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Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Robert J Stone, R Guest, P Mahoney, D Lamb, C Gibson
The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Martin Bertz, Christopher Quince, Katja Brunner, Alanna Bruce, Emilie Combet, Szymon Calus, Nick Loman, Umer Zeeshan Ijaz
BACKGROUND: The effect that traditional and modern DNA extraction methods have on applications to study the role of gut microbiota in health and disease is a topic of current interest. Genomic DNA was extracted from three faecal samples and one probiotic capsule using three popular methods; chaotropic (CHAO) method, phenol/chloroform (PHEC) extraction, proprietary kit (QIAG). The performance of each of these methods on DNA yield and quality, microbiota composition using quantitative PCR, deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and sequencing analysis pipeline was evaluated...
July 26, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Jianfeng Tu, Wenwei Cai, Meiqi Zhang, Xianghong Yang, Huan Chen, Shengang Zhou, Xuming Chen, Yiming Zhao, Junping Guo, Yue Yang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the China-America Union Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Training Program (PHEC) on the emergency medical knowledge and skills of Chinese paramedics. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Emergency Command Center of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China from June to December 2011. The experimental group of 113 trainees, and the control group of 85 trainees received training in pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) theory and practice...
February 2013: Saudi Medical Journal
Adrian Mellor
Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1.
2012: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
John D Lapek, James L McGrath, William A Ricke, Alan E Friedman
This work describes the proteomic characterization of a novel in vitro prostate cancer model system, the clonal prostatic human epithelial cancer (PHEC) cell lines. The model is composed of three cell lines representing the three progressive cancer states found in vivo: non-tumorigenic, tumorigenic, and metastatic. The cell lines were evaluated for differential protein expression between states using two dimensional liquid:liquid chromatographic separation followed by mass spectral identification. The proteins from cellular extracts were first separated using liquid:liquid primary separation based on their isoelectric points and hydrophobicity...
April 15, 2012: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Uppula Purushotham, Dolly Vijay, G Narahari Sastry
The structure and stability of various conformations of L-phenylalanine (PheN) and its zwitterions (PheZ), along with their ionized counterparts, cation (PheC) and anion (PheA), generated by adding and removing a proton respectively, have been investigated using first principle calculations in vacuum and in solution. This is followed by an extensive study on various possible dimer (PheD) conformations, which are noncovalently bound units without a peptide bond. This study results in 52, 31, 12, 9, and 11 minimum energy structures on the potential energy surfaces of PheD, PheN, PheC, PheA, and PheZ, respectively...
January 5, 2012: Journal of Computational Chemistry
David K Bwambok, Santhosh K Challa, Mark Lowry, Isiah M Warner
We report on the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent chiral ionic liquid (FCIL), l-phenylalanine ethyl ester bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide (l-PheC(2)NTf(2)), capable of serving simultaneously as solvent, chiral selector, and fluorescent reporter in chiral analytical measurements. Enantiomers of different analytes, including fluorescent and nonfluorescent compounds, with a variety of structures were shown to induce wavelength- and analyte-dependent changes in the fluorescence intensity of this FCIL...
June 15, 2010: Analytical Chemistry
Yasushi Okinaka, Ching-Hong Yang, Nicole T Perna, Noel T Keen
Microarray technology was used to identify genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 that are specifically up- or down-regulated in a plant host compared with growth in laboratory culture medium. Several genes were plant down-regulated, and almost all of them were homologues of well-known housekeeping genes, such as those encoding metabolic functions, oxidative phosphorylation components, and transcription or translation processes. On the other hand, almost all of the plant up-regulated genes were involved with specialized functions, including already known or new putative virulence factors, anaerobiosis, iron uptake, transporters or permeases, xenobiotic resistance, chemotaxis, and stress responses to reactive oxygen species and heat...
July 2002: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
F M Duffner, U Kirchner, M P Bauer, R Müller
Bacillus thermoglucosidasius A7 degraded phenol at 65 degrees C via the meta cleavage pathway. Five enzymes used in the metabolism of phenol were cloned from B. thermoglucosidasius A7 into pUC18. Nine open reading frames were present on the 8.1kb insert, six of which could be assigned a function in phenol degradation using database homologies and enzyme activities. The phenol hydroxylase is a two-component enzyme encoded by pheA1 and pheA2. The larger component (50kDa) has 49% amino acid identity with the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase of Escherichia coli, while the smaller component (19kDa) is most related (30% amino acid identity) to the styrene monoxygenase component B from Pseudomonas fluorescens...
October 3, 2000: Gene
A J Tector, X Chen, C Soderland, J I Tchervenkov
Little is known about hyperacute rejection in hepatic xenotransplantation. Information from clinical xenoperfusions suggests that the liver may be rejected by a mechanism less vigorous than either kidney or heart xenografts. We used the in vitro model of porcine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (PHEC) incubated with either complement replete or deficient human serum to determine the relative roles of the classical and alternate pathways of complement in the immediate response to hepatic xenotransplantation...
November 1998: Xenotransplantation
S K Chakrabarti, C Denniel, M A Malick, C Bai
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important early event in S-[(1 and 2)-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl]cysteine (PHEC)-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The present study has therefore examined in more detail PHEC-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, both in vivo and in vitro, using isolated renal cortical mitochondria. Renal cortical mitochondria isolated from PHEC-treated rats in vivo showed depressed effects on the mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in both a dose (0, 250, and 500 micromol/kg iv)- and time (0-24 h)-dependent manner in the presence of both succinate (Site 2) and malate plus alpha-ketoglutarate (Site 1) as respiratory substrates, with initial significant depression occurring as early as 4 h following treatment with 500 micromol PHEC/kg...
July 1998: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
I Greaves
The Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) course is a 3 day course run by BASICS Education for the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Nursing and the NHS Ambulance Service. PHEC teaches and examines the care of medical, trauma, paediatric and obstetric patients in the pre-hospital environment. 243 (The Wessex) Field Hospital has held two of an intended ongoing programme of PHEC courses and they have proved suitable for medical and dental officers, nurses and combat medical technicians. We believe the courses to have a valuable role in the ongoing training of CMT is as well as medical and nursing officers...
October 1997: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
J K Wakefield, C D Morrow
The primer binding site (PBS) is involved in two stages during the reverse transcription of the retroviral RNA genome. In the early stage, the PBS provides complementary sequences through which tRNA(Lys,3) binds the viral RNA genome to initiate minus-strand DNA synthesis; in the later stages, complementarity between the plus- and minus-strand copies of the PBS is required to facilitate the second template transfer needed to complete reverse transcription. We previously constructed a mutant HIV-1 proviral genome, designated as pHXB2PBS(pheC + 5) (now referred to as pheC + 5), which was used to identify regions of the PBS involved in the initiation and second template transfer steps of reverse transcription...
June 15, 1996: Virology
S K Chakrabarti, C Denniel
S-[(1 and 2)-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl]-glutathione is nephrotoxic in rats through its metabolic conversion to corresponding cysteine-S-conjugate, e.g., S-[(1 and 2)-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl]-cysteine (PHEC). The present study was carried out to determine the mechanism of PHEC-induced toxicity in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. PHEC decreased tubule viability in concentration (0-2 mM)- and time (0-3 hr)-dependent manner, with initial decreases occurring 2 hr after exposure. Tubule basal and nystatin-stimulated oxygen consumption decreased before cell death following exposure to 0...
April 1996: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
G Zhao, T Xia, H Aldrich, R A Jensen
The gene encoding cyclohexadienyl dehydratase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, designated pheC, was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced recently by Zhao et al. (Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 2487-2493, 1992). N-Terminal sequencing of the purified cyclohexadienyl dehydratase yielded a run of 11 residues which matched perfectly with the deduced amino acid residues 26-36. This showed that a 25 residue peptide was cleaved from the N-terminus of a preprotein formed in E. coli. The amino acid composition of the 25 residue peptide was typical of signal sequences for periplasmic proteins...
April 1993: Journal of General Microbiology
J K Wakefield, H Rhim, C D Morrow
The initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription occurs by the extension of a tRNA(3Lys) primer bound near the 5' end of the genomic RNA at a position termed the primer binding site (PBS). The PBS is an 18-nucleotide sequence of the HIV-1 genome which is complementary to the 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides of the tRNA(3Lys). To investigate the sequence specificity of the interaction between tRNA(3Lys) and the PBS, we have constructed proviral genomes containing mutations in the PBS region...
March 1994: Journal of Virology
G S Zhao, T H Xia, R S Fischer, R A Jensen
The gene encoding cyclohexadienyl dehydratase (denoted pheC) was cloned from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by functional complementation of a pheA auxotroph of Escherichia coli. The gene was highly expressed in E. coli due to the use of the high-copy number vector pUC18. The P. aeruginosa cyclohexadienyl dehydratase expressed in E. coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The latter enzyme exhibited identical physical and biochemical properties as those obtained for cyclohexadienyl dehydratase purified from P...
February 5, 1992: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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