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Levo dopa

Wenzhu Wang, Lixi Zhao, Fan Bai, Tong Zhang, Hao Dong, Lixu Liu
Previous studies have shown that levo-dopamine (L-dopa) can improve the consciousness of certain patients with prolonged coma after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and promote cell growth in vivo. This study aimed to investigate whether L-dopa, which is used clinically to treat Parkinson's disease, might also ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cell death. The oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R) model was used to mimic the ischemia-reperfusion pathological process in vitro...
March 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mohammed J Asha, Jamilla Kausar, Hari Krovvidi, Colin Shirley, Anwen White, Ramesh Chelvarajah, James A Hodson, Hardev Pall, Rosalind D Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: Microelectrode recording (MER) plays an important role in target refinement in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditionally, patients were operated on in the 'off-medication' state to allow intraoperative assessment of the patient response to direct STN stimulation. The development of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) has facilitated the introduction of general anaesthesia (GA). However, the routine withdrawal of dopaminergic medications has remained as standard practice...
February 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Babongile C Ndlovu, Willie M U Daniels, Musa V Mabandla
Levo-Dopa (L-Dopa) is widely used for the oral treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, chronic treatment with L-Dopa produces abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesias. In this study, commercially available oleanolic acid (OA) that has been previously shown to ameliorate the toxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in preconditioning studies was used to treat AIMs in a rat model for Parkinson's disease. The forelimb-use asymmetry test was used to measure Parkinson's disease-associated motor impairment...
January 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
N Malek, N Fletcher, E Newman
The clinical spectrum of dopamine-responsive dystonias (DRDs) has expanded over the last decade to comprise several distinct disorders. At the milder end of the clinical spectrum is the autosomal-dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency syndrome (GTPCH-DRD), and at the more severe end is the much less common autosomal recessive tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (TH-DRD), with intermediate forms in between. Understanding the pathophysiology of DRDs can help in their optimal diagnosis and management...
October 2015: Practical Neurology
Jacopo Vittoriano Bizzarri, Giancarlo Giupponi, Ignazio Maniscalco, Patrizia Schroffenegger, Andreas Conca, Hans Peter Kapfhammer
Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with increased disability, worsened quality of life, and poor long-term prognosis. In this article, clinical features, hypotheses on pathogenesis, and current treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) are reviewed. According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of PDP is between 20 to 40 %. Complex visual hallucinations are the most common psychotic symptoms and are present in 17-72 % of the patients. Other sensory disturbances encompass tactile hallucinations and minor hallucinatory phenomena, such as sense of presence and visual illusions...
2015: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Giovanni Falisi, Claudio Rastelli, Fabrizio Panti, Horacio Maglione, Raul Quezada Arcega
INTRODUCTION: Sleep and awake bruxism is defined as 'a parafunctional activity including clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding of the teeth'. Some evidence suggests that bruxism may be caused by, or associated with, alterations in the CNS neurotransmission. Several classes of psychotropic drugs interfering with CNS activity may potentially contribute to bruxism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relevant peer-reviewed papers to identify and describe the various classes of psychotropic substances that may cause, exacerbate or reduce bruxism as the result of their pharmacological action in CNS neurons...
October 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Carla Letizia Busceti, Francesca Biagioni, Maria Teresa Calierno, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Stefano Ruggieri, Francesco Fornai
"Striatal plasticity" is a term describing a variety of morphological and functional changes occurring both at pre- and post-synaptic level within the basal ganglia. In most cases striatal plasticity occurs when a loss of dopamine (DA) fibers in the striatum, in the course of Parkinsonism takes place. Plastic events include early pre-synaptic and long-term post-synaptic changes. In the context of long-term changes associated with striatal plasticity the role of intrinsic striatal catecholamine cells is emerging...
December 2013: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Raffaele Nardone, Yvonne Höller, Aljosha Thomschewski, Alexander Baden Kunz, Piergiorgio Lochner, Stefan Golaszewski, Eugen Trinka, Francesco Brigo
Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) technique gives the opportunity to non-invasively test an inhibitory circuit in the human cerebral motor cortex that depends mainly on central cholinergic activity. Important SAI abnormalities have been reported in both patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a model of "pure" vascular dementia (VD). Interestingly, a normalization of SAI was observed in AD after levo-dopa (L-dopa) administration...
October 2014: Journal of Neural Transmission
Uvarajan Sampath, Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease characterized by oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in the pars compacta of substantia nigra remains a challenge to manage with an added disadvantage of side effects of L-levo dopa, the standard drug used for therapy. Thus, an alternative approach of utilizing natural components would be beneficial in the management of the disease. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential role of asiaticoside (As), a trisaccaride triterpene against1 - methyl 4 - phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in experimental mice...
2013: Translational Neurodegeneration
Mohseni Mehran S M, Golshani B
INTRODUCTION: According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC)...
June 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
J Nathan, Siddika Panjwani, V Mohan, Veena Joshi, Prasad Arvind Thakurdesai
The objective of this study is to evaluate disease modifying efficacy and safety of a standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Fenugreek (IBHB) (family Fabaceae) as a nutritional adjuvant to Levo-dopa (L-Dopa) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We conducted double-blind placebo-controlled proof of concept clinical study of IBHB capsules (300 mg, twice daily) with matching placebo for 6 months of period in 50 patients of PD stabilized on L-Dopa therapy. The efficacy outcome measures were the scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS - total and its subsections), and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging at baseline and end of 6-months treatment duration...
February 2014: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Maja Marinkovic, Ron S Newfield
Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) deficiency often involves use of agents that stimulate GH secretion, such as clonidine, glucagon, insulin, levo-dopa or arginine hydrochloride. We present three pediatric cases of benign, macroscopic hematuria in children without pre-existing renal disease following GH stimulation testing with clonidine and arginine hydrochloride. In all cases hematuria resolved spontaneously within 3-4 days without any intervention. This suggests that careful observation in such cases is sufficient and additional costly evaluation may be avoided...
2012: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
John Seibyl, David Russell, Danna Jennings, Kenneth Marek
Brain imaging of striatal dopamine terminal degeneration serves an important role in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Imaging biomarkers for interrogating dopaminergic systems are used for clarifying diagnosis when only subtle motor symptoms are present. However, motor dysfunction is not the earliest symptom of PD. There is increasing interest in identifying premotor PD patients, particularly because potential disease-modifying therapies are developed and the clinical imperative becomes early and accurate diagnosis...
November 2012: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Sarah Camargos, Andrew J Lees, Andrew Singleton, Francisco Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: DYT16 is an autosomal recessive dystonia-parkinsonism due to putative mutations at PRKRA gene. The aim of this study was to describe clinical features providing video documentation of patients with DYT16 dystonia. METHODS: We examined and videotaped all homozygous carriers of the DYT16 gene. RESULTS: We identified two phenotypes, generalised dystonia and dystonia-parkinsonism non-responsive to levo-dopa, with three patients belonging to each of the groups...
October 2012: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Sanjay Prakash
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a movement disorder that has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep disturbances are considered as the primary morbidity for seeking treatment in most patients. However, isolated sleep has not been described as a symptom of RLS. Low dose dopaminergic agonists are considered for the treatment in patients with RLS. Herein, we describe 7 patients with isolated insomnia in whom insomnia responded to low dose levo-dopa. Six of them had a family history of RLS. We discuss a possibility of RLS in these patients and suggest to take a trial of l-dopa in patients with isolated insomnia who has a positive family history of RLS or in a patient who do not show response to usual therapies for RLS...
May 15, 2012: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Heather Ray, Fawzy Georges
Cultivated faba bean (Vicia faba) is widely used as human food, especially in Europe, Northern Africa and China.  In view of its superior feeding value over field peas or other legumes, it is also widely used as animal feed for a variety of species.   V. faba also contains medically important components such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levo-DOPA, L-DOPA), the principal treatment used for Parkinson's disease patients.  However, this species also contains several antinutritional components, including the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine; phytates; and the sucrose galactosides including raffinose, stachyose and verbascose...
March 2010: GM Crops
Jie Chen, Jin-Long Liu, Xi Chen, Hao Qian, Wen-Biao Xian, Hong-Yan Zhou, Yan-Mei Liu, Xiao-Fan Ye, Yi-Fan Zheng, Si-le Zhang, Ling Chen, Jin-Ru Li, Zhuo-Lin Liu, Zhong Pei
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) on the motor and non-motor symptoms in moderate or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. METHODS: From August 2006 to January 2010, 21 consecutive PD patients with refractory motor fluctuations or dyskinesia underwent operations at our hospital. All patients were evaluated by unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage, Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39), mini mental state examination (MMSE), Parkinson's disease sleep scale-Chinese vision (PDSS-CV), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA)...
February 1, 2011: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Won Seok Chang, Hae Yu Kim, Joo Pyung Kim, Young Seok Park, Sang Sup Chung, Jin Woo Chang
BACKGROUND: Microelectrode recording (MER) is widely used during deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures because MER can identify structural borders and eloquent structures, localize somatotopic arrangements, and provide an outline of the three-dimensional shapes of target nuclei. However, MER may cause intracranial hemorrhage. We preformed single track MER during DBS procedures, analyzed the accuracy of electrode positioning with MRI, and compared the amount of air and the potential risk of intracranial hemorrhage...
May 2011: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jarosław Sławek, Andrzej Bogucki
Medical treatment of advanced Parkinson disease complicated with fluctuations and dyskinesias remains difficult or in some patients totally ineffective. Recently, new methods were introduced to manage those problems: deep brain stimulation, subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and the Duodopa system for intrajejunal continuous delivery of gel containing levo-dopa/carbidopa (through percutaneous gastrostomy). This last method was proven to be very effective in reducing the fluctuations of levodopa plasma levels and furthermore in reducing the off periods and dyskinesias...
July 2010: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Giacomo Koch
Long-term therapy with levodopa and dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is complicated by the development of fluctuations in motor response, such as levo-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID). Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been recently put forward as a possible therapeutic tool able to LID in PD. Trains of 1 Hz rTMS applied either over the supplementary motor area (SMA) or the primary motor cortex (M1) were able to induce a transient reduction in the severity of LID, confirming that an over-activity of these areas plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of LID...
2010: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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