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ovarian cancer early diagnosis

John O Schorge, Amy J Bregar, John Durfee, Ross S Berkowitz
Joe V. Meigs was a visionary clinician and an early adopter of radical techniques in the surgical treatment of ovarian cancer. His 1934 textbook "Tumors of the Female Pelvic Organs", consolidated his approach to this "hopeless" disease, with pearls on diagnosis, outcomes, and even speculations about the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Decades before adjuvant chemotherapy would prove of value, and in an era when sophisticated statistics were unheard of, he nonetheless tried to eke out what benefits he could using the methods available in his time...
March 7, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Cynae Johnson, Amir Anthony Jazaeri
Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 have led to improved survival outcomes for advanced solid-tumor malignancies. This report helps the reader gain a better understanding of adverse events in patients with ovarian cancer on checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We describe 3 hypothetical case vignettes of patients with gynecologic cancer on checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy and discuss common immune-related adverse events. The typical presentation and onset of immune-related events are different from those associated with conventional chemotherapy...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Garth Funston, Helena O'Flynn, Neil A J Ryan, Willie Hamilton, Emma J Crosbie
Early diagnosis of symptomatic gynecological cancer is likely to improve patient outcomes, including survival. The primary care practitioner has a key role to play in this-they must recognize the symptoms and signs of gynecological cancer and make prompt evidence-based decisions regarding further investigation and referral. However, this is often difficult as many of the symptoms of gynecological cancers are nonspecific and are more likely to be caused by benign rather than malignant disease. As primary care is generally the first point of patient contact, those working in this setting usually encounter cancer patients at an earlier, and possibly less symptomatic, stage than practitioners in secondary care...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Xue Xiao, Dandan Dong, Wenjing He, Linhong Song, Qiao Wang, Jun Yue, Lan Xie
OBJECTIVE: The role of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in ovarian cancer (OC) pathogenesis and its association with other clinicopathologic features, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of checkpoint proteins, remain largely elusive. METHODS: We performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 on full-section slides from 419 OCs to assess the MMR status. The clinical relevance of MMR deficiency was analyzed in combination with clinical data...
February 26, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Rudolf Kaaks, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Anika Hüsing, Myrto Barrdahl, Marika Hopper, Theron Johnson, Anne Tjønneland, Louise Hansen, Kim Overvad, Agnès Fournier, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Marina Kvaskoff, Laure Dossus, Mattias Johansson, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Vassiliki Benetou, Carlo La Vecchia, Sabina Sieri, Amalia Mattiello, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Giuseppe Matullo, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Inger T Gram, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Carmen Navarro Sanchez, Eric J Duell, Eva Ardanaz, Nerea Larranaga, Eva Lundin, Annika Idahl, Karin Jirström, Björn Nodin, Ruth C Travis, Elio Riboli, Melissa Merritt, Dagfinn Aune, Kathryn Terry, Daniel W Cramer, Karen S Anderson
Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated auto-antibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53, and NUDT11 proteins, for 194 patients with ovarian cancer and 705 matched controls from the European EPIC cohort, using serum samples collected up to 36 months prior to diagnosis under usual care...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jaya Singh, Nishita Thota, Suhasini Singh, Shila Padhi, Puja Mohan, Shivani Deshwal, Soumit Sur, Mithua Ghosh, Amit Agarwal, Ramesh Sarin, Rosina Ahmed, Sachin Almel, Basumita Chakraborti, Vinod Raina, Praveen K DadiReddy, B K Smruti, Senthil Rajappa, Chandragouda Dodagoudar, Shyam Aggarwal, Manish Singhal, Ashish Joshi, Rajeev Kumar, Ajai Kumar, Deepak K Mishra, Neeraj Arora, Aarati Karaba, Satish Sankaran, Shanmukh Katragadda, Arunabha Ghosh, Vamsi Veeramachaneni, Ramesh Hariharan, Ashraf U Mannan
PURPOSE: Breast and/or ovarian cancers are among the most common cancers in women across the world. In the Indian population, the healthcare burden of breast and/or ovarian cancers has been steadily rising, thus stressing the need for early detection, surveillance, and disease management measures. However, the burden attributable to inherited mutations is not well characterized. METHODS: We sequenced 1010 unrelated patients and families from across India with an indication of breast and/or ovarian cancers, using the TruSight Cancer panel which includes 14 genes, strongly associated with risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers...
February 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Shengyun Cai, Pei Zhang, Suhe Dong, Li Li, Jianming Cai, Mingjuan Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and it is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic biological markers of OC. METHODS: Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify genes related to OC prognosis from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) database. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the level of SPINK13 in OC and normal tissues. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were performed using MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis and Transwell assay, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hiroyuki Kajikawa, Takuya Sobajima, Chinatsu Koiwai, Satoshi Ichigo, Hiroshi Takagi, Atsushi Imai
Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis (PFPA) is an uncommon disorder clinically characterized by rapidly developing bilateral arthritis of the hands and fasciitis of the palms. This cancer-associated syndrome, primarily linked to ovarian cancer, has also been associated with multiple different malignancies. PFPA symptoms usually precede the detection of ovarian cancer. In all patients from case series and single case reports described, ovarian cancer is already present at an advanced stage. Therefore, the authors aimed to present a case and systematically review available evidence on the association between PFPA and ovarian cancer, as gynecological oncologists...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Claudia Marchetti, Francesca De Felice, Giorgia Perniola, Francesca Lecce, Laura Vertechy, Marco Monti, Daniela Musio, Ludovico Muzii, Vincenzo Tombolini, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) is a challenge and its poor prognosis still remains a problem of major importance. Due to the lack of early and specific symptoms, the vast majority of women are diagnosed with an advanced stage disease. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the impact of OC screening program in asymptomatic women on clinical outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIAL: A systematic literature electronic search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Yuan Li, Chaoyue Tan, Liya Liu, Liping Han
AIM: This study assesses a clinical potential of immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1), also named IER3, in the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma using blood and salivary specimens. METHODS: Immediate early responsive gene X-1 was quantified in blood and saliva by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 26 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, 37 cases of benign ovarian tumor and 55 cases of healthy women. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of IEX-1...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Erin K Crane, Jubilee Brown
Mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs) are an uncommon subset of epithelial neoplasms, both clinically and molecularly distinct from other ovarian cancers. Pathologic diagnosis proves challenging, and metastatic disease from other sites-especially the digestive tract-must be excluded. Fortunately, most patients are diagnosed at an early stage of disease and often present with large, unilateral adnexal masses. Survival for patients with stage IA disease approaches over 90%, and surgery alone is sufficient. Patients with stage IB-II disease should receive adjuvant treatment but the specific regimen is controversial...
February 8, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Masayuki Sekine, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Tsutomu Tabata, Tamotsu Sudo, Ryuichiro Nishimura, Koji Matsuo, Brendan H Grubbs, Takayuki Enomoto, Tomoaki Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Malignancy during pregnancy has become a significant cause of maternal death in developed countries, likely due to both an older pregnant population, and increases of cervical cancer in younger women. Our aim is to investigate the clinical aspects of malignancy during pregnancy in Japan and to use this information to identify opportunities for earlier detection and treatment. METHODS: We provided a questionnaire to 1508 secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Japan...
February 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Rong Zhang, Wangyang Pu, Shuyun Zhang, Li Chen, Weipei Zhu, Li Xiao, Chungen Xing, Kai Li
CA125 amounts have a large overlap in ovarian cancer and benign diseases. We conducted a retrospective cohort trial to assess the clinical value of circulating cell-free DNA concentration and integrity index for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. A total of 150 patients were recruited. Plasma samples of 24 ovarian cancer patients, 12 benign ovarian cysts, and 12 healthy controls were assessed. By amplifying short ALU-115 repeat and long ALU-219 fragments, circulating cell-free DNA concentrations and integrity index were measured...
2018: PloS One
Viktoria Husz, Dorottya Bus, Gyorgy Vajda
Ovarian malignancies are rare in pregnancy; however, the incidence of abnormal adnexal masses diagnosed during pregnancy is increasing. The most common masses are ovarian cysts, and only 3-6% of those are malignant. The majority of ovarian masses are diagnosed at an early stage by routine ultrasound examinations. Malignant germ cell tumors are the most common ovarian malignancies associated with pregnancy, while the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer is only 1:12,000-1:50,000 of pregnancies. The diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer during pregnancy remain unclear due to the rare occurrence and scant data on this condition...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Kuo-Hwa Wang, Yung-Ming Wang, Li-Hsuan Chiu, Tze-Chien Chen, Yu-Hui Tsai, Chun S Zuo, Kuan-Chou Chen, Chun Austin Changou, Wen-Fu T Lai
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the seventh most common cancer among women worldwide. The 5-year survival rate for women with EOC is only 30%-50%, which is largely due to the typically late diagnosis of this condition. EOC is difficult to detect in its early stage because of its asymptomatic nature. Recently, near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has been developed as a potential tool for detecting EOC at the molecular level. In this study, a NIRF-sensitive probe was designed to detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in ovarian cancer cells...
2018: PloS One
Hoon Kim, Seul Ki Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, Kyung Joo Hwang, Chang Suk Suh, Seok Hyun Kim
With advances in the methods of cancer treatment used in modern medicine, the number of breast cancer survivors has been consistently rising. As the number of women who wish to become pregnant after being diagnosed with breast cancer increases, it is necessary to consider fertility preservation in these patients. However, medical doctors may be unaware of the importance of fertility preservation among cancer patients because most patients do not share their concerns about fertility with their doctors. Considering the time spent choosing and undergoing treatment, an early referral to a reproductive specialist is the best way to prevent a delay in cancer treatment...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
Karuna Garg, Anthony N Karnezis, Joseph T Rabban
The most common hereditary gynaecological tumour syndromes are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and Lynch syndrome. However, pathologists also may encounter gynaecological tumours in women with rare hereditary syndromes. Many of these tumours exhibit distinctive gross and microscopic features that are associated with a risk for an inherited gene mutation. The sensitivity and specificity of these tumour pathology features for predicting an inherited mutation vary depending on the syndrome. By recognising these tumour features, pathologists may potentially contribute to the diagnosis of an unsuspected syndrome by recommending referral of the patient for formal risk assessment by genetic counselling...
February 2018: Pathology
Deepti Mathew, Yanhua Wang, Anne Van Arsdale, Susan Band Horwitz, Hayley McDaid
OBJECTIVES: Class V Beta tubulin isotype (βV-tubulin) was recently found to have tissue-specific expression patterns in epithelial tissues with secretory function and aberrant expression in tumors. The aims of this pilot study were (a) to examine expression of βV-tubulin in the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) of patients who underwent salpingectomy, (b) to characterize FTE atypia in high-risk patients with BRCA mutations, and (c) to determine expression of βV-tubulin in serous ovarian neoplasms...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Naheed Parveen, Raheel Sikander, Majida, Shaheen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and spectrum of different types of gynecological malignancies. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, from January 2014 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: All patients with gynecological malignancies, admitted at the study place, whether previously diagnosed or need to establish the diagnosis on the basis of EUA, biopsy, staging and for surgery during the study period were included...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Britton Trabert, Sally B Coburn, Andrea Mariani, Hannah P Yang, Philip S Rosenberg, Gretchen L Gierach, Nicolas Wentzensen, Kathy A Cronin, Mark E Sherman
Background: Recognition that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) may represent the first manifestation of many high-grade cancers that were once considered ovarian primary tumors has led to changes in diagnostic practices that could dramatically increase the reporting of tubal carcinomas in US population-based cancer registries. Further, increased detection of early-stage tubal carcinomas through increased recognition coupled with meticulous pathology processing protocols raises important unanswered questions about the clinical behavior of such lesions, which can only be answered using large data sets...
December 21, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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