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Morgan Michelle Steffen, Timothy W Davis, Robert Michael McKay, George S Bullerjahn, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Joshua M A Stough, Michelle L Neitzey, Naomi E Gilbert, Gregory L Boyer, Thomas H Johengen, Duane C Gossiaux, Ashley M Burtner, Danna Palladino, Mark Rowe, Gregory J Dick, Kevin Meyer, Shawn Levy, Braden Boone, Richard Stumpf, Timothy Wynne, Paul V Zimba, Danielle B Gutierrez, Steven W Wilhelm
Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
R Strand, S Whalan, N S Webster, T Kutti, J K H Fang, H M Luter, R J Bannister
Effects of elevated seawater temperatures on deep-water benthos has been poorly studied, despite reports of increased seawater temperature (up to 4 °C over 24 hrs) coinciding with mass mortality events of the sponge Geodia barretti at Tisler Reef, Norway. While the mechanisms driving these mortality events are unclear, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of elevated temperature (up to 5 °C, above ambient levels) on the ecophysiology (respiration rate, nutrient uptake, cellular integrity and sponge microbiome) of G...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marc Delêtre, Beatriz Soengas, Prem Jai Vidaurre, Rosa Isela Meneses, Octavio Delgado Vásquez, Isabel Oré Balbín, Monica Santayana, Bettina Heider, Marten Sørensen
Understanding the distribution of crop genetic diversity in relation to environmental factors can give insights into the eco-evolutionary processes involved in plant domestication. Yam beans (Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC.) are leguminous crops native to South and Central America that are grown for their tuberous roots but are seed-propagated. Using a landscape genetic approach, we examined correlations between environmental factors and phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in Pachyrhizus landrace populations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Kento Ishii, Hirotsugu Fujitani, Kentaro Soh, Tatsunori Nakagawa, Reiji Takahashi, Satoshi Tsuneda
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are responsible for the second step of nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. The recently discovered genus Nitrotoga belongs to the Betaproteobacteria and has potentially high environmental importance. Although environmental clones affiliated with Nitrotoga are widely distributed, the limited number of cultivated Nitrotoga results in poor understanding of their ecophysiological features. In this study, we successfully enriched the non-marine cold-adapted Nitrotoga sp...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
J Mason Heberling, Nathan L Brouwer, Susan Kalisz
Overabundant generalist herbivores can facilitate non-native plant invasions, presumably through direct and indirect modifications to the environment that affect plant performance. However, ecophysiological mechanisms behind ungulate-mediated plant invasions have not been well-studied. At a long-term Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) exclusion site in a temperate deciduous forest, we quantified deer-mediated ecophysiological impacts on an invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and two palatable native herbaceous perennials, Maianthemum racemosum and Trillium grandiflorum...
March 2017: AoB Plants
Ian P G Marshall, Piotr Starnawski, Carina Cupit, Eva Fernández Cáceres, Thijs J G Ettema, Andreas Schramm, Kasper U Kjeldsen
Calditrichaeota is a recently recognised bacterial phylum with three cultured representatives, isolated from hydrothermal vents. Here we expand the phylogeny and ecology of this novel phylum with metagenome-derived and single-cell genomes from six uncultivated bacteria previously not recognised as members of Calditrichaeota. Using 16S rRNA gene sequences from these genomes, we then identified 322 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultivation-independent studies that can now be classified as Calditrichaeota for the first time...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Abhishek Sen, Indrani Khan, Debajyoti Kundu, Kousik Das, Jayanta Kumar Datta
Identification of tree species that can biologically monitor air pollution and can endure air pollution is very much important for a sustainable green belt development around any polluted place. To ascertain the species, ten tree species were selected on the basis of some previous study from the campus of the University of Burdwan and were studied in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The study has been designed to investigate biochemical and physiological activities of selected tree species as the campus is presently exposed to primary air pollutants and their impacts on plant community were observed through the changes in several physical and biochemical constituents of plant leaves...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Caroline Birer, Niklas Tysklind, Lucie Zinger, Christophe Duplais
High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene has considerably helped revealing the essential role of bacteria living on insect cuticles in the ecophysiology and behavior of their hosts. However, our understanding of host-cuticular microbiota feedbacks remains hampered by the difficulties to working with low bacterial DNA quantities as in individual insect cuticle samples, which are more prone to molecular biases and contaminations. Herein, we conducted a methodological benchmark on the cuticular bacterial loads retrieved from two Neotropical ant species of different body size and ecology: Atta cephalotes (~15 mm) and Pseudomyrmex penetrator (~5 mm)...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Stephen R Griffiths, Jessica A Rowland, Natalie J Briscoe, Pia E Lentini, Kathrine A Handasyde, Linda F Lumsden, Kylie A Robert
Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64...
2017: PloS One
Tao Li, Olivyn Angeles, Manuel Marcaida, Emmali Manalo, Mervin Pogs Manalili, Ando Radanielson, Samarendu Mohanty
The worldwide usage of and increasing citations for ORYZA2000 has established it as a robust and reliable ecophysiological model for predicting the growth and yield of rice in an irrigated lowland ecosystem. Because of its focus on irrigated lowlands, its computation ability is limited to the representation of the effects of the highly dynamic environments of upland, rainfed, and aerobic ecosystems on rice growth and yield. Additional modules and routines to quantify daily variations in soil temperature, carbon, nitrogen, and environmental stresses were then developed and integrated into ORYZA2000 to capture their effects on primary production, assimilate allocation, root growth, and water and nitrogen uptake...
May 1, 2017: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Yanjun Guo, Reinhard Jetter
Complex mixtures of cuticular waxes coat plant surfaces to seal them against environmental stresses, with compositions greatly varying between species and possibly organs. This paper reports comprehensive analyses of the waxes on both above- and below-ground organs of potato, where total wax coverages varied between petals (2.6 μg/cm(2)), leaves, stems, and tubers (1.8-1.9 μg/cm(2)), and rhizomes (1.1 μg/cm(2)). The wax mixtures on above-ground organs were dominated by alkanes, occurring in homologous series of isomeric C25-C35 n-alkanes, C25-C35 2-methylalkanes, and C26-C34 3-methylalkanes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Krzysztof Sitko, Szymon Rusinowski, Hazem Mohamed Kalaji, Michał Szopiński, Eugeniusz Malkowski
In the earlier ecophysiological studies that were conducted on Arabidopsis halleri plants, scientists focused on the mechanisms of Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation but they did not take into consideration the environmental factors that can significantly affect the physiological response of plants in situ. In the present study, we investigated Arabidopsis halleri that was growing on three non-metalliferous and three metalliferous sites, which were characterized by different environmental conditions. We compared these populations in order to find differences within the metallicolous and the non-metallicolous groups, which have not yet been investigated...
April 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jens D Berger, Damber Shrestha, Christiane Ludwig
To investigate wild and domesticated Mediterranean annual reproductive strategies, common garden comparisons of Old World lupins collected along aridity gradients were initiated. These are excellent candidates for ecophysiology, being widely distributed across contrasting environments, having distinct domestication histories, from ancient Lupinus albus to recently domesticated Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, facilitating the study of both natural and human selection. Strong trade-offs between seed size, early vigor and phenology were observed: vigor increasing, and flowering becoming earlier with increasing seed size...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Siegfried Aigner, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten, Ilse Kranner
Batrachospermum turfosum Bory is one of the generalists among the few red algae that have adapted to freshwater habitats, occurring in a variety of primarily shaded, nutrient-poor micro-habitats with lotic (running) or lentic (standing) waters. Seasonal variations in water level and canopy cover can expose this sessile alga to widely fluctuating temperatures, solar irradiation and nutrient availability. Here we report on the ecophysiology of B. turfosum collected from an ultra-oligotrophic bog pool in the Austrian Alps...
2017: Phycologia
Mathias Ahii Chia, Micheline Kézia Cordeiro-Araújo, Adriana Sturion Lorenzi, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira
Growing evidence suggests that some bioactive metabolites (e.g. cyanotoxins) produced by cyanobacteria have allelopathic potential, due to their inhibitory or stimulatory effects on competing species. Although a number of studies have shown that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has variable effects on phytoplankton species, the impact of changing physicochemical conditions on its allelopathic potential is yet to be investigated. We investigated the physiological response of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) and Acutodesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyta) to CYN under varying nitrogen and light conditions...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Patricia Moya, Arántzazu Molins, Fernando Martínez-Alberola, Lucia Muggia, Eva Barreno
The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp...
2017: PloS One
Jeffrey M Minucci, Chelcy Ford Miniat, Robert O Teskey, Nina Wurzburger
Climate change is increasing drought frequency, which may affect symbiotic N2 fixation (SNF), a process that facilitates ecosystem recovery from disturbance. Here, we assessed the effect of drought frequency on the ecophysiology and SNF rate of a common N2 -fixing tree in eastern US forests. We grew Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings under the same mean soil moisture, but with different drought frequency caused by wet-dry cycles of varying periodicity. We found no effect of drought frequency on final biomass or mean SNF rate...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
Han Bao, Matthew R Melnicki, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Rapidly-induced photoprotection in cyanobacteria involves thermal dissipation of excess energy absorbed by the phycobilisome (PBS), the primary light-harvesting antenna. This process is called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and is mediated by a water-soluble photoactive protein, the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP). The OCP is structurally and functionally modular, consisting of a sensor domain, an effector domain, and a carotenoid. Blue-green light induces a structural transition of the OCP from the orange inactive form, OCP(o), to the red active form, OCP(R)...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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