccination is a promising strategy to trigger and boost immune responses against cancer or infectious disease. We have designed, synthesized and characterized aliphatic-polyester (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to investigate how the nature of protein association (adsorbed versus entrapped) and polymer/surfactant concentrations impact on the generation and modulation of antigen-specific immune responses. The ability of the NP formulations to target dendritic cells (DC), be internalized and activate the T cells was characterized and optimized in vitro and in vivo using markers of DC activation and co-stimulatory molecules...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511142/tailoring-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-the-delivery-of-protein-antigens-physicochemical-properties-versus-immunogenicity-studies
#13
Thomas Courant, Emilie Bayon, Hei Lanne Reynaud-Dougier, Christian Villiers, Mathilde Menneteau, Patrice N Marche, Fabrice P Navarro
New vaccine formulations are still highly anticipated in the near-future to face incoming health challenges, such as emergence or reemergence of severe infectious diseases, immunosenescence associated with elderly or the spread of pathogens resistant to antibiotics. In particular, new nanoparticle-based adjuvants are promising for sub-unit vaccines in order to elicit potent and long lasting immune responses with a better control on their safety. In this context, an innovative delivery system of protein antigens has been designed based on the chemical grafting of the antigen onto the shell of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC)...
May 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510433/gibbs-sampler-based-%C3%AE-dynamics-and-rao-blackwell-estimator-for-alchemical-free-energy-calculation
#14
Xinqiang Ding, Jonah Z Vilseck, Ryan Lee Hayes, Charles L Brooks
λ-dynamics is a generalized ensemble method for alchemical free energy calcula- tions. In traditional λ-dynamics, the alchemical switch variable λ is treated as a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 1 and an empirical estimator (∆Gˆ = -β(-1)ln[P(λ > λcutoff)/P (λ < 1-λcutoff)]) is utilized to approximate the free energy (∆G = -β(-1)ln[P (λ = 1)/P(λ = 0)]) based on λ trajectories, where the cutoff value of λcutoff is empirically chosen to be near 1. In the present paper, we describe an alternative formulation of λ-dynamics that utilizes the Gibbs sampler framework which we call Gibbs Sampler λ-dynamics (GSLD)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510018/a-hilly-path-through-the-thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics-of-protein-solutions
#15
REVIEW
Peter R Wills
The opus of Don Winzor in the fields of physical and analytical biochemistry is a major component of that certain antipodean approach to this broad area of research that blossomed in the second half of the twentieth century. The need to formulate problems in terms of thermodynamic nonideality posed the challenge of describing a clear route from molecular interactions to the parameters that biochemists routinely measure. Mapping out this route required delving into the statistical mechanics of solutions of macromolecules, and at every turn mathematically complex, rigorous, general results that had previously been derived previously, often by Terrell Hill, came to the fore...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507934/the-challenges-of-recombinant-endostatin-in-clinical-application-focus-on-the-different-expression-systems-and-molecular-bioengineering
#16
REVIEW
Abbas Mohajeri, Sarvin Sanaei, Farhad Kiafar, Amir Fattahi, Majid Khalili, Nosratollah Zarghami
Angiogenesis plays an essential role in rapid growing and metastasis of the tumors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a putative strategy for cancer therapy. Endostatin (Es) is an attractive anti-angiogenesis protein with some clinical application challenges including; short half-life, instability in serum and requirement to high dosage. Therefore, production of recombinant endostatin (rEs) is necessary in large scale. The production of rEs is difficult because of its structural properties and is high-cost. Therefore, this review focused on the different expression systems that involved in rEs production including; mammalian, baculovirus, yeast, and Escherichia coli (E...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507415/prospects-of-complete-feed-system-in-ruminant-feeding-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Yasir Afzal Beigh, Abdul Majeed Ganai, Haidar Ali Ahmad
Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507406/evaluation-of-different-agroindustrial-waste-on-the-effect-of-different-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers-chicken
#18
Y Sánchez-Roque, Y D C Pérez-Luna, E Pérez-Luna, R Berrones Hernández, S Saldaña-Trinidad
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee)...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507029/cd63-mediated-antigen-delivery-into-extracellular-vesicles-via-dna-vaccination-results-in-robust-cd8-t-cell-responses
#19
Tomohiro Kanuma, Takuya Yamamoto, Kouji Kobiyama, Eiko Moriishi, Yuji Masuta, Takato Kusakabe, Koji Ozasa, Etsushi Kuroda, Nao Jounai, Ken J Ishii
DNA vaccines are attractive immunogens for priming humoral and cellular immune responses to the encoded Ag. However, their ability to induce Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses requires improvement. Among the strategies for improving DNA vaccine immunogenicity are booster vaccinations, alternate vaccine formulations, electroporation, and genetic adjuvants, but few, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs), target natural Ag delivery systems. By focusing on CD63, a tetraspanin protein expressed on various cellular membranes, including EVs, we examined whether a DNA vaccine encoding an Ag fused to CD63 delivered into EVs would improve vaccine immunogenicity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506802/stealth-magnetic-nanocarriers-of-sirna-as-platform-for-breast-cancer-theranostics
#20
J Bruniaux, S Ben Djemaa, K Hervé-Aubert, H Marchais, I Chourpa, S David
The endogenous mechanism of RNA interference is more and more used in research to obtain specific down-regulation of gene expression in diseases such as breast cancer. Currently, despite the new fields of study open up by RNA interference, the rapid degradation of siRNA by nucleases and their negative charges prevent them from crossing cell membranes. To overcome these limitations, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) represent a promising alternative for nucleic acid delivery. Previously, we reported the magnetic siRNA nanovectors (MSN) formulation using electrostatic assembly of (1) SPIONs, also able to act as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (2) siRNA and (3) chitosan aiming at their protection and enhancing their transfection efficacy...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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