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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724227/carbon-and-nitrogen-allocation-strategy-in-posidonia-oceanica-is-altered-by-seawater-acidification
#1
Andrea Scartazza, Stefano Moscatello, Olga Gavrichkova, Maria Cristina Buia, Marco Lauteri, Alberto Battistelli, Maurizio Lorenti, Samantha Laird Garrard, Carlo Calfapietra, Enrico Brugnoli
Rising atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification that represents one of the major ecological threats for marine biota. We tested the hypothesis that long-term exposure to increased CO2 level and acidification in a natural CO2 vent system alters carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile), affecting its resilience, or capability to restore the physiological homeostasis, and the nutritional quality of organic matter available for grazers. Seawater acidification decreased the C to N ratio in P...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722113/specialised-stomatal-humidity-responses-underpin-ecological-diversity-in-c3-bromeliads
#2
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
The Neotropical Bromeliaceae display an extraordinary level of ecological variety, with species differing widely in habit, photosynthetic pathway, and growth form. Divergences in stomatal structure and function, hitherto understudied in treatments of bromeliad evolutionary physiology, could have been critical to the generation of variety in ecophysiological strategies among the bromeliads. Since humidity is a key factor in bromeliad niches, we focussed on stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)...
July 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719623/moderate-irrigation-intervals-facilitate-establishment-of-two-desert-shrubs-in-the-taklimakan-desert-highway-shelterbelt-in-china
#3
Congjuan Li, Xiang Shi, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Jie Gao, Xinwen Xu, Yijun Xie
BACKGROUND: Water influences various physiological and ecological processes of plants in different ecosystems, especially in desert ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in irrigation intervals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The irrigation frequency was set as 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals respectively from March to October during 2012-2014 to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two desert shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in the irrigation system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718699/multiple-facets-of-laticifer-cells
#4
Lourdes Castelblanque, Begoña Balaguer, Cristina Martí, Juan José Rodríguez, Marianela Orozco, Pablo Vera
In the latex-bearing plants, the laticiferous system is the tubing structure that contains the latex and is constituted of living cells (laticifers). While laticifers are present only in a small percentage of the flowering plant species, they represent a type of specialized tissue within the plant where a myriad of metabolites are synthesized, some of them of considerable commercial importance. In this mini-review we synopsize the present knowledge about laticifer cells and discuss about their particular features as well as some evolutionary and ecophysiological cues and the potential exploitation of the knowledge generated around this peculiar type of plant cell...
July 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708382/the-effects-of-temperature-and-hydrostatic-pressure-on-metal-toxicity-insights-into-toxicity-in-the-deep-sea
#5
Alastair Brown, Sven Thatje, Chris Hauton
Mineral prospecting in the deep sea is increasing, promoting concern regarding potential ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Technological difficulties in assessing toxicity in deep-sea species has promoted interest in developing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, it is unclear how the low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure prevalent in the deep sea affect toxicity, and whether adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions moderates any effects of these factors. To address these uncertainties we assessed the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on lethal and sublethal (respiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activity) toxicity in acute (96-hour) copper and cadmium exposures, using the shallow-water ecophysiological model organism Palaemon varians...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707041/on-the-ratio-of-intercellular-to-ambient-co2-c-i-c-a-derived-from-ecosystem-flux
#6
Zheng-Hong Tan, Zhi-Xiang Wu, Alice C Hughes, Douglas Schaefer, Jiye Zeng, Guo-Yu Lan, Chuang Yang, Zhong-Liang Tao, Bang-Qian Chen, Yao-Hua Tian, Liang Song, Muhammad Tahir Jatoi, Jun-Fu Zhao, Lian-Yan Yang
The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentrations (c i/c a) plays a key role in ecophysiology, micrometeorology, and global climatic change. However, systematic investigation on c i/c a variation and its determinants are rare. Here, the c i/c a was derived from measuring ecosystem fluxes in an even-aged monoculture of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). We tested whether c i/c a is constant across environmental gradients and if not, which dominant factors control c i/c a variations. Evidence indicates that c i/c a is not a constant...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706512/comparative-genomics-reveals-high-genomic-diversity-in-the-genus-photobacterium
#7
Henrique Machado, Lone Gram
Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693560/ecophysiological-characterization-and-molecular-differentiation-of-culex-pipiens-forms-diptera-culicidae-in-tunisia
#8
Marwa Beji, Adel Rhim, David Roiz, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: The Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Members of this complex are the primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of the West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) in several countries. The two recognized forms of Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) - pipiens and molestus - exhibit behavioral and physiological differences. Natural populations of Cx. pipiens were investigated in several sites in Tunisia to evaluate the ecophysiological and molecular characteristics of their forms...
July 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689724/thermal-biology-in-two-syntopic-lizards-phymaturus-extrilidus-and-liolaemus-parvus-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#9
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Alejandro Laspiur
Body temperature is the most important ecophysiological variable affecting reptiles' life history. Moreover, thermoregulation in ectotherms implies a struggle to reach preferred temperatures in natural conditions due to the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the thermal biology of two syntopic species, Phymaturus extrilidus and Liolaemus parvus, in the Puna region of San Juan, Argentina. We determined body temperature (Tb), micro-environmental temperatures (Ta and Ts) and operative temperatures (Te) in the field...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689723/methods-and-pitfalls-of-measuring-thermal-preference-and-tolerance-in-lizards
#10
REVIEW
Agustín Camacho, Travis W Rusch
Understanding methodological and biological sources of bias during the measurement of thermal parameters is essential for the advancement of thermal biology. For more than a century, studies on lizards have deepened our understanding of thermal ecophysiology, employing multiple methods to measure thermal preferences and tolerances. We reviewed 129 articles concerned with measuring preferred body temperature (PBT), voluntary thermal tolerance, and critical temperatures of lizards to offer: a) an overview of the methods used to measure and report these parameters, b) a summary of the methodological and biological factors affecting thermal preference and tolerance, c) recommendations to avoid identified pitfalls, and d) directions for continued progress in our application and understanding of these thermal parameters...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687330/identification-of-peg-induced-water-stress-responsive-transcripts-using-co-expression-network-in-eucalyptus-grandis
#11
Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, Veeramuthu Dharanishanthi
Ecophysiological studies in Eucalyptus have shown that water is the principal factor limiting stem growth. Effect of water deficit conditions on physiological and biochemical parameters has been extensively reported in Eucalyptus. The present study was conducted to identify major polyethylene glycol induced water stress responsive transcripts in Eucalyptus grandis using gene co-expression network. A customized array representing 3359 water stress responsive genes was designed to document their expression in leaves of E...
July 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678804/skin-microbiota-in-frogs-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-species-forest-type-and-potential-against-pathogens
#12
Ananda Brito de Assis, Cristine Chaves Barreto, Carlos Arturo Navas
The cutaneous microbiota of amphibians can be defined as a biological component of protection, since it can be composed of bacteria that produce antimicrobial compounds. Several factors influence skin microbial structure and it is possible that environmental variations are among one of these factors, perhaps through physical-chemical variations in the skin. This community, therefore, is likely modified in habitats in which some ecophysiological parameters are altered, as in fragmented forests. Our research goal was to compare the skin bacterial community of four anuran species of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in landscapes from two different environments: continuous forest and fragmented forest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674548/photoprotective-strategies-of-mediterranean-plants-in-relation-to-morphological-traits-and-natural-environmental-pressure-a-meta-analytical-approach
#13
Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Antonio Hernández, Jose I Garcia-Plazaola, Raquel Esteban, Fátima Míguez, Unai Artetxe, Maria T Gómez-Sagasti
Despite being a small geographic extension, Mediterranean Basin is characterized by an exceptional plant biodiversity. Adaptive responses of this biocoenosis are delineated by an unusual temporal dissociation along the year between optimal temperature for growth and water availability. This fact generates the combination of two environmental stress factors: a period of summer drought, variable in length and intensity, and the occurrence of mild to cold winters. Both abiotic factors, trigger the generation of (photo)oxidative stress and plants orchestrate an arsenal of structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to withstand such environmental injuries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664492/the-influence-of-growth-form-and-substrate-on-lichen-ecophysiological-responses-along-an-aridity-gradient
#14
Luca Paoli, Pedro Pinho, Cristina Branquinho, Stefano Loppi, Silvana Munzi
In this paper, we investigated whether growth form and substrate in lichens influence their physiological responses along an aridity gradient. Thalli of the foliose lichen Parmotrema perlatum and the fruticose lichen Ramalina canariensis were transplanted in selected rural/forested sites of Southern Portugal characterized by a different aridity index. Physiological parameters including photosynthetic performances, assimilation pigments, ergosterol content and sample viability were measured prior to exposure (winter) and after 6-month exposure (summer)...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649234/ecological-succession-pattern-of-fungal-community-in-soil-along-a-retreating-glacier
#15
Jianqing Tian, Yuchen Qiao, Bing Wu, Huai Chen, Wei Li, Na Jiang, Xiaoling Zhang, Xingzhong Liu
Accelerated by global climate changing, retreating glaciers leave behind soil chronosequences of primary succession. Current knowledge of primary succession is mainly from studies of vegetation dynamics, whereas information about belowground microbes remains unclear. Here, we combined shifts in community assembly processes with microbial primary succession to better understand mechanisms governing the stochastic/deterministic balance. We investigated fungal succession and community assembly via high-throughput sequencing along a well-established glacier forefront chronosequence that spans 2-188 years of deglaciation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648723/a-protocol-for-the-simultaneous-identification-of-chitin-containing-particles-and-their-associated-bacteria
#16
Florencia Biancalana, Germán A Kopprio, Rubén J Lara, Cecilia Alonso
Chitin is the second most abundant polymer on Earth, playing a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles. A core issue for studying its processing in aquatic systems is the identification and enumeration of chitin-containing particles and organisms, ideally in a manner that can be directly linked to bulk chitin quantification. The aim of this study was the development of such a technique. We successfully combined the methodology of bulk chitin determination using wheat germ agglutinin (FITC-WGA) for staining chitin-containing particles and organisms along with CARD-FISH staining of either chitin-containing eukaryotic cells or bacteria associated with them...
June 7, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646202/the-microbiome-of-endophytic-wood-colonizing-bacteria-from-pine-trees-as-affected-by-pine-wilt-disease
#17
Diogo Neves Proença, Romeu Francisco, Susanne Kublik, Anne Schöler, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Paula V Morais
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating forest disease present worldwide. In this study we analyzed the effects of the invasion of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the major pathogen causing PWD, on the endophytic microbiome of adult P. pinaster trees. Wood samples from trees with different degrees of PWD disease were collected at two sites (A and M) in Portugal. Endophytic bacteria were characterized based on directly extracted DNA by fingerprinting and barcoding using the 16S rRNA gene as marker...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645158/the-potential-for-co-evolution-of-co2-concentrating-mechanisms-and-rubisco-in-diatoms
#18
Jodi N Young, Brian M Hopkinson
Diatoms are a diverse group of unicellular algae that contribute significantly to global photosynthetic carbon fixation and export in the modern ocean, and are an important source of microfossils for paleoclimate reconstructions. Because of their importance in the environment, diatoms have been a focus of study on the physiology and ecophysiology of carbon fixation, in particular their CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and Rubisco characteristics. While carbon fixation in diatoms is not as well understood as in certain model aquatic photoautotrophs, a greater number of species have been examined in diatoms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626940/overexpression-of-hevea-brasiliensis-ethylene-response-factor-hberf-ixc5-enhances-growth-tolerance-to-abiotic-stress-and-affects-laticifer-differentiation
#19
Retno Lestari, Maryannick Rio, Florence Martin, Julie Leclercq, Natthakorn Woraathasin, Sandrine Roques, Florence Dessailly, Anne Clément-Vidal, Christine Sanier, Denis Fabre, Sémi Melliti, Sony Suharsono, Pascal Montoro
Ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) is an essential integrator of the jasmonate and ethylene signalling pathways coordinating a large number of genes involved in plant defences. Its orthologue in Hevea brasiliensis, HbERF-IXc5, has been assumed to play a major role in laticifer metabolism and tolerance to harvesting stress for better latex production. This paper set out to establish and characterize rubber transgenic lines overexpressing HbERF-IXc5. Overexpression of HbERF-IXc5 dramatically enhanced plant growth and enabled plants to maintain some ecophysiological parameters in response to abiotic stress such as water deficit, cold and salt treatments...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625866/genome-analysis-of-crude-oil-degrading-franconibacter-pulveris-strain-dj34-revealed-its-genetic-basis-for-hydrocarbon-degradation-and-survival-in-oil-contaminated-environment
#20
Siddhartha Pal, Anirban Kundu, Tirtha Das Banerjee, Balaram Mohapatra, Ajoy Roy, Riddha Manna, Pinaki Sar, Sufia K Kazy
Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34, isolated from Duliajan oil fields, Assam, was characterized in terms of its taxonomic, metabolic and genomic properties. The bacterium showed utilization of diverse petroleum hydrocarbons and electron acceptors, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. The genome (4,856,096bp) of this strain contained different genes related to the degradation of various petroleum hydrocarbons, metal transport and resistance, dissimilatory nitrate, nitrite and sulfite reduction, chemotaxy, biosurfactant synthesis, etc...
June 15, 2017: Genomics
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