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Stroop & encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884751/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-cognitive-function-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a core symptom domain of schizophrenia, neurological disorders and substance abuse. It is characterised by deficits in learning, memory, attention and executive functioning and can severely impact daily living. Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat schizophrenia provide limited cognitive benefits and novel therapeutic targets are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the cannabis plant, has anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly explored...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692331/advances-in-cirrhosis-optimizing-the-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
REVIEW
Andy Liu, Ryan B Perumpail, Radhika Kumari, Zobair M Younossi, Robert J Wong, Aijaz Ahmed
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication of cirrhosis resulting in significant socioeconomic burden, morbidity, and mortality. HE can be further subdivided into covert HE (CHE) and overt HE (OHE). CHE is a subclinical, less severe manifestation of HE and requires psychometric testing for diagnosis. Due to the time consuming screening process and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, CHE is frequently underdiagnosed despite its recognized role as a precursor to OHE. Screening for CHE with the availability of the Stroop test has provided a pragmatic method to promptly diagnose CHE...
December 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644276/diagnosis-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-using-stroop-encephalapp-a-multicenter-us-based-norm-based-study
#3
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sanath Allampati, Andres Duarte-Rojo, Leroy R Thacker, Kavish R Patidar, Melanie B White, Jagpal S Klair, Binu John, Douglas M Heuman, James B Wade, Christopher Flud, Robert O'Shea, Edith A Gavis, Ariel B Unser, Jasmohan S Bajaj
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosing minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is challenging, and point-of-care tests are needed. Stroop EncephalApp has been validated for MHE diagnosis in single-center studies. The objective of the study was to validate EncephalApp for MHE diagnosis in a multicenter study. METHODS: Outpatient cirrhotics (with/without prior overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE)) and controls from three sites (Virginia (VA), Ohio (OH), and Arkansas (AR)) underwent EncephalApp and two gold standards, psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and inhibitory control test (ICT)...
January 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412229/qualifying-and-quantifying-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Marsha Y Morgan, Piero Amodio, Nicola A Cook, Clive D Jackson, Gerald Kircheis, Mette M Lauridsen, Sara Montagnese, Sami Schiff, Karin Weissenborn
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of this syndrome. As these patients have, by definition, no recognizable clinical features of brain dysfunction, the primary prerequisite for the diagnosis is careful exclusion of clinical symptoms and signs...
September 28, 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25206287/non-invasive-blood-flow-measurement-in-cerebellum-detects-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-earlier-than-psychometric-tests
#5
Vicente Felipo, Amparo Urios, Carla Giménez-Garzó, Omar Cauli, Maria-Jesús Andrés-Costa, Olga González, Miguel A Serra, Javier Sánchez-González, Roberto Aliaga, Remedios Giner-Durán, Vicente Belloch, Carmina Montoliu
AIM: To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed...
September 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24846278/validation-of-encephalapp-smartphone-based-stroop-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-covert-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Douglas M Heuman, Richard K Sterling, Arun J Sanyal, Muhammad Siddiqui, Scott Matherly, Velimir Luketic, R Todd Stravitz, Michael Fuchs, Leroy R Thacker, HoChong Gilles, Melanie B White, Ariel Unser, James Hovermale, Edith Gavis, Nicole A Noble, James B Wade
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Detection of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is difficult, but point-of-care testing could increase rates of diagnosis. We aimed to validate the ability of the smartphone app EncephalApp, a streamlined version of Stroop App, to detect CHE. We evaluated face validity, test-retest reliability, and external validity. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis (n = 167; 38% with overt HE [OHE]; mean age, 55 years; mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, 12) and controls (n = 114) were each given a paper and pencil cognitive battery (standard) along with EncephalApp...
October 2015: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24717765/hepatic-encephalopathy-how-to-test-and-treat
#7
REVIEW
Robert S Rahimi, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy causes significant cognitive impairment and morbidity in patients with cirrhosis; however, hepatic encephalopathy is considered a reversible syndrome once recognized clinically. Although hepatic encephalopathy is not a single clinical entity, the pathophysiology resulting in brain dysfunction is not fully understood, although it is believed that ammonia production is an important contributing factor. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to test for hepatic encephalopathy and those utilizing specific new treatments...
May 2014: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24594947/can-computerized-brain-training-games-be-used-to-identify-early-cognitive-impairment-in-cirrhosis
#8
Erica V Tartaglione, Mark Derleth, Lei Yu, George N Ioannou
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether commercially available, computerized "brain-training" games can be used to identify subtle cognitive impairments in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We compared patients with cirrhosis who did not have overt encephalopathy (n=31), patients with pre-cirrhotic chronic liver disease (n=28), and normal controls without liver disease (n=16) with respect to their scores on the number connection test-A (NCT-A), the Inhibitory Control Test (ICT), and five, short (∼2...
March 2014: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24106728/minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#9
REVIEW
Laura M Stinton, Saumya Jayakumar
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test...
October 2013: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal Canadien de Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24034818/clinical-and-radiological-impact-of-liver-transplantation-for-brain-in-cirrhosis-patients-without-hepatic-encephalopathy
#10
Tetsuro Ishihara, Mizuki Ito, Yoshiki Niimi, Masashi Tsujimoto, Jo Senda, Yoshinari Kawai, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Takashi Ito, Hideya Kamei, Yasuharu Onishi, Taro Nakamura, Hidemi Goto, Shinji Naganawa, Tetsuya Kiuchi, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of liver transplantation (LT) on brain dysfunctions in cirrhotic patients who had no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), we performed a prospective study of voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and detailed cognitive examination. METHODS: We assessed 12 consecutive patients as transplant candidates by DTI, with neurological and cognitive examinations just before and at 6 months after LT. RESULTS: After LT, cirrhotic patients showed significant improvement in visual reproduction, digit symbol, digit span, Stroop test, and Trail-making test scores, suggesting recovery of frontal-temporal function...
November 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23625323/cognitive-assessment-of-patients-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-brazil
#11
D S Torres, J Abrantes, C E Brandão-Mello
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome caused by liver cirrhosis and accompanied by a broad spectrum of cognitive symptoms. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients and to compare their cognitive performance with controls using standardized tests. Patients receiving medication or experiencing comorbidities associated with cognitive disorders were excluded. The final cohort was compared with a control-matched group using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as Simple Drawing, Clock Drawing, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Random Letter, Stroop, Trail-Making Test (TMT) A and B, Boston Naming, Category Verbal Fluency, Digit Span, Constructional Praxis, Processing Speed, and Similarities Tests...
September 2013: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23389962/the-stroop-smartphone-application-is-a-short-and-valid-method-to-screen-for-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#12
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Leroy R Thacker, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Richard K Sterling, Arun J Sanyal, Puneet Puri, Mohammad S Siddiqui, Richard T Stravitz, Iliana Bouneva, Velimir Luketic, Nicole Noble, Melanie B White, Pamela Monteith, Ariel Unser, James B Wade
UNLABELLED: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) detection is difficult because of the unavailability of short screening tools. Therefore, MHE patients can remain undiagnosed and untreated. The aim of this study was to use a Stroop smartphone application (app) (EncephalApp_Stroop) to screen for MHE. The app and standard psychometric tests (SPTs; 2 of 4 abnormal is MHE, gold standard), psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), and inhibitory control tests (ICTs) were administered to patients with cirrhosis (with or without previous overt hepatic encephalopathy; OHE) and age-matched controls from two centers; a subset underwent retesting...
September 2013: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21953369/patients-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-show-impaired-mismatch-negativity-correlating-with-reduced-performance-in-attention-tests
#13
Vicente Felipo, Juan F Ordoño, Amparo Urios, Nisrin El Mlili, Carla Giménez-Garzó, Carolina Aguado, Olga González-Lopez, Remedios Giner-Duran, Miguel A Serra, Abdallah Wassel, Jose M Rodrigo, José Salazar, Carmina Montoliu
UNLABELLED: Attention deficit is an early event in the cognitive impairment of patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential that reflects an attentional trigger. Patients with schizophrenia show impaired attention and cognitive function, which are reflected in altered MMN. We hypothesized that patients with MHE, similarly to those with schizophrenia, should show MMN alterations related with attention deficits...
February 2012: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20010298/extrapyramidal-signs-predict-the-development-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#14
Luis Compañy, Pedro Zapater, Miguel Pérez-Mateo, Rodrigo Jover
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The long-term evolution of cirrhotic patients with extrapyramidal signs has not yet been studied. We have investigated the influence of extrapyramidal signs on the prognosis, evolution, and quality of life of patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients with cirrhosis were followed up and 18 of them were reevaluated, a mean of 45 months later. Cognitive impairment was measured with psychometric tests (Trail-Making Test part A, Grooved-Pegboard, Block-Design, Oral Symbol Digit and Stroop Test)...
May 2010: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17952301/-cognitive-and-psychomotor-slowing-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Wagner Martignoni de Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Roberto Baptista de Figueiredo, Omar da Rosa Santos
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of "subclinical uremic encephalopathy" may need the administration of sensitive tests. PURPOSE: To test the hypotheses that (1) patients on chronic hemodialysis (CHD) fare worse than normal controls on a brief performance battery, (2) one extra-day of uremia further jeopardizes the neuropsychological performance of CHD patients, and (3) uremia impairs improvement on a second testing session. METHOD: The cognitive and motor agility of 28 patients on CHD were assessed with the Trails A and B, Digit Symbol, and Stroop tests...
September 2007: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17520437/neural-mechanism-of-cognitive-control-impairment-in-patients-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Long Jiang Zhang, Guifen Yang, Jianzhong Yin, Yawu Liu, Ji Qi
BACKGROUND: Many studies have claimed the existence of attention alterations in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in this respect has been published. PURPOSE: To investigate the neural basis of cognitive control deficiency in cirrhotic patients using fMRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study...
June 2007: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15938130/attention-dysfunction-in-cirrhotic-patients-an-inquiry-on-the-role-of-executive-control-attention-orienting-and-focusing
#17
Piero Amodio, Sami Schiff, Franco Del Piccolo, Daniela Mapelli, Angelo Gatta, Carlo Umiltà
Attention alterations are reported in cirrhotics. Aiming at clarifying attention functioning in cirrhotics, an inquiry on the functioning of the anterior (AAS) and the posterior (PAS) attention system was performed. Thirty-six cirrhotics without overt hepatic encephalopathy (24 with EEG or TMT-A alterations) and 16 matched control subjects were enrolled. The AAS was studied by the Stroop task measuring selective attention control, the PAS was studied by the Posner task and the Focus task measuring automatic covert orienting and visual focusing of attention respectively...
June 2005: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10716310/relationship-between-cerebral-perfusion-in-frontal-limbic-basal-ganglia-circuits-and-neuropsychologic-impairment-in-patients-with-subclinical-hepatic-encephalopathy
#18
A M Catafau, J Kulisevsky, L Bernà, J Pujol, J C Martin, P Otermin, J Balanzó, I Carrió
UNLABELLED: Early detection of neuropsychologic impairment in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) is important for their prognosis and quality of life. Abnormal MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings have been proposed as early markers of brain damage in these patients, but the role of functional neuroimaging in this field still has to be defined. In this study, the SPECT perfusion pattern in patients with SHE was investigated, and the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the MRI, MRS, neuropsychologic evaluation and biochemical data of these patients was assessed...
March 2000: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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