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Ecophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#1
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132006/ocean-acidification-dampens-physiological-stress-response-to-warming-and-contamination-in-a-commercially-important-fish-argyrosomus-regius
#2
Eduardo Sampaio, Ana R Lopes, Sofia Francisco, Jose R Paula, Marta Pimentel, Ana L Maulvault, Tiago Repolho, Tiago F Grilo, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, António Marques, Rui Rosa
Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases emissions are changing ocean temperature and carbonate chemistry (warming and acidification, respectively). Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of highly toxic and persistent contaminants, such as methylmercury, will play a key role in further shaping the ecophysiology of marine organisms. Despite recent studies reporting mostly additive interactions between contaminant and climate change effects, the consequences of multi-stressor exposure are still largely unknown...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129283/biological-control-agents-in-the-anthropocene-current-risks-and-future-options
#3
REVIEW
Jessa H Thurman, David W Crowder, Tobin D Northfield
Global climate change is often expected to disrupt biological control. Predicting the effects of climate change on biological control, and identifying natural enemies that will thrive in future climate scenarios, is thus essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. To promote biological control under climate change, land managers should prioritise the conservation of natural enemy diversity to ensure some effective natural enemies are always present despite often-unpredictable climate scenarios. In addition, ecophysiological and habitat domain models should be combined to predict climate change-induced shifts in predation by diverse predator communities...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#4
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125662/how-do-mediterranean-shrub-species-cope-with-shade-ecophysiological-response-to-different-light-intensities
#5
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042138/managing-the-excessive-proliferation-of-glycogen-accumulating-organisms-in-industrial-activated-sludge-by-nitrogen-supplementation-a-fish-nanosims-approach
#6
Cristobal A Onetto, Kathryn L Eales, Paul Guagliardo, Matt R Kilburn, Joanna M Gambetta, Paul R Grbin
Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) regularly proliferate in industrial wastewater treatment plants handling high carbon but nitrogen deficient wastes. When GAO dominate, they are associated with poor performance, characterised by slow settling biomass and turbid effluents. Although their ecophysiology has been studied thoroughly in domestic waste treatment plants, little attention has been paid to them in aerobic industrial systems. In this study, the effect of nitrogen addition on GAO carbon metabolism was investigated during an 8h cycle...
October 2, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040771/contrasting-ecophysiological-strategies-related-to-drought-the-case-of-a-mixed-stand-of-scots-pine-pinus-sylvestris-and-a-submediterranean-oak-quercus-subpyrenaica
#7
Paula Martín-Gómez, Mònica Aguilera, Jesús Pemán, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, Juan Pedro Ferrio
Submediterranean forests are considered an ecotone between Mediterranean and Eurosiberian ecosystems, and are very sensitive to global change. A decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a related expansion of oak species (Quercus spp.) have been reported in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. Although this has been associated with increasing drought stress, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and suitable monitoring protocols are lacking. The aim of this study is to bring insight into the physiological mechanisms anticipating selective decline of the pines, with particular focus on carbon and water relations...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036408/physiological-differences-between-root-suckers-and-saplings-enlarge-the-regeneration-niche-in-eucryphia-cordifolia-cav
#8
Antonio B Escandón, Roke Rojas, Loreto V Morales, Luis J Corcuera, Rafael E Coopman, Susana Paula
Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036342/the-ecophysiology-of-leaf-cuticular-transpiration-are-cuticular-water-permeabilities-adapted-to-ecological-conditions
#9
Ann-Christin Schuster, Markus Burghardt, Markus Riederer
When the stomata are closed under drought, the only route for water loss from the leaf interior to the atmosphere is across the cuticle. Thus, the extent of cuticular transpiration in relation to the reservoirs of water in the plant and the water acquisition from the soil determines the fitness and survival of the plant. It is, therefore, widely assumed that the cuticular water permeability of plants regularly experiencing drought is comparatively low and, thus, adapted to the environment. To test this hypothesis, 382 measurements of cuticular permeability from 160 species were extracted from the literature published between 1996 and 2017...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030903/increased-water-use-efficiency-translates-into-contrasting-growth-patterns-of-scots-pine-and-sessile-oak-at-their-southern-distribution-limits
#10
Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Isabel Dorado-Liñán, Emilia Gutiérrez-Merino, Michael Matiu, Gerhard Helle, Ingo Heinrich, Annette Menzel
In forests, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Ca) has been related to enhanced tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). However, in drought-prone areas such as the Mediterranean Basin it is not yet clear to what extent this 'fertilizing' effect may compensate for drought-induced growth reduction. We investigated tree growth and physiological responses at five Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and five sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) sites located at their southernmost distribution limits in Europe for the period 1960-2012 using annually resolved tree-ring width and δ(13) C data to track ecophysiological processes...
October 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027346/application-of-stable-isotope-labelling-techniques-for-the-detection-of-active-diazotrophs
#11
Roey Angel, Christopher Panhölzl, Raphael Gabriel, Craig Herbold, Wolfgang Wanek, Andreas Richter, Stephanie A Eichorst, Dagmar Woebken
Investigating active participants in the fixation of dinitrogen gas is vital as N is often a limiting factor for primary production. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is performed by a diverse guild of bacteria and archaea (diazotrophs), which can be free-living or symbionts. Free-living diazotrophs are widely distributed in the environment, yet our knowledge about their identity and ecophysiology is still limited. A major challenge in investigating this guild is inferring activity from genetic data as this process is highly regulated...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022159/modulation-of-trace-element-bioavailability-for-two-earthworm-species-after-biochar-amendment-into-a-contaminated-technosol
#12
Lilian Marchand, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Isabelle Lamy, Michel Mench, Celine Pelosi
Biochars are used as amendments to improve soil quality, but their effects on edaphic organisms such as earthworms remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of adding a poultry manure-derived biochar into a contaminated technosol on trace element (TE) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability for two earthworm species, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa. Three components of the bioavailability concept were determined using a pot experiment: (1) total soil TE (potentially reactive) and TE concentrations in the soil pore water (environmental availability), (2) TE concentrations in depurated whole earthworm bodies (environmental bioavailability) and (3) ecophysiological and biochemical effects on earthworms (toxicological bioavailability)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994153/x-ray-elemental-mapping-techniques-for-elucidating-the-ecophysiology-of-hyperaccumulator-plants
#13
REVIEW
Antony van der Ent, Wojciech J Przybyłowicz, Martin D de Jonge, Hugh H Harris, Chris G Ryan, Grzegorz Tylko, David J Paterson, Alban D Barnabas, Peter M Kopittke, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Hyperaccumulators are attractive models for studying metal(loid) homeostasis, and probing the spatial distribution and coordination chemistry of metal(loid)s in their tissues is important for advancing our understanding of their ecophysiology. X-ray elemental mapping techniques are unique in providing in situ information, and with appropriate sample preparation offer results true to biological conditions of the living plant. The common platform of these techniques is a reliance on characteristic X-rays of elements present in a sample, excited either by electrons (scanning/transmission electron microscopy), protons (proton-induced X-ray emission) or X-rays (X-ray fluorescence microscopy)...
October 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992247/physico-chemical-properties-of-plant-cuticles-and-their-functional-and-ecological-significance
#14
Victoria Fernández, Hector A Bahamonde, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Luis Gil, Heiner E Goldbach, Thomas Eichert
Most aerial plant surfaces are covered with a lipid-rich cuticle, which is a barrier for the bidirectional transport of substances between the plant and the surrounding environment. This review article provides an overview of the significance of the leaf cuticle as a barrier for the deposition and absorption of water and electrolytes. After providing insights into the physico-chemical properties of plant surfaces, the mechanisms of foliar absorption are revised with special emphasis on solutes. Due to the limited information and relative importance of the leaf cuticle of herbaceous and deciduous cultivated plants, an overview of the studies developed with Alpine conifers and treeline species is provided...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986632/phylogenetic-analysis-of-standard-metabolic-rate-of-snakes-a-new-proposal-for-the-understanding-of-interspecific-variation-in-feeding-behavior
#15
Daniel Rodrigues Stuginski, Carlos Arturo Navas, Fábio Cury de Barros, Agustín Camacho, José Eduardo Pereira Wilken Bicudo, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, José Eduardo de Carvalho
The current proposal about the variation of standard metabolic rates (SMR) in snakes predicts that SMR is influenced by the feeding frequency (frequent or infrequent feeders). However, feeding frequency in snakes is poorly studied and hard to quantify under natural conditions. Alternatively, foraging strategy was studied for a large number of species and is usually related to the feeding frequency. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis on the SMR of compiled data from 74 species of snakes obtained from the literature and five more different species of lanceheads (genus Bothrops), after categorization according to the foraging mode (ambush or active foraging) and regarding their phylogenetic history...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981895/canopy-ecophysiology-exploring-the-terrestrial-ecosystem-frontier
#16
H Roaki Ishii, Molly A Cavaleri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981870/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-foliar-phosphorus-inorganic-supply-alleviate-salt-stress-effects-in-physiological-attributes-but-only-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-increase-biomass-in-woody-species-of-a-semiarid-environment
#17
Gabriella Frosi, Vanessa Andrade Barros, Marciel Teixeira Oliveira, Mariana Santos, Diego Gomes Ramos, Leonor Costa Maia, Mauro Guida Santos
Salinity may limit plant growth especially in arid and semiarid regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the supply of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) could alleviate the negative effects of such stress by improvement in stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and biomass. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ecophysiological performance of Cenostigma pyramidale (Tul.) E. Gagnon & G. P. Lewis (Fabaceae) in a greenhouse under salinity conditions in combination with the supply of AMF and leaf Pi. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design considering two levels of salinity (+NaCl and -NaCl), two levels of AMF (+AMF and -AMF) and two levels of leaf Pi supply (+Pi and -Pi)...
September 6, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981671/climate-shapes-the-geographic-distribution-of-the-blowfly-sarconesia-chlorogaster-diptera-calliphoridae-an-environmental-niche-modeling-approach
#18
Melise Cristine Lecheta, Rodrigo César Corrêa, Mauricio Osvaldo Moura
For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979283/organic-molecules-from-biochar-leacheates-have-a-positive-effect-on-rice-seedling-cold-tolerance
#19
Jun Yuan, Jun Meng, Xiao Liang, Yang E, Xu Yang, Wenfu Chen
Biochar is known to have a number of positive effects on plant ecophysiology. However, limited research has been carried out to date on the effects and mechanisms of biochar on plant ecophysiology under abiotic stresses, especially responses to cold. In this study, we report on a series of experiments on rice seedlings treated with different concentrations of biochar leacheates (between 0 and 10% by weight) under cold stress (10°C). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and cold-resistant physiological indicator analysis at low temperatures revealed that the cold tolerance of rice seedlings increased after treatment with high concentrations of biochar leacheates (between 3 and 10% by weight)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973847/ecology-based-evaluation-of-groundwater-ecosystems-under-intensive-agriculture-a-combination-of-community-analysis-and-sentinel-exposure
#20
Pierre Marmonier, Chafik Maazouzi, Nicole Baran, Simon Blanchet, Amy Ritter, Maritxu Saplairoles, Marie-José Dole-Olivier, Diana M P Galassi, David Eme, Sylvain Dolédec, Christophe Piscart
Ecological criteria are needed for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater ecosystem health by including biological components with the physical and chemical properties that are already required by European directives. Two methodological approaches to assess the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems were combined in two alluvial plains (the Ariège and Hers Rivers, southwestern France) varying in agriculture intensity (from grassland to crop rotation including maize and sunflower, and to maize monoculture)...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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