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Hendrik Fueser, Nabil Majdi, Arne Haegerbaeumer, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Paul Greife, Thomas Huser, Walter Traunspurger
Lipid storage provides energy for cell survival, growth, and reproduction and is closely related to the organismal response to stress imposed by toxic chemicals. However, the effects of toxicants on energy storage as it impacts certain life-history traits have rarely been investigated. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a test species for a chronic exposure to copper (Cu) at EC20 (0.50 mg Cu/l). Effects on the fatty acid distribution in C. elegans body were determined using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) to link population fitness responses with individual ecophysiological responses...
March 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mingwei Cai, Siu-Kin Ng, Chee Kent Lim, Hongyuan Lu, Yangyang Jia, Patrick K H Lee
Nitrification plays a crucial role in global nitrogen cycling and treatment processes. However, the relationships between the nitrifier guilds of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are still poorly understood, especially in freshwater habitats. This study examined the physiological interactions between the AOB and NOB present in a freshwater aquarium biofilter by culturing them, either together or separately, in a synthetic medium. Metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the presence and the draft genomes of Nitrosomonas -like AOB as well as Nitrobacter -like NOB in the cultures, including the first draft genome of Nitrobacter vulgaris ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi-Lung Chen, Han-Yi Fu, Tzong-Huei Lee, Chao-Jen Shih, Lina Huang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wael Ismail, Yin-Ru Chiang
The environmental release and fate of estrogens are becoming an increasing public concern. Bacterial degradation has been considered the main process for eliminating estrogens from wastewater treatment plants. Various bacterial isolates are reportedly capable of aerobic estrogen degradation and several estrogen degradation pathways have been proposed in the proteobacteria and actinobacteria. However, the ecophysiological relevance of estrogen-degrading bacteria in the environment is unclear. In this study, we investigated estrogen degradation pathway and corresponding degraders in activated sludge collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant, Taipei, Taiwan...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
D Piló, A B Barbosa, M A Teodósio, J Encarnação, F Leitão, P Range, L A Krug, J Cruz, L Chícharo
This study evaluated the impacts of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) on a rocky intertidal community of South Portugal, during April-November 2011. Chlorophyll-a concentration was higher at the SGD site in respect to the Reference site. Epibenthic community structure differed between sites, with an increase in Chthamalus spp. and a decrease in macroalgae coverage at the SGD site. The abundance and body size of Mytilus galloprovincialis were consistently higher at the SGD site. During mid-spring, under potentially higher SGD and less favorable conditions for coastal phytoplankton, the ecophysiological condition of M...
February 23, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Vera Thiel, Marcus Tank, Donald A Bryant
Because of recent advances in omics methodologies, knowledge of chlorophototrophy (i.e., chlorophyll-based phototrophy) in bacteria has rapidly increased. Chlorophototrophs currently are known to occur in seven bacterial phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes. Other organisms that can produce chlorophylls and photochemical reaction centers may still be undiscovered. Here we summarize the current status of the taxonomy and phylogeny of chlorophototrophic bacteria as revealed by genomic methods...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
María J León, Tamara Hoffmann, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Johann Heider, Antonio Ventosa, Erhard Bremer
Members of the genus Spiribacter are found worldwide and are abundant in ecosystems possessing intermediate salinities between seawater and saturated salt concentrations. Spiribacter salinus M19-40 is the type species of this genus and its first cultivated representative. In the habitats of S. salinus M19-40, high salinity is a key determinant for growth and we therefore focused on the cellular adjustment strategy to this persistent environmental challenge. We coupled these experimental studies to the in silico mining of the genome sequence of this moderate halophile with respect to systems allowing this bacterium to control its potassium and sodium pools, and its ability to import and synthesize compatible solutes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohammad Tajparast, Dominic Frigon
Feast-famine cycles in biological wastewater resource recovery systems select for bacterial species that accumulate intracellular storage compounds such as poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), glycogen, and triacylglycerols (TAG). These species survive better the famine phase and resume rapid substrate uptake at the beginning of the feast phase faster than microorganisms unable to accumulate storage. However, ecophysiological conditions favouring the accumulation of either storage compounds remain to be clarified, and predictive capabilities need to be developed to eventually rationally design reactors producing these compounds...
2018: PloS One
Henrik Hartmann, Catarina F Moura, William R L Anderegg, Nadine K Ruehr, Yann Salmon, Craig D Allen, Stefan K Arndt, David D Breshears, Hendrik Davi, David Galbraith, Katinka X Ruthrof, Jan Wunder, Henry D Adams, Jasper Bloemen, Maxime Cailleret, Richard Cobb, Arthur Gessler, Thorsten E E Grams, Steven Jansen, Markus Kautz, Francisco Lloret, Michael O'Brien
Accumulating evidence highlights increased mortality risks for trees during severe drought, particularly under warmer temperatures and increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Resulting forest die-off events have severe consequences for ecosystem services, biophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere processes. Despite advances in monitoring, modelling and experimental studies of the causes and consequences of tree death from individual tree to ecosystem and global scale, a general mechanistic understanding and realistic predictions of drought mortality under future climate conditions are still lacking...
April 2018: New Phytologist
James A Bradley, Jan P Amend, Douglas E LaRowe
Marine sediments constitute one of the most energy-limited habitats on Earth, in which microorganisms persist over extraordinarily long timescales with very slow metabolisms. This habitat provides an ideal environment in which to study the energetic limits of life. However, the bioenergetic factors that can determine whether microorganisms will grow, lie dormant, or die, as well as the selective environmental pressures that determine energetic trade-offs between growth and maintenance activities, are not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shingo Kato, Sanae Sakai, Miho Hirai, Eiji Tasumi, Manabu Nishizawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Ken Takai
Many thermophiles thriving in a natural high-temperature environment remain uncultivated, and their ecophysiological functions in the biogeochemical cycle remain unclear. In the present study, we performed long-term continuous cultivation at 65°C and 70°C using a microbial mat sample, collected from a subsurface geothermal stream, as the inoculum, and reconstructed the whole genome of the maintained populations using metagenomics. Some metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), affiliated into phylum-level bacterial and archaeal clades without cultivated representatives, contained genes involved in nitrogen metabolism including nitrification and denitrification...
February 16, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Miroslava Rakocevic, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Marchiori, Heloisa Ferreira Filizola, Eunice Reis Batista
Background and Aims: Climate forecasts suggest that [CO2] in the atmosphere will continue to increase. Structural and ecophysiological responses to elevated air [CO2] (e[CO2]) in tree species are contradictory due to species-dependent responses and relatively short-term experiments. It was hypothesized that long-term exposure (4 year) to e[CO2] would change canopy structure and function of Coffea arabica trees. Methods: Coffee plants were grown in a FACE (free air CO2 enrichment) facility under two air [CO2]: actual and elevated (actual + approx...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Hye-Min Kang, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Spiros Papakostas, Steven A J Declerck, Ik-Young Choi, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Monogononta is the most speciose class of rotifers, with more than 2000 species. The monogonont genus Brachionus is widely distributed at a global scale, and a few of its species are commonly used as ecological and evolutionary models to address questions related to aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, evolutionary ecology, the evolution of sex, and ecotoxicology. With the importance of Brachionus species in many areas of research, it is remarkable that the genome has not been characterized. This study aims to address this lacuna by presenting, for the first time, the whole genome assembly of the freshwater species Brachionus calyciflorus...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Michelle J Chua, Richard L Campen, Lindsay Wahl, Joseph J Grzymski, Jill A Mikucki
Antarctic subice environments are diverse, underexplored microbial habitats. Here we describe the ecophysiology and annotated genome of a Marinobacter strain isolated from a cold, saline, iron-rich subglacial outflow of the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. This strain (BF04_CF4) grows fastest at neutral pH (range 6-10), is psychrophilic (range: 0-20°C), moderately halophilic (range: 0.8-15% NaCl), and hosts genes encoding potential low temperature and high salt adaptations. The predicted proteome suggests it utilizes fewer charged amino acids than a mesophilic Marinobacter strain...
February 10, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Samuli Helama, Laura Arppe, Kari Mielikäinen, Markku Oinonen
Arctic moistening will affect the circumpolar forested riparian ecosystems. Upward trends observed for precipitation in high latitudes illustrate that the moistening may be underway to influence the woody biomass production near the inland waters, lakes and streams with effects on carbon pools and fluxes. Although the flooding and waterlogging tolerance of seedlings has been investigated, our understanding of responses in mature trees is still limited. Here we employ tree-ring δ13 C and width data from a subarctic riparian setting in Lapland, where artificially high lake level (HLL) has already altered the ecophysiological and growth responses of riparian Pinus sylvestris trees to external drivers under conditions simulating moister environment...
February 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Daniel A Varela, Luis A Hernríquez, Pamela A Fernández, Pablo Leal, María Carmen Hernández-González, Félix L Figueroa, Alejandro H Buschmann
Finfish aquaculture is an activity that has experienced an explosive global development, but presents several environmental risks, such as high nitrogen outputs with potential eutrophication consequences. Therefore, the integration of seaweed aquaculture with the aim of decreasing nitrogen emissions associated with intensive salmon farming has been proposed as a bioremediation solution. Ecophysiological knowledge about seaweeds cultured close to farming cages is, however, still rudimentary. We experimentally studied the growth and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C...
February 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Atsushi Kouzuma, Shun'ichi Ishii, Kazuya Watanabe
In bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), electrons are transferred between electrochemically active microbes (EAMs) and conductive materials, such as electrodes, via extracellular electron transfer (EET) pathways, and electrons thus transferred stimulate intracellular catabolic reactions. Catabolic and EET pathways have extensively been studied for several model EAMs, such as Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA, whereas it is also important to understand the ecophysiology of EAMs in naturally occurring microbiomes, such as those in anode biofilms in microbial fuel cells treating wastewater...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Petra Sumasgutner, Marius Adrion, Anita Gamauf
As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks...
2018: PloS One
Monica Conthe, Lea Wittorf, J Gijs Kuenen, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Sara Hallin
Reduction of the greenhouse gas N2O to N2 is a trait among denitrifying and non-denitrifying microorganisms having an N2O reductase, encoded by nosZ. The nosZ phylogeny has two major clades, I and II, and physiological differences among organisms within the clades may affect N2O emissions from ecosystems. To increase our understanding of the ecophysiology of N2O reducers, we determined the thermodynamic growth efficiency of N2O reduction and the selection of N2O reducers under N2O- or acetate-limiting conditions in a continuous culture enriched from a natural community with N2O as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor...
February 7, 2018: ISME Journal
Doug Van Hoewyk, Mehmet Burak Taskin, Ahmet Emre Yaprak, Oğuz Can Turgay, Ali Ergul
In crops and most plants, nickel induces oxidative stress resulting in oxidized and misfolded proteins. Proteasomes maintain cellular homeostasis during stress by removing these damaged proteins. Although mild stress tolerance is mediated by proteasomal proteolysis of misfolded and oxidized proteins, previous studies have observed that severe nickel stress decreases proteasome activity in nickel-sensitive plants. Whether or not proteasome function is impaired in nickel-tolerant plants is not know. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that proteasome activity is elevated in nickel-tolerant Alyssum species capable of accumulating nickel to unusually high levels...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Christopher E Lawson, Sebastian Lücker
Nitrification has long been considered to be mediated by two distinct microbial guilds, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The process has been widely applied as an environmental biotechnology for ammonium removal during water and wastewater treatment. Recently, bacteria capable of complete nitrification of ammonia to nitrate (a process termed complete ammonia oxidation, or comammox) have been discovered. These novel nitrifiers have been identified in a range of engineered, natural freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, challenging previously held knowledge on the key microorganisms and biochemical pathways controlling nitrification...
January 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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