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Bing-Bing Li, Yuan-Yuan Cheng, Yang-Yang Fan, Dong-Feng Liu, Cai-Yun Fang, Chao Wu, Wen-Wei Li, Zong-Chuang Yang, Han-Qing Yu
Shewanella species have a diverse respiratory ability and wide distribution in environments and play an important role in bioremediation and the biogeochemical cycles of elements. Primers with more accuracy and broader coverage are required with consideration of the increasing number of Shewanella species and evaluation of their roles in various environments. In this work, a new primer set of 640F/815R was developed to quantify the abundance of Shewanella species in natural and engineered environments. In silico tools for primer evaluation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and clone library results showed that 640F/815R had a higher specificity and coverage than the previous primers in quantitative analysis of Shewanella...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lenka Procházková, Daniel Remias, Andreas Holzinger, Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová
Based on analyses of multiple molecular markers (18S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2 rDNA, rbc L), an alga that causes red snow on the melting ice cover of a high-alpine lake in the High Tatras (Slovakia) was shown to be identical with Chlainomonas sp. growing in a similar habitat in the Tyrolean Alps (Austria). Both populations consisted mostly of smooth-walled quadriflagellates. They occurred in slush, and shared similar photosynthetic performances (photoinhibition above 1300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 ), very high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 64% and 74% respectively) and abundant astaxanthin accumulation, comparable to the red spores of Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille...
2018: European Journal of Phycology
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Michel Havaux, Henri Wortham, Brigitte Ksas, Brice Temime-Roussel, James D Blande, Caroline Lecareux, Jean-Philippe Mévy, Anne Bousquet-Mélou, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez
The capacity of a Quercus pubescens forest to resist recurrent drought was assessed on an in situ experimental platform through the measurement of a large set of traits (ecophysiological and metabolic) studied under natural drought (ND) and amplified drought induced by partial rain exclusion (AD). This study was performed during the 3rd and 4th years of AD, which correspond to conditions of moderate AD in 2014 and harsher AD in 2015, respectively. Although water potential (Ψ) and net photosynthesis (Pn) were noticeably reduced under AD in 2015 compared to ND, trees showed similar growth and no oxidative stress...
May 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Cui Ju Liu, Xiao Guo, Kui Ling Wang, Qing Chao Liu, Ying Kun Sun, Xin Qiang Jiang, Qing Hua Liu
Camellia japonica (Naidong), a Tertiary relict species with abundant morphological characteristics and special genetic characteristics, is the northernmost distributed population of C. japonica. The seedlings of Naidong were subjected to two light regimes (65%, 15% of full sunlight, respectively) and three water supply regimes (75%, 50% and 25% of field capacity, respectively). Our objectives were to reveal the ecophysiological responses of Naidong under different drought and shade conditions and to examine the four existing hypotheses explaining the responses of Naidong seedlings to the interactions of shade and drought...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jeanne L D Osnas, Masatoshi Katabuchi, Kaoru Kitajima, S Joseph Wright, Peter B Reich, Sunshine A Van Bael, Nathan J B Kraft, Mirna J Samaniego, Stephen W Pacala, Jeremy W Lichstein
Understanding variation in leaf functional traits-including rates of photosynthesis and respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus-is a fundamental challenge in plant ecophysiology. When expressed per unit leaf area, these traits typically increase with leaf mass per area ( LMA ) within species but are roughly independent of LMA across the global flora. LMA is determined by mass components with different biological functions, including photosynthetic mass that largely determines metabolic rates and contains most nitrogen and phosphorus, and structural mass that affects toughness and leaf lifespan ( LL )...
May 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Mason Heberling, Norman W H Mason
Recent studies have concluded that native and invasive species share a common set of trait relationships. However, native species in isolated regions might be functionally constrained by their unique evolutionary histories such that they follow different carbon capture strategies than introduced species. We compared leaf traits relating to resource investment, carbon return, and resource-use efficiency in 16 native (endemic) and three non-native (invasive) species in a temperate forest in Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand...
2018: PloS One
A M Yáñez-Serrano, L Fasbender, J Kreuzwieser, D Dubbert, S Haberstroh, R Lobo-do-Vale, M C Caldeira, C Werner
Mediterranean vegetation emits a wide range of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) among which isoprenoids present quantitatively the most important compound class. Here, we investigated the isoprenoid emission from two Mediterranean Cistaceae shrubs, Halimium halimifolium and Cistus ladanifer, under controlled and natural conditions, respectively. For the first time, diurnal emission patterns of the diterpene kaurene were detected in real-time by Proton-Transfer-Reaction-Time-of-Flight-Mass-Spectrometer...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karina Barboza, Vanesa Beretta, Perla C Kozub, Cecilia Salinas, Mauro M Morgenfeld, Claudio R Galmarini, Pablo F Cavagnaro
Allium vegetables, such as garlic and onion, have understudied genomes and limited molecular resources, hindering advances in genetic research and breeding of these species. In this study, we characterized and compared the simple sequence repeats (SSR) landscape in the transcriptomes of garlic and related Allium (A. cepa, A. fistulosum, and A. tuberosum) and non-Allium monocot species. In addition, 110 SSR markers were developed from garlic ESTs, and they were characterized-along with 112 previously developed SSRs-at various levels, including transferability across Alliaceae species, and their usefulness for genetic diversity analysis...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Abhishes Lamsal, Stephen M Welch, Jeffrey W White, Kelly R Thorp, Nora M Bello
Ecophysiological crop models encode intra-species behaviors using parameters that are presumed to summarize genotypic properties of individual lines or cultivars. These genotype-specific parameters (GSP's) can be interpreted as quantitative traits that can be mapped or otherwise analyzed, as are more conventional traits. The goal of this study was to investigate the estimation of parameters controlling maize anthesis date with the CERES-Maize model, based on 5,266 maize lines from 11 plantings at locations across the eastern United States...
2018: PloS One
Natalia Pozdnyakova, Ekaterina Dubrovskaya, Marina Chernyshova, Oleg Makarov, Sergey Golubev, Svetlana Balandina, Olga Turkovskaya
The degradation of two isomeric three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1 and the litter-decomposing fungus Agaricus bisporus F-8 was studied. Despite some differences, the degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene followed the same scheme, forming quinone metabolites at the first stage. The further fate of these metabolites was determined by the composition of the ligninolytic enzyme complexes of the fungi. The quinone metabolites of phenanthrene and anthracene produced in the presence of only laccase were observed to accumulate, whereas those formed in presence of laccase and versatile peroxidase were metabolized further to form products that were further included in basal metabolism (e...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Frédérique Pasquali, Federica Palma, Laurent Guillier, Alex Lucchi, Alessandra De Cesare, Gerardo Manfreda
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1) assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2) select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3) compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrey A Yurchenko, Nataliia Katolikova, Dmitrii Polev, Irina Shcherbakova, Petr Strelkov
The Baltic clam Limecola balthica L. (Tellinidae) is broadly used in ecophysiological, toxicological, evolutionary and environmental monitoring studies. However, it is poorly studied in respect of genome and gene functions. We obtained a transcriptome of Limecola b. balthica from Kamchatka (Western Pacific) generated with the use of Illumina high-throughput sequencing. We annotated 11,374 proteins, including 53 from the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and a number of pollution-stress biomarkers, recovered 254,540 single nucleotide variants within two annotated transcriptomes including 25,330 scorable in the previously published European data...
April 12, 2018: Marine Genomics
Sulata Maity, Ritesh Banerjee, Priya Goswami, Manoswini Chakrabarti, Anita Mukherjee
The aim of this study was to assess the biomarkers of oxidative stress [reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)] in earthworms of different ecological categories [epigeic Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) and anecic Eutyphoeus waltoni (E. waltoni)] exposed to cadmium (Cd)-polluted soil (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 ) for 28 days. Cd accumulation in earthworms increased significantly with increasing exposure dose and duration...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Xavier Laffray, Laurence Alaoui-Sehmer, Mohamed Bourioug, Pascale Bourgeade, Badr Alaoui-Sossé, Lotfi Aleya
Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Sheng Du, Takeshi Taniguchi, Norikazu Yamanaka, Tomo'omi Kumagai
The mesic-origin plantation species Robinia pseudoacacia L. has been successfully grown in many arid land plantations around the world but often exhibits dieback and reduced growth due to drought. Therefore, to explore the behavior of this species under changing environmental conditions, we examined the relationship between ecophysiological traits, gas exchange and plant hydraulics over a 3-year period in trees that experienced reduced plant hydraulic conductance (Gp) in summer. We found that the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (Gs) and minimum leaf water potential (Ψlmin) decreased in early summer in response to a decrease in Gp, and that Gp did not recover until the expansion of new leaves in spring...
March 28, 2018: Tree Physiology
Roderick Bouman, Peter van Welzen, Sukaibin Sumail, Guillaume Echevarria, Peter D Erskine, Antony van der Ent
BACKGROUND: Nickel hyperaccumulator plants are of much interest for their evolution and unique ecophysiology, and also for potential applications in agromining-a novel technology that uses plants to extract valuable metals from soil. The majority of nickel hyperaccumulators are known from ultramafic soils in tropical regions (Cuba, New Caledonia and Southeast Asia), and one genus, Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), is globally the most represented taxonomic entity. A number of tropical Phyllanthus-species have the potential to be used as 'metal crops' in agromining operations mainly because of their ease in cultivation and their ability to attain high nickel concentrations and biomass yields...
March 27, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Paula S M Celis-Plá, Murray T Brown, Alex Santillán-Sarmiento, Nathalie Korbee, Claudio A Sáez, Félix L Figueroa
Global scenarios evidence that contamination due to anthropogenic activities occur at different spatial-temporal scales, being important stressors: eutrophication, due to increased nutrient inputs; and metal pollution, mostly derived from industrial activities. In this study, we investigated ecophysiological and metabolic responses to copper and nutrient excess in the brown macroalga Cystoseira tamariscifolia. Whole plants were incubated in an indoor system under control conditions, two levels of nominal copper (0...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Thomas Wieloch, Ina Ehlers, Jun Yu, David Frank, Michael Grabner, Arthur Gessler, Jürgen Schleucher
Measurements of carbon isotope contents of plant organic matter provide important information in diverse fields such as plant breeding, ecophysiology, biogeochemistry and paleoclimatology. They are currently based on13 C/12 C ratios of specific, whole metabolites, but we show here that intramolecular ratios provide higher resolution information. In the glucose units of tree-ring cellulose of 12 tree species, we detected large differences in13 C/12 C ratios (>10‰) among carbon atoms, which provide isotopically distinct inputs to major global C pools, including wood and soil organic matter...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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