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Raju Kalaivani, Raju Reema, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
The conserved function of protein phosphorylation, catalysed by members of protein kinase superfamily, is regulated in different ways in different kinase families. Further, differences in activating triggers, cellular localisation, domain architecture and substrate specificity between kinase families are also well known. While the transfer of γ-phosphate from ATP to the hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr/Tyr is mediated by a conserved Asp, the characteristic functional and regulatory sites are specialized at the level of families or sub-families...
February 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Brandon Hill, Navaneeth Narayanan, Elizabeth Palavecino, Katherine K Perez, Sasha Premraj, Amber Streifel, Rebekah H Wrenn, Kristen Zeitler
Rapid diagnostic technologies can assist Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) in achieving the goals of reducing unnecessary antimicrobial exposure and optimizing patient care. The Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists supports all members of the ASP team as essential components of optimal use of these technologies for management of antibiotic prescribing and cost-reduction strategies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 13, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Qinglong Meng, Jingzhi Pan, Yajing Liu, Li Chen, Yueying Ren
Acanthopanax senticosus, also known as Siberian ginseng, is widely distributed throughout northern Asia and used in traditional Chinese medicine; it has been reported to prevent a number of diseases. However, the association between the antitumour and immunostimulatory activities of polysaccharide extracted from A. senticosus (ASPS) remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumour and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharide extracted from ASPS on Crocker sarcoma S180, hepatic carcinoma H22 and uterine cervical carcinoma U14 tumour cell lines implanted in mice...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiaohong Li, Lin Liao, Xuelian Deng, Jian Huang, Zengfu Deng, Hongying Wei, Wuning Mo, Faquan Lin
A family of four from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, including a child with α-thalassaemia and hereditary spherocytosis (HS), underwent laboratory identification, and genetic analysis. After harvesting peripheral blood samples from the child patient and his family members, GAP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse dot-blot tests were used to identify thalassaemia genotypes. After amplifying exons and the adjacent introns of solute carrier family 4 member 1 (Diego blood group) (SLC4A1), ankyrin 1, spectrin α erythrocytic 1, spectrin β erythrocytic and erythrocyte membrane protein band 4...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Shijun Li, Ming Wang, David M Ojcius, Bijun Zhou, Weilin Hu, Ying Liu, Qing Ma, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Jie Yan
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Although there is a large diversity of clinical signs and symptoms, a severe inflammatory response is common to all leptospirosis patients. The mechanism of IL-1βß secretion during Leptospira infection has been previously studied in mouse macrophages. However, the outcome of Leptospira infection is very different in human and murine macrophages, and the mechanisms responsible for IL-1β secretion in human macrophages had not been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Maria Martinez Molledo, Esben M Quistgaard, Ali Flayhan, Joanna Pieprzyk, Christian Löw
Proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are important for uptake of dietary di- and tripeptides in many organisms, and in humans are also involved in drug absorption. These transporters accept a wide range of substrates, but the structural basis for how different peptide side chains are accommodated has so far remained obscure. Twenty-eight peptides were screened for binding to PepTSt from Streptococcus thermophilus, and structures were determined of PepTSt in complex with four physicochemically diverse dipeptides, which bind with millimolar affinity: Ala-Leu, Phe-Ala, Ala-Gln, and Asp-Glu...
February 1, 2018: Structure
Jun Wu, Junxian Yu, Jing Wang, Chenguang Zhang, Kun Shang, Xiaojun Yao, Bangwei Cao
Apatinib has been proved effective in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Traditional Chinese medicine is often considered as adjuvants which could increase the effects and counteract the side effects of chemotherapy. The present study aims to explore the antitumor effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (AsPs) in combination with Apatinib in gastric cancer AGS cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of VEGFR-2 was observed in human gastric cancer line AGS. Both Apatinib and AsPs could significantly inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner and Apatinib in combination with AsPs showed enhanced inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration and invasion compared with Apatinib monotherapy...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Piero Zanello
In the context of the plethora of proteins harboring iron-sulfur clusters we have already reviewed structure/electrochemistry of metalloproteins expressing single types of iron-sulfur clusters (namely: {Fe(Cys)4}, { [Fe2S2](Cys)4}, { [Fe2S2](Cys)3(X)} (X = Asp, Arg, His), { [Fe2S2](Cys)2(His)2}, { [Fe3S4](Cys)3}, { [Fe4S4](Cys)4} and { [Fe4S4](SγCys)3(nonthiolate ligand) } cores) and their synthetic analogs. More recently we are focussing on structure/electrochemistry of metalloproteins harboring iron-sulfur centres of different nuclearities...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Chathura Kumaragamage, Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Derek Lupinsky, Robin A de Graaf, Jamie Near
PURPOSE: Indirect 13 C MRS by proton-observed carbon editing (POCE) is a powerful method to study brain metabolism. The sensitivity of POCE-MRS can be enhanced through the use of short TEs, which primarily minimizes homonuclear J-evolution related losses; previous POCE-MRS implementations use longer than optimal echo times due to sequence limitations, or short TE image selected in vivo spectroscopy-based multi-shot acquisitions for 3D localization. To that end, this paper presents a novel single-shot point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS)-localized POCE-MRS sequence that involves the application of simultaneous editing and localization pulses (SEAL)-PRESS, allowing the TE to be reduced to a theoretically optimal value of ∼ 1/JHC ...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Beatriz M Fonseca, Ana C Cristóvão, Gilberto Alves
INTRODUCTION: To comprehend the normal function and pathological characteristics of certain neurological disorders it is important to evaluate the neuroactive amino acids levels in animal models. METHODS: This work describes a simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), using methyl-L-arginine as internal standard, in samples of rat brain tissue...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
A S Vasilchenko, A V Vasilchenko, A V Valyshev, E A Rogozhin
Discovery of a novel bacteriocin is always an event in sciences, since cultivation of most bacterial species is a general problem in microbiology. This statement is reflected by the fact that number of bacteriocins is smaller for tenfold comparing to known antimicrobial peptides. We cultivated Enterococcus faecium on simplified medium to reduce amount of purification steps. This approach allows to purify the novel heavy weight bacteriocin produced by E. faecium ICIS 7. The novelty of this bacteriocin, named enterocin-7, was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by comparing the structural-functional properties with available data...
February 8, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Judith Kooiman, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Jan Van der Heyden, Yvo W J Sijpkens, Paul R M van Dijkman, Jan J Wever, Hans van Overhagen, Antonie C Vahl, Nico Aarts, Iris J A M Verberk-Jonkers, Harald F H Brulez, Jaap F Hamming, Aart J van der Molen, Suzanne C Cannegieter, Hein Putter, Wilbert B van den Hout, Inci Kilicsoy, Ton J Rabelink, Menno V Huisman
BACKGROUND: Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures. METHODS: We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014...
2018: PloS One
Peng Cao, Jinlu Sun, Mitchell A Sullivan, Xiao Huang, Hanxiang Wang, Yu Zhang, Na Wang, Kaiping Wang
Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic damage is prevalent in western countries. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an active constituent derived from a water extract of Angelica sinensis, in rats exposed to an APAP overdose. The mechanisms underlying the activity of this compound were also considered. Specifically, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated, and key proteins involved in hepatic apoptosis, including cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 were quantified...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Renato Mastrangeli, Fabio D'amici, Cosimo-Walter D'Acunto, Sabrina Fiumi, Mara Rossi, Mariagrazia Terlizzese, Wolf Palinsky, Horst Bierau
Human type I interferons are a family of pleiotropic cytokines with antiviral, anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities. They signal through the same cell surface receptors IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 yet evoking markedly different physiological effects. One differentiating factor of interferon-beta (IFN-β) from other type I interferons is the presence of theAsn-Gly-Arg (NGR) sequence motif, which, upon deamidation, converts to Asp-Gly-Arg (DGR) and iso-Asp-Gly-Arg (iso-DGR) motifs. In other proteins, the NGR and iso-DGR motifs are reported as CD13- and αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8 and α5β1 integrin-binding motifs, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Cytokine
Gonzalez Torres Maria Jose, Henniger Jürgen
In order to expand the Monte Carlo transport program AMOS to particle therapy applications, the ion module is being developed in the radiation physics group (ASP) at the TU Dresden. This module simulates the three main interactions of ions in matter for the therapy energy range: elastic scattering, inelastic collisions and nuclear reactions. The simulation of the elastic scattering is based on the Binary Collision Approximation and the inelastic collisions on the Bethe-Bloch theory. The nuclear reactions, which are the focus of the module, are implemented according to a probabilistic-based model developed in the group...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Kristian Asp Fuglsang
Intestinal failure (IF) is the reduction of gut function below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes, such that parenteral support (PS) is required to maintain health and/or growth. This article critically revises the gaps in and evidence for providing general nutritional therapy recommendations in the Short Bowel Syndrome-IF population. It addresses the need for an individualized approach, aiming to reduce or even eliminate the need for PS, and emphasizes a need to focus on effects of dietary interventions on the quality of life of these patients...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Lujuan Xing, Qingfeng Ge, Donglei Jiang, Xiaoge Gao, Rui Liu, Songmin Cao, Xinbo Zhuang, Guanghong Zhou, Wangang Zhang
A cell-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine the antioxidant activity of Asp-Leu-Glu-Glu (DLEE) isolated from dry-cured Chinese Xuanwei ham. A platinized gold electrode (Pt NPs/GE) covered with silver nanowires (Ag NWs) was fabricated to detect H2O2 using redox signaling via cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimal condition, the detection limit of the modified electrode was 0.12μM with a linear relationship from 0...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Eleanor Raper, Raymond Fisher, David R Anderson, Tom Stephenson, Ana Soares
The Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) requires that coke wastewater is treated to reach an effluent with <50 mg/L total nitrogen (TN). A shortage of alkalinity (3.6 mg as CaCO3/mg NH4+-N) in the wastewater limited nitrification to 45%. Various compounds were tested as a source of additional alkalinity, with optimal results being found for sodium carbonate, which enabled 95% nitrification at 300 mg/L (as CaCO3). Sodium bicarbonate led to incomplete ammonia oxidation (76%) whilst soda ash prevented nitrite oxidation...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Dandan Zhu, Lishi Yang, Huang Jianhua, Zhou Falin, Yang Qibin, Jiang Song, Shigui Jiang
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed a superfamily that played an important role in physiological processes of crustaceans, with multiple functions such as growth and development, acting as a defense against stimulations from external factors. In this paper, one kind of GPCRs were identified from Penaeus monodon, called PmGPCR, included an open reading frame (ORF) of 1113 bp. Bioinformatic analysis showed that PmGPCR protein had the typical structure of seven transmembrane domains (7TM), especially the special Asp-Arg-Try motif (DRY motif) between the third transmembrane structures (TM3) and the second intracellular loops (IL-2) which can prove that PmGPCR belongs to the rhodopsin-like family...
February 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nathaniel J Hogrebe, James W Reinhardt, Nguyen K Tram, Anna C Debski, Gunjan Agarwal, Matthew A Reilly, Keith J Gooch
A cell's insoluble microenvironment has increasingly been shown to exert influence on its function. In particular, matrix stiffness and adhesiveness strongly impact behaviors such as cell spreading and differentiation, but materials that allow for independent control of these parameters within a fibrous, stromal-like microenvironment are very limited. In the current work, we devise a self-assembling peptide (SAP) system that facilitates user-friendly control of matrix stiffness and RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) concentration within a hydrogel possessing a microarchitecture similar to stromal extracellular matrix...
February 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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