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Siegfried Aigner, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten, Ilse Kranner
Batrachospermum turfosum Bory is one of the generalists among the few red algae that have adapted to freshwater habitats, occurring in a variety of primarily shaded, nutrient-poor micro-habitats with lotic (running) or lentic (standing) waters. Seasonal variations in water level and canopy cover can expose this sessile alga to widely fluctuating temperatures, solar irradiation and nutrient availability. Here we report on the ecophysiology of B. turfosum collected from an ultra-oligotrophic bog pool in the Austrian Alps...
2017: Phycologia
Mathias Ahii Chia, Micheline Kézia Cordeiro-Araújo, Adriana Sturion Lorenzi, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira
Growing evidence suggests that some bioactive metabolites (e.g. cyanotoxins) produced by cyanobacteria have allelopathic potential, due to their inhibitory or stimulatory effects on competing species. Although a number of studies have shown that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has variable effects on phytoplankton species, the impact of changing physicochemical conditions on its allelopathic potential is yet to be investigated. We investigated the physiological response of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) and Acutodesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyta) to CYN under varying nitrogen and light conditions...
April 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Patricia Moya, Arántzazu Molins, Fernando Martínez-Alberola, Lucia Muggia, Eva Barreno
The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp...
2017: PloS One
Jeffrey M Minucci, Chelcy Ford Miniat, Robert O Teskey, Nina Wurzburger
Climate change is increasing drought frequency, which may affect symbiotic N2 fixation (SNF), a process that facilitates ecosystem recovery from disturbance. Here, we assessed the effect of drought frequency on the ecophysiology and SNF rate of a common N2 -fixing tree in eastern US forests. We grew Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings under the same mean soil moisture, but with different drought frequency caused by wet-dry cycles of varying periodicity. We found no effect of drought frequency on final biomass or mean SNF rate...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Han Bao, Matthew R Melnicki, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Rapidly-induced photoprotection in cyanobacteria involves thermal dissipation of excess energy absorbed by the phycobilisome (PBS), the primary light-harvesting antenna. This process is called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and is mediated by a water-soluble photoactive protein, the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP). The OCP is structurally and functionally modular, consisting of a sensor domain, an effector domain, and a carotenoid. Blue-green light induces a structural transition of the OCP from the orange inactive form, OCP(o), to the red active form, OCP(R)...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Aaron C Greenville, Chris R Dickman, Glenda M Wardle
Growth in the publication of scientific articles is occurring at an exponential rate, prompting a growing need to synthesise information in a timely manner to combat urgent environmental problems and guide future research. Here, we undertake a topic analysis of dryland literature over the last 75 years (8218 articles) to identify areas in arid ecology that are well studied and topics that are emerging. Four topics-wetlands, mammal ecology, litter decomposition and spatial modelling, were identified as 'hot topics' that showed higher than average growth in publications from 1940 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
M Iftikhar Hussain, Manuel J Reigosa
Ferulic (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) are commonly found as phenolic compounds (PHC) in many forage and cereal crops. Although the effects of these PHC on seedling growth are relatively explored, not many information is available regarding the phytotoxicity on ecophysiological processes of perennial ryegrass adult plants. The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of PHC on the seedling growth, leaf water relation, chlorophyll fluorescence attributes and carbon isotope discrimination adult plants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L...
April 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology
María M Martorell, Hipólito F Pajot, Pablo M Ahmed, Lucía I C de Figueroa
Azo dyes are extensively used in textile dyeing and other industries. Effluents of dying industries are specially colored and could cause severe damage to the environment. The anaerobic treatment of textile dying effluents is nowadays the preferred option, but it could generate carcinogenic aromatic amines. Recently, yeasts have become a promising alternative, combining unicellular growth with oxidative mechanisms. This work reports the characterization of the first methylotrophic yeast with dye decolorizing ability, Candida boidinii MM 4035 and some insights into its decoloration mechanism...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jakob Pernthaler
Freshwater bacterioplankton assemblages are composed of sympatric populations that can be delineated, e.g., by ribosomal RNA gene relatedness and that differ in key ecophysiological properties. They may be free-living or attached, specialized for particular concentrations or subsets of substrates, or invest a variable amount of their resources in defence traits against protistan predators and viruses. Some may be motile and tactic whereas others are not, with far-reaching implications for their respective life styles and niche partitioning...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Daniel Garrido-Sanz, Eva Arrebola, Francisco Martínez-Granero, Sonia García-Méndez, Candela Muriel, Esther Blanco-Romero, Marta Martín, Rafael Rivilla, Miguel Redondo-Nieto
The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex of species includes plant-associated bacteria with potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and environmental protection. Many of these bacteria can promote plant growth by different means, including modification of plant hormonal balance and biocontrol. The P. fluorescens group is currently divided into eight major subgroups in which these properties and many other ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically distributed. Therefore, a rapid phylogroup assignment for a particular isolate could be useful to simplify the screening of putative inoculants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Akihiro Nakamura, Roger L Kitching, Min Cao, Thomas J Creedy, Tom M Fayle, Martin Freiberg, C N Hewitt, Takao Itioka, Lian Pin Koh, Keping Ma, Yadvinder Malhi, Andrew Mitchell, Vojtech Novotny, Claire M P Ozanne, Liang Song, Han Wang, Louise A Ashton
Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Francesco Dal Grande, Rahul Sharma, Anjuli Meiser, Gregor Rolshausen, Burkhard Büdel, Bagdevi Mishra, Marco Thines, Jürgen Otte, Markus Pfenninger, Imke Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region...
March 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Antonella Scalise, Valentini A Pappa, Antonio Gelsomino, Robert M Rees
The underlying mechanisms by which legume cultivars contribute to nitrous oxide (N2O) generation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of two pea cultivars (Zero4 and Nitouche) intercropped with triticale, with or without wheat (Triticum aestivum) residues incorporation, on soil C and N dynamics, on bacterial community structure and their links with N2O emissions. Monocrops and bare soil (no plant) treatments were used as an additional control in order to account for the level of mineralisation between treatments...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Josef Urban, Miles W Ingwers, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey
The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wang Tian, Huayong Zhang, Jian Zhang, Lei Zhao, Mingsheng Miao, Hai Huang
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology, especially in aquatic ecosystems due to the ecophysiological characteristics of plankton. Recently, ecologists have obtained conflicting conclusions while analyzing the influence of species diversity on plankton resource use efficiency (RUE) and community turnover. In this study, both phytoplankton and zooplankton communities were investigated seasonally from 2011 to 2013 in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic and recovering lake in China...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hao Qu, Ha-Lin Zhao, Xue-Yong Zhao, Xiao-An Zuo, Shao-Kun Wang, Min Chen
Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Livia Paleari, Ermes Movedi, Giovanni Cappelli, Lloyd T Wilson, Roberto Confalonieri
Growing food crops to meet global demand and the search for more sustainable cropping systems are increasing the need for new cultivars in key production areas. This study presents the identification of rice traits putatively producing the largest yield benefits in five areas that markedly differ in terms of environmental conditions in the Philippines, India, China, Japan and Italy. The ecophysiological model WARM and sensitivity analysis techniques were used to evaluate phenotypic traits involved with light interception, photosynthetic efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stressors, resistance to fungal pathogens and grain quality...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
Daniel Wangpraseurt, Camilla Wentzel, Steven L Jacques, Michael Wagner, Michael Kühl
Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Hui Li, Na Luo, Yan Wen Li, Quan Ying Cai, Hui Yuan Li, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding of Cd transport processes and its management aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in rice may help to improve rice growth and grain quality. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the factors influencing Cd accumulation will be helpful to derive efficient strategies to minimize Cd in rice. In this article, we reviewed Cd transport mechanisms in rice, the factors affecting Cd uptake (including physicochemical characters of soil and ecophysiological features of rice) and discussed efficient measures to immobilize Cd in soil and reduce Cd uptake by rice (including agronomic practices, bioremediation and molecular biology techniques)...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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